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The really new, when it is far-reaching and thorough, can only gradually find an entrance, because numerous convictions must be altered in order to make its proper place for the newcomer. It is not the possession of truth, but the success which attends the seeking after it, that enriches the seeker and brings happiness to him. I have never been seriously in doubt as to why I am here—or, anyhow, why I believe I should be here. It is to seek the truth and relish it, especially when it is inconvenient, even gravely distasteful. I yearn to discomfort those who believe that the rich are not working because they have too little money, the poor are not working because they have too much.

Similarly, I yearn to discomfort those who are committed to the prevailing economic doctrine that holds, in metaphor, that if you feed the horse enough oats, some will pass through to the road for the sparrows. I have not dared until now to bring my reasons and refutations into the open, being warned by the fortunes of Copernicus himself, our master, who procured for himself immortal fame among a few but stepped down among the great crowd. In order to convince those obdurate men, who are out for the vain approval of the stupid and vulgar, it would not be enough even if the stars came down on earth to bring witness about themselves.

Let us be concerned only with gaining knowledge for ourselves, and let us find therein our consolation. First, I say it seems to me that your Reverence and Signor Galileo act prudently when you content yourselves with speaking hypothetically and not absolutely, as I have always understood that Copernicus spoke. For to say that the assumptions that the Earth moves and the Sun stands still saves all the celestial appearances better than do eccentrics and epicycles is to speak with excellent good sense and to run no risk whatever.

Such a manner of speaking suffices for a mathematician. But to want to affirm that the Sun, in very truth, is at the centre of the universe and only rotates on its axis without traveling from east to west, and that the Earth is situated in the third sphere and revolves very swiftly around the Sun, is a very dangerous attitude and one calculated not only to arouse all Scholastic philosophers and theologians but also to injure our hold faith by contradicting the Scriptures…. My dear Kepler, what would you say of the learned here, who, replete with the pertinacity of the asp, have steadfastly refused to cast a glance through the telescope?

What shall we make of this? Shall we laugh, or shall we cry? Before the battle of Passchendaele the Tanks Corps Staff prepared maps to show how a bombardment which obliterated the drainage would inevitably lead to a series of pools, and they located the exact spots where the waters would gather. Facts that interfered with plans were impertinencies. To begin with the great doctrine you discuss I neither deny nor affirm the immortality of man.

I see no reason for believing in it, but, on the other hand, I have no means of disproving it. Pray understand that I have no a priori objections to the doctrine. No man who has to deal daily and hourly with nature can trouble himself about a priori difficulties. Give me such evidence as would justify me in believing anything else, and I will believe that. Why should I not? It is not half so wonderful as the conservation of force, or the indestructibility of matter.

Whoso clearly appreciates all that is implied in the falling of a stone can have no difficulty about any doctrine simply on account of its marvellousness. Nor does it help me to tell me that the aspirations of mankind—that my own highest aspirations even—lead me towards the doctrine of immortality. I doubt the fact, to begin with, but if it be so even, what is this but in grand words asking me to believe a thing because I like it. Science has taught to me the opposite lesson.

She warns me to be careful how I adopt a view which jumps with my preconseptions, and to require stronger evidence for such belief than for one to which I was previously hostile. My business is to teach my aspirations to conform themselves to fact, not to try and make facts harmonize with my aspirations. Science seems to me to teach in the highest and strongest manner the great truth which is embodied in the Christian conception of entire surrender to the will of God. Sit down before fact as a little child, be prepared to give up every preconceived notion, follow humbly wherever and to whatever abysses nature leads, or you shall learn nothing.

I have only begun to learn content and peace of mind since I have resolved at all risks to do this. There are, however, other arguments commonly brought forward in favour of the immortality of man, which are to my mind not only delusive but mischievous. The one is the notion that the moral government of the world is imperfect without a system of future rewards and punishments.

The other is: that such a system is indispensable to practical morality. I believe that both these dogmas are very mischievous lies. Freeman Dyson may be an Obama-loving, Bush-loathing liberal who has spent his life opposing American wars and fighting for the protection of natural resources, but he brooks no ideology and has a withering aversion to scientific consensus.

Whatever else he is, Dyson is the good scientist; he asks the hard questions. He could also be a lonely prophet. Or, as he acknowledges, he could be dead wrong…. Climate models, he says, take into account atmospheric motion and water levels but have no feeling for the chemistry and biology of sky, soil and trees. The person who is really responsible for this overestimate of global warming is Jim Hansen. He consistently exaggerates all the dangers.

