In , as the American Civil War began, the U. Unfortunately, however, the Atlantic cable had broken in , three weeks after its completion. Work on this line had begun, in earnest, by , but the repair and doubling of the Atlantic cable that summer eliminated most of the demand justifying the project. Finally, Russia's sale of Alaska to the U. In , the colonies of New South Wales and New Zealand began to organize a new transpacific steamship line. Built upon the Intercolonial Royal Mail Co. Meanwhile, in February , the U.
Pacific Mail, however, did not control the Panama Railroad. Pacific Mail also extended the proposed transpacific line from Yokohama to Hong Kong, dropping Honolulu from the itinerary, as its inclusion made no geographical or economic sense. Colorado to open the new line. Included within this sum, furthermore, was the cost of all the traveler's food and lodging.
Race was also not an issue in most parts of the world, but in Australia, in the U. Our voyager would begin, in the autumn of , by making choices, as all travelers must. Heading west, from London, the Atlantic crossing might be rough, but later, after reaching East Asia, one would benefit from the Northeast Monsoon. However, the connections in this direction were extremely close and could easily be missed.
Furthermore, it was known that the Colorado would be loading cargo in Hong Kong between the end of January and 13 February This report was sent from Hong Kong on 15 November Note that all times given in this article are the official local time, or else railway time. The Kingdom of Italy, only a few weeks before, had adopted Roman time as the standard for all the Italian railways. A prudent traveler, however, might have departed a day early, avoiding the worst of London's notoriously thick and frenetic traffic by setting out on a quiet Christmas morning.
Climbing into a Hansom cab in the courtyard of one of Victorian England's premier academic institutions at precisely a. Before we proceed further, it will be useful to clarify timekeeping during this simulation. British railway time, for instance—but not Irish railway time—was also Greenwich Time, thus synchronizing railway and steamship timetables. Urban and P.
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Italy, meanwhile, had adopted Roman time as railway time even though Rome was not yet part of the Kingdom of Italy. For practical purposes, most cities had set their public clocks to railway time, as this was also the time used by the postal services. An exception to this rule was France, where municipalities and ships retained the use of local time, determined by longitude, while railways employed Paris time.
In the U. In the American West and Australia, where railways were still relatively short, a similar practice prevailed. India, however, posed serious problems, as its railway lines extended hundreds of miles by the s, across broad swaths of longitude. The East Indian Railway, for instance, used Calcutta Kolkata time, but this meant that railway time at Mirzapur was half an hour ahead of local time.
Only in was this problem resolved by the adoption of Madras Time—midway between the time at Bombay Mumbai and Calcutta—as railway time throughout India. In this simulation, all times given during the journey are either local railway or longitudinal time, with the duration of the circumnavigation being determined according to Greenwich Time. A passenger leaving Burlington House at a. At frame a Hansom cab crosses the intersection of Regent Street and Pall Mall, a distance of 27 yards, at a rate of about 4. The distance from Burlington House to Victoria Station was 1.
As such, the railway was vital to the delivery of the Eastern Mails. The popular Baptist preacher Charles Spurgeon traveled to Paris on 25 December , and published an account of his journey. Thus, we know what happened that day. At a. The steamer landed its passengers at Calais shortly after a. Chemins de Fer du Nord express. At this point, travelers underwent a customs inspection. By any measure, the railways were a successful collaboration between the state and private investors, serving public and private interests well.
Danel, , Building the line from Paris to Marseilles, however, was more difficult. Blakemore, et al. The port of Marseilles, meanwhile, was modernized, partially mechanized, and enlarged. Hachette et Cie. Their hopes were not unrealistic. The elements of a restructured Asian trade were falling into place: the completion of the Egyptian Railway and commencement of the Indian railways; a dramatic expansion of Indian cotton exports; and the opening of Yokohama, the primary treaty port of Japan, giving traders access to a new source of silk.
Hachette, , xxxvii. Delta , enduring a cursory health inspection by the ship's doctor to satisfy Malta's quarantine rules. The Eastern Mails, probably weighing fifteen or sixteen tons, as usual, were not aboard until a. Nyanza had arrived several hours earlier, having left England on 20 December. The Italian steamer from Brindisi was also punctual, and thus passengers from all three ships landed at Alexandria simultaneously. They would have arrived in Cairo at or p. They had no time for sightseeing, though. Golconda did not sail until p.
Spanish-American War, 1898 -- Regimental histories
The Golconda was brought through the reef by a local pilot just after dawn on 21 January, and she transferred her passengers for the Straits Settlements and the Far East to the S. After completing her coaling and awaiting the mail cart from Colombo, the Behar weighed anchor at p. The Behar called at Penang at a. London: John Murray, , 2: — Steaming from Hong Kong in a drizzle on the morning of 17 February, the steamer averaged only 8.
At Yokohama, she was delayed by inefficient coaling from noon on 25 February until a. Captain George S. The company expected the Colorado to maintain an average speed of eleven knots. When it was safe to steer away from the wind, on 8 March, Bradbury took the steamer south into calmer seas but, with insufficient coal, he could not win back lost time with speed. Ultimately, the Colorado arrived in San Francisco on the morning of 20 March, having missed her connection with the S. Java was scheduled to sail for the British Isles, had no choice but to cross the United States.
That day, at p. Holdredge, , The speed of the steamboat's run is based on her recorded performance ascending the river on 11 March In the morning, the CPR's a. Journeying east by stage on 24 March, passengers spent a morning gliding over snow on runners and a tedious afternoon on muddy wheels between the Truckee River and the Geiger Grade. Setting out from Austin, Nevada, at dawn on 27 March, eastbound travelers reached the Ruby Valley oasis by nightfall, and began the run to Salt Lake City at p. Passengers arriving from the east reported long delays, but a Chinook wind was moving along the Overland Mail route, swiftly ameliorating conditions.
Here, we may follow D. Rose and James Hughes, who boarded the a. Wells Fargo coach bound for Denver. Joined by a cavalry escort at Fort Bridger, they reached Denver on the evening of 7 April or early in the morning the next day, having averaged eight mph. The same Chinook wind that restored the Overland Mail route triggered flooding along the Platte River and its tributaries, washing out the roadbed of the UPR and destroying its bridges. A prudent traveler, therefore, would have avoided the muddy road to North Platte, Nebraska. Fortunately, the U. Express Co. This article mentions the line as belonging to Wells Fargo, but U.
Express had acquired it in February Barns, , —; Appleton's … Guide , , , The famous Pullman sleeping car evolved on this railroad during the period — Here, our traveler idled at the Sherman House hotel before taking a cab to Central Station to board the Michigan Central's afternoon express. Thompson, , 96, , They were passed on, in their cars, from one line to another. The Canadian colonies were in the midst of a confederation process in , and Ontario was still known as Canada West, while Quebec was Canada East.
The time was also set forward one hour. From Albany Junction, the Hudson Valley Railway completed the long run, rolling down the east bank of the Hudson River to the 30 th Street Station in Manhattan, where it halted at a. Cunard's S. Java boarded passengers for Queenstown, Ireland, and Liverpool at p. Labrosse, The Navigation of the Atlantic Ocean, tr. Three steamships departed that afternoon, but a circumnavigator trying to meet a deadline would have preferred the Java , renowned for speed and reliability. The steamer hove to at a. Dublin Mail, reaching Knightsbridge Station under overcast skies at p.
This allowed for a transfer to Westland Row Station and the local train to Kingstown, which left at p. Although the Fenian uprising had menaced the Irish railways in March, damage to the tracks had been trifling, and the only sign of the rebellion our voyager would have noticed was the strong military guard posted at key stations to support the Royal Irish Constabulary.