His style was always very much the same. He always just used regular calculus and things. Essentially nineteenth-century mathematics. He never trusted much else. I can live with doubt and uncertainty and not knowing. The young Feynman was heavily influenced by his father, Melville, who encouraged him to ask questions to challenge orthodox thinking. The method of science is the method of bold conjectures and ingenious and severe attempts to refute them. What restrains the theorist from becoming wholly carried away by the attractions of some mathematical theory is the need to make predictions with it and to test them against the hard reality of the physical world.

But as, during this century, experiments in fundamental physics have become harder to do, more costly and more consuming of time and manpower, this restraining empirical influence has weakened. All human knowledge is uncertain, inexact and partial. To this doctrine we have not found any limitation whatever. Suppose that we are wise enough to learn and know and yet not wise enough to control our learning and knowledge, so that we use it to destroy ourselves?

Even if that is so, knowledge remains better than ignorance. It is better to know even if the knowledge endures only for the moment that comes before destruction than to gain eternal life at the price of a dull and swinish lack of comprehension of a universe that swirls unseen before us in all its wonder. That was the choice of Achilles, and it is mine, too.

For whatever the tortures of hell, I think the boredom of heaven would be even worse. In this respect there is a vast difference between me and you. You people are in the dark, you are blind and beaten to the ground; you are nothing, and what you do see you fail to understand… They tell you the wind breaks loose from its chains, that you are beasts, savages, and you believe it. Someone punches you in the neck and you kiss his hand! I live in full consciousness of my powers. I see everything, like a hawk or an eagle hovering over the earth, and I understand everything.

I am protest incarnate. When I see tyranny, I protest. When I see cant and hypocrisy, I protest. When I see swine triumphant, I protest. I cannot be silenced: no Spanish Inquisition will make me hold my tongue. If you cut out my tongue, I will still protest—with gestures. Bury me in a cellar, and I will shout so loud they will hear me a mile away, or else I will starve myself to death, and thus hang another weight around their black consciences.

Kill me and my ghost will haunt them! For three years I served in the Far East, and I shall be remembered there for a hundred years because I quarreled with everyone. We are all full of weaknesses and errors; let us mutually pardon each other our follies, — it is the first law of nature.

The real story of our times is seldom told in the horse-puckey-filled memoirs of dopey, self-serving presidents or generals, but in the outrageous, demented lives of guys like Lenny Bruce, Giordano Bruno, Scott Fitzgerald — and Paul Krassner. The pains in the ass. Hence University education. The art of art, the glory of expression, and the sunshine of the light of letters is simplicity: nothing is better than simplicity. I am astounded that people who should know better, like Newt Gingrich, advocate increased government funding for scientific research.

We had better science, and a more rapid advance of science, in the early part of the 20th century when there was no centralized government funding for science. Einstein discovered relativity on his own time, while he was employed as a patent clerk. Where are the Einsteins of today? At least then he could publish the idea. Now a refereed journal would never even consider a paper written by a patent clerk, and all physics referees would agree that relativity and quantum mechanics were nonsense, definitely against the overwhelming consensus view. Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields.

In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers.

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Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite. Eisenhower I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies but not the madness of people. This most beautiful system [the universe] could only proceed from the dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being. When examining evidence relevant to a given belief, people are inclined to see what they expect to see, and conclude what they expect to conclude. Information that is consistent with our pre-existing beliefs is often accepted at face value, whereas evidence that contradicts them is critically scrutinized and discounted.

Our beliefs may thus be less responsive than they should be to the implications of new information. Scientific experts are paid and encouraged to provide answers. The public prefers to listen to scientists who give confident answers to questions and make confident predictions of what will happen as a result of human activities. So it happens that the experts who talk publicly about politically contentious questions tend to speak more clearly than they think.

They make confident predictions about the future, and end up believing their own predictions. Their predictions become dogmas which they do not question. The public is led to believe that the fashionable scientific dogmas are true, and it may sometimes happen that they are wrong. That is why heretics who question the dogmas are needed. I am proud to be a heretic. The world always needs heretics to challenge the prevailing orthodoxies.

Since I am a heretic, I am accustomed to being in the minority. If I could persuade everyone to agree with me, I would not be a heretic. Skepticism is dangerous. It is the business of skepticism to be dangerous. Then where will we be? It seems to be what is called for is an exquisite balance between two conflicting needs: the most skeptical scrutiny of all hypotheses that are served up to us and at the same time a great openness to new ideas. Obviously those two modes of thought are in some tension. If you are only skeptical, then no new ideas make it through to you.

You never learn anything new. You become a crotchety old person convinced that nonsense is ruling the world. There is, of course, much data to support you. I want to say a little more about the burden of skepticism. We have to guard carefully against it. It sometimes happens that ideas that are accepted by everybody turn out to be wrong, or at least partially wrong, or at least superseded by ideas of greater generality. And, while there are of course some personal losses — emotional bonds to the idea that you yourself played a role inventing — nevertheless the collective ethic is that every time such an idea is overthrown and replaced by something better the enterprise of science has benefited.