On the evening of 27 April, the Leinster landed passengers—including a duke, a lady, a baronet, and six MPs—at Admiralty Pier, Holyhead, at around p. Note that some streets in Victorian London were not open to through vehicular traffic. California Steam Navigation Co. United States Express Co. City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. Hanson cab Euston Sta. In the above, primary simulation, our imagined traveler returned by his deadline, but altered his route significantly to compensate for a missed connection.
What would have happened if his route, or his situation, had been different? Due to extensive flood damage to the railway and road on the French side of the pass, the transfer from the PLM to the Victor Emmanuel Railway took longer than usual at Susa, in Italy. Steamers often arrived off Alexandria at night, but they did not try to enter the harbor until morning because of its extensive barrier reef.
Even Russia, despite its scant industrial base, had invested heavily in the extension of its railways. One of the places most profoundly impacted by railways in the s was British India, where more than 4, miles of track were operable by the time of the Global Moment. Spon, , —, —; G. India's railways remained separate, unconnected systems in , but they were advancing rapidly toward integration. Meanwhile, as in the U. He moved to California in the early s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks , Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in , his first popular success; as the studio grew, Disney became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor , feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras.
The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , Fantasia and Bambi , furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II , including the critically successful Cinderella and Mary Poppins , the latter of which received five Academy Awards. In the s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, in he opened Disneyland.
In , he began development of another theme park, Disney World , the heart of, to be a new type of city, the " Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow ". Disney was a heavy smoker throughout his life, died of lung cancer in December before either the park or the EPCOT project were completed. Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona, he had high expectations of those with whom he worked.
Although there have been accusations that he was racist or anti-Semitic , they have been contradicted by many who knew him. His reputation changed in the years after his death, from a purveyor of homely patriotic values to a representative of American imperialism. He remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States , where he is considered a national cultural icon, his film work continues to be adapted. Aside from Disney and Flora's sons were Herbert and Roy.
In , when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in Marceline, where his uncle Robert had just purchased land.
In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor. Elias was a subscriber to the Appeal to Reason newspaper, Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker. Disney began to develop an ability to work with watercolors and crayons.
He lived near the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway line and became enamored with trains. He and his younger sister Ruth started school at the same time at the Park School in Marceline in late In , the Disneys moved to Missouri. There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School , where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer , who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced Disney to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Before long, he was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' house than at home.
Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for Kansas City Times. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at every morning to deliver the Times before school and repeated the round for the evening Star after school; the schedule was exhausting, Disney received poor grades after falling asleep in class, but he continued his paper route for more than six years.
He attended Saturday courses at the Kansas City Art Institute and took a correspondence course in cartooning. In , Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, moved back to the city with his family. Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I.
In mid, Disney attempted to join the United States Army to fight against the Germans, but he was rejected for being too young. After forging the date of birth on his birth certificate, he joined the Red Cross in September as an ambulance driver, he was arrived in November, after the armistice. He drew cartoons on the side of his ambulance for decoration and had some of his work published in the army newspaper Stars and Stripes.
There, he drew commercial illustrations for advertising, theater programs and ca. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Categories : births deaths American children's writers American newspaper journalists American school superintendents Deaths from kidney failure Writers from Portland, Maine People from Winterport, Maine American male journalists. State school. Related Images.
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State schools are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. Stephen Douglas, author of the Kansas—Nebraska Act of John J. Crittenden, of the Crittenden Compromise. The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury , December 20, Title page of Carolus' Relation from , the earliest newspaper.
Diario de Pernambuco , founded in November is the second oldest circulating newspaper in South America, after El Peruano , founded in October of that same year. A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, dancers, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists. Sells Brothers Circus with Great Danes. Astley's Amphitheatre in London c. Trapeze artists, in lithograph by Calvert Litho. Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, and the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. Maine State House , designed by Charles Bulfinch , built — The coast of Maine near Acadia National Park. Boothbay Harbor. Autumn in Stratton. The Internet Archive is a San Francisco—based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge. Mirror of the Internet Archive in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created.
A copyright certificate certifying the authorship for a proof of the Fermat theorem , issued by the State Department of Intellectual Property of Ukraine. Mark Twain was a prominent American author in multiple genres including fiction and journalism during the 19th century. Ezra Pound pictured as a young man in made significant editing suggestions to T.
Eliot 's " The Waste Land ," helping transform the original drafts into the work known today. The population was 3, at the census. Winterport Ferry Co. Steamboat Cambridge at the landing. Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible, and film media used to convey information. Editors work on producing an issue of Bild , West Berlin , Previous front pages are affixed to the wall behind them. Walter Elias Disney was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer.
A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons. Theatrical poster for Trolley Troubles Rogers It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It was founded in by American writer Michael S.
Hart and is the oldest digital library. Google Books is a service from Google Inc. Notice about the project at Michigan University Library. The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Baptism of Clovis, ivory book cover, 9th century. Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile—La Mancha. Roman Cave of Hercules , part of the sight Subterranean Toledo.
A depiction of the Visigothic Toledo compiled in the 10th century Codex Vigilanus. Modern manufacture, Cejalvo Madrid. Baudouin de Lannoy , c. The confluence of the Erdre and the Loire where Nantes was founded in an s photochrom. The river channels in the picture were diverted and filled in during the s and subsequently replaced with roads. Nantes Cathedral , rebuilt in the Gothic style beginning in the 15th century.
Charlemagne , wearing the Imperial Regalia. The history of Spain dates back to the Middle Ages. In , Habsburg Spain unified a number of disparate predecessor kingdoms; its modern form of a constitutional monarchy was introduced in , and the current democratic constitution dates to A painting of bison dating from the Upper Paleolithic era in the Altamira caves.
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Lothrop, The Young Volcano Explorers. Bobbs Merrill, Burt, Carried Off. National Society. Whittaker Boy taken captive by buccaneers in Hutchinson Clears up a hiatus in the history of the Gadfly by relating his adventures in South America, For the Spanish Main. Memoirs of a Buccaneer. Mills and Boon Days of Adm. Blake, The Martyr. Jewish Pub. Routledge, o. Nelson, ; new ed. Houses of Castillo and De Arno. Xewman, Peninsular War Ardagh, W.
M, The Magada. Lane, Last stand of the inhabitants of the 'anary Islands against the Spaniards, Avery, Harold Firelock and Steel: story of the good old days. Boni and Liveright, A blending of romance and satire, with the career of an Andalusian dancer in London society as a medium.
Harper, bound Avith Lorna Doone. Duffield, Stone, Methuen Partly founded on history of the wars with the French and Spanish: siege of Vigo, etc. Everett, The Last of Her Race. Also cited as Tales from History of the Muslims in Spain. Elder Peninsular War. Philip C. The Spanish Prisoner. Everett, Nash Valladolid, , and Portsmouth, England. Nisbet, Carter, Dodd Two novelettes: 1. The Martyrs of Spain, pp. The Liberation of Holland, pp. Macmillan, England, France, Spain, Holland, in Hero is page to William of Orange. Closes with Spanish reign of terror in the Low Countries.
Doubleday Page, The Carlist Wars as a background. Houghton, n. Appleton, n. Routledge A young Spanish nobleman, incognito, accompanies Colum- bus on his first voyage. Blackwood, In Mortal Peril. Stokes, Impressionistic pictures of warfare by a correspondent who was in the thick of it Crawford, Francis Marion In the Palace of the King: a love story of old Madrid. Chapman, , 2d ed. Cresswell, Clarice M. The Making and Breaking of Almansur. Stokes, The Firebrand. McClure, Of small his- torical interest Strong Mac. Dodd Mead, Ward Lock Scotland and Spain, Peninsular War Croly, Rev.
Blackie Fullarton, Duckworth Railing against the shams and hypocrisies of the world. Cuttim, E. Her Heart was True: a story of the Peninsular War founded on fact. Manners in Spain. In Narrative and Miscel- laneous Papers, 2v. Ticknor, Reed, and Fields, Spanish girl born Adventures in Spain and South America, dressed as a man.