They really do it. But it happens every day. It is important to realize that scientific debates, just like pseudoscientific debates, can be awash with emotion. We also know how cruel the truth often is, and we wonder whether delusion is not more consoling. There is no absolute up or down, as Aristotle taught; no absolute position in space; but the position of a body is relative to that of other bodies.

Everywhere there is incessant relative change in position throughout the universe, and the observer is always at the centre of things. One of the painful things about our time is that those who feel certainty are stupid, and those with any imagination and understanding are filled with doubt and indecision. Concern for man and his fate must always form the chief interest of all technical endeavors… Never forget this in the midst of your diagrams and equations. Those who profess to favor freedom, and yet depreciate agitation, are men who want… rain without thunder and lightning.

They want the ocean without the awful roar of its many waters. A company of scholars going together to catch conies rabbits , carried one scholar with them, which had not much more wit than he was born with; and to him they gave in charge, that if he saw any, he should be silent, for fear of scaring them. The party understood it, as if being a turbulent fellow, he would have moved sedition, and complained of him; whereupon being convented and opposed upon that speech, he said his meaning was, that if he lost his benefice, he would practise physic, and then he thought he should kill an hundred men in time.

Not even the angels stand higher than the man who took the wrong way and then returned. A recognition that there is a bit of Torquemada in everyone should make us wary of any attempt to enforce a consensus or demonize those who challenge it. But alas! Science cannot now rescue us, for even the scientist is lost in the terrible midnight of our age. Indeed, science gave us the very instruments that threaten to bring universal suicide. The most formidable barrier to the advancement of science is the conventional wisdom of the dominant group. The human mind treats a new idea the way the body treats a strange protein; it rejects it.

People will always prefer black-and-white over shades of grey, and so there will always be the temptation to hold overly-simplified beliefs and to hold them with excessive confidence. I cannot give any scientist of any age any better advice than this: the intensity of the conviction that a hypothesis is true has no bearing on whether it is true or not.

A scientist who habitually deceives himself is well on the way toward deceiving others. Here we encounter the dogmatic stupidity proper to a signifier as such, the stupidity which assumes the shape of a tautology: a name refers to an object because this object is called that. Excess of confidence in the rightness of their own views is a sort of senile hubris, as offensive in older scientists as excess of hubris in the young. All experimentation is criticism. It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends on his not understanding it. It seems that once again people engage in a search for evidence that is biased toward confirmation.

Asked to assess the similarity of two entities, people pay more attention to the ways in which they are similar than to the ways in which they differ. Asked to assess dissimilarity, they become more concerned with differences than with similarities. One could not be a successful scientist without realizing that, in contrast to the popular conception supported by newspapers and mothers of scientists, a goodly number of scientists are not only narrow-minded and dull, but also just stupid. Malice, sir, is the spirit of criticism, and criticism marks the origin of progress and enlightenment.

All over the place, from the popular culture to the propaganda system, there is constant pressure to make people feel that they are helpless, that the only role they can have is to ratify decisions and to consume. I calculate everything myself. When people said the quark theory was pretty good, I got two Ph.

So I have just one wish for you — the good luck to be somewhere where you are free to maintain the kind of integrity I have described, and where you do not feel forced by a need to maintain your position in the organization, or financial support, or so on, to lose your integrity. May you have that freedom. If you live inside Washington, as is true for any culture— the culture starts shaping your own thinking. It starts infecting the way it is that you think.

Everybody you speak to is infected by it. Everybody that you know is a part of it. On top of that, people who live in the beltway are invested in the people who are there. They are their friends, those are their colleagues. The people on whom they rely for their next job. And for their support. And the less invested you are in that culture, I think, the freer you are to think about it and critique it and understand it, without any fear of repercussions.

There is no nonsense so arrant that it cannot be made the creed of the vast majority by adequate governmental action. Of any form of tyranny, this is the worst; it is directed against a single human attribute: the mind—and against a single enemy: the innovator. The innovator, by definition, is the man who challenges the established practices of his profession. To grant a professional monopoly to any group, is to sacrifice human ability and abolish progress; to advocate such a monopoly, is to confess that one has nothing to sacrifice.

Objectivity cannot be equated with mental blankness; rather, objectivity resides in recognizing your preferences and then subjecting them to especially harsh scrutiny. What is the suspension of consciousness which drugs or disease may bring about? Could either welfare or happiness be present under such conditions? And this is to say nothing of misery and disgrace, which will certainly be urged against us… — Plotinus, First Ennead.