Based on history and legend Dodge, Louis Tawi Tawi. Scribners, Spanish-American War period. Doran, A tale, at times a series of essays, but always Spain, fanci- fully or actually pictured. McClurg , Christopher Columbus. Ellis, J. Breckenridge Garcilaso. McClurg, cl Time of Catholic Kings. Story of Boy-life During the Penin- sular War. Chambers, Mitchell, Kennerley, Remarkable character sketch, somewhat drawn out Terassa of Spain. Kennerley, Tales of the heart of Spiain, centering about Terassa, the padre, and their people of many contrasts. Unusual Forester, F.
Hostage for a Kingdom. George Robert The Subaltern. Dut- ton, Less a novel than actual reminiscenses of the last stages of the Peninsular War. Siege of San Sebastian, Pampeluna, St. Simpkin, , 3d ed. Nash, Stories and vignettes of Sprain and Mexico, written in early life by the late Mrs. Routledge, , Routledge, , new' ed.
The Phantom Regiment; or. Newman Knoxville, Tenn. Chapman and Hall, Wellington and the Peninsular War. Hutchinson, Spain, Battle of Vittoria. White, Dodd, Ends in Essex, Margaret is the daughter of a converted Jew Harcourt, Col. Chapman, , 2 vols. Kennerley, Richards Montes is a bit of Spain, a story of love and hate, hot passion and abounding life; bull-fighting is described with the enthusiasm of one who enters into the spirit of the game Hayens, Herbert The British Legion: a tale of the Carlist War.
Nelson, With Peterborough in Spain. Burt Overthrow of Spain. Surprise of Breda, etc. By Pike and Dyke: a tale of the Dutch republic. Blackie, , new ed. Scribner The adventures of an English boy in the household of William the Silent during the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain Held Fast for England: a tale of the siege of Gilbraltar. Frowde, Eric the Archer: a tale of chivalry. Arnold, Sir John Chandos, etc. Cassell Adventures in Spain, Hocking, Rev.
Joseph A Flame of Fire. Revell, Shaw, , new ed. Johnson, Richard ? Harvey Darton. Dutton, Includes St. James of Spain Johnston, Mary James Otis At the Siege of Havana. Burt, ? Off Santiago with Sampson. Estes, When Dewey Came to Manila. They are all juvenile Kaye, Michael W. For Braganza: a romance. Blackie, , Bertrand du 'xuesclin; the Moors in Spain, etc. Partridge, Landor, Robert E. Fawn of Sertorius. Longmans, , 2v. Dixon, Mrs. By Little and Little: a tale of the Spanish Ar- mada.
Little Brown, , Rout- ledge, ? Little Brown Yarn of Irish soldiers on service abroad. Lippincott, with Calderon the Courtier. Routledge C onquest of Ciranada. Position of Jews with both Moors and Christians. Calderon the Courtier : a tale. McClurg, James, of Reg. Lally of the Brigades. Page, , Elrnst Bejesen. Peninsular War. Ney, Massena, etc. Millicent E. Rathbone 79 Spanish Barber. Nisbet, , Frederick Mr. Midshipman Easy.
Laird, Putnam, A romantic and intricate story of rascality, love, and adventure. New- man, , 2d ed. Routledge, , , Warne Short stories of Vittoria, Badajos, etc. Mayo, William Starbuck Berber; or. Mountaineer of the Atlas. Rout- ledge, Dodd Mead, , Scrib- ner, Oren S. Hack Daybreak: a story of the age of discovery. Benllev, Clark, Peninsular War. Wayside Cross; or. Raid of Tomez: a tale of the Carlist War.
Murray, Augustus Ferryman Lads of the Light Division. Benziger, 17th century Spanish historical bac'kground Neale, Rev. John Mason Dores de Gualdim. Parker, Oxford. Lothrox3, Columbus the Discoverer.