Nature is pleased with simplicity, and affects not the pomp of superfluous causes. We are certainly not to relinquish the evidence of experiments for the sake of dreams and vain fictions of our own devising; nor are we to recede from the analogy of Nature, which is wont to be simple, and always consonant to itself. I blamed my own imprudence on parting with so substantial a blessing as my quiet to run after a shadow. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last?

Have you left no sense of decency? What could stand more in the way of genuine philosophy, of honest inquiry after truth, which is the noblest calling of noblest men, than that conventional metaphysics to which the state has granted a monopoly? The art of not reading is a very important one. It consists in not taking an interest in whatever may be engaging the general public at any particular time. When some political or ecclesiastical pamphlet, or novel, or poem is making a great commotion, remember that he who writes for fools always finds a large public.

No sadder proof can be given by a man of his own littleness than disbelief in great men. Fantastic doctrines like Christianity or Islam or Marxism require unanimity of belief. One dissenter casts doubt on the creed of millions. Thus the fear and the hate; thus the torture chamber, the iron stake, the gallows, the labor camp, the psychiatric ward. He cannot make a worm, and yet he is willing to make gods by dozens. If, in earliest childhood, a man has certain principles and doctrines repeatedly recited to him with abnormal solemnity and with an air of supreme earnestness such as he has never before beheld, and at the same time the possibility of doubt is never so much as touched on, or if it is only in order to describe it as the first step toward eternal perdition, then the impression produced will be so profound that in almost every case the man will be almost as incapable of doubting his doctrine as of doubting his own existence, so that hardly one in a thousand will then possess the firmness of mind seriously and honestly to ask himself: is this true?

The expression esprits forts , strong minds, applied to those who do still possess it, is more fitting than those who use it know. But for the remainder, however, there is nothing so absurd or revolting that they will not firmly believe it once they have been inoculated with it in this fashion. The king was bled to the extent of a pint from a vein in his right arm. Next, his shoulder was cut into and the incised area was sucked of an additional 8 oz of blood.

An emetic and a purgative were administered, followed by a second purgative, followed by an enema containing antimony, sacred bitters, rock salt, mallow leaves, violets, beetroot, chamomile flowers, fennel seeds, linseed, cinnamon, cardamom seed, saffron, cochineal and aloes. A sneezing powder of hellebore was administered. A plaster of burgundy pitch and pigeon dung was applied to the feet. Medicaments included melon seeds, manna, slippery elm, black cherry water, lime flowers, lily of the valley, peony, lavender and dissolved pearls. Finally, bezoar stone was given. Intellectual activity has often a structure and direction that it impresses one as an extremely clever apparatus precisely for the avoidance of facts, as an activity which distracts from reality.

The best way I know of to win an argument is to start by being in the right. But when a man shamelessly goes on using circumlocutions, and never acknowledges when he has had a fall, he is like the amateur wrestlers, who, when they have been overthrown by the experts and are lying on their backs on the ground, so far from recognizing their fall, actually seize their victorious adversaries by the neck and prevent them from getting away, thus supposing themselves to be the winners.

True science thrives best in glass houses where everyone can look in. When the windows are blacked out, as in war, the weeds take over; when secrecy muffles criticism, charlatans and cranks flourish. The independent scientist who is worth the slightest consideration as a scientist has a consecration which comes entirely from within himself: a vocation which demands the possibility of supreme self-sacrifice. You have to write a grant a year almost. I got out just in time.

Before the biotech boom, we never had this incessant urging to produce something useful, meaning profitable. Everybody is caught up in it. Grants, millions of dollars flowing into laboratories, careers and stars being made. The only way to be a successful scientist today is to follow consensus. Science has totally capitulated to corporate interests. Men truly pious and philosophical are led by their reasons to honor and love only what is true, and refuse to follow traditional opinions, when they are false.

The first principle is that you must not fool yourself, and you are the easiest person to fool. But for every man there exists a bait which he cannot resist swallowing. To win over certain people to something, it is only necessary to give it a gloss of love of humanity, nobility, gentleness, self-sacrifice — and there is nothing you cannot get them to swallow. To their souls, these are the icing, the tidbit; other kinds of souls have others. The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.

If you want to see with your own eyes and from close to what early inoculation with faith can do, look at the English, nature has favored them before all other nations and furnished them with more understanding, judgment and firmness of character than all the rest; yet they have been degraded lower than all the rest, indeed been rendered almost contemptible, by their stupid church superstition, which infiltrates all their capabilities like an idea fixe , a downright monomania.

The only reason for this is that education is in the hands of the clergy, who take care so to imprint all the articles of faith in earliest youth that it produces a kind of partial paralysis of the brain, which then gives rise to that lifelong imbecile bigotry through which even people otherwise in the highest degree intelligent degrade themselves and make a quite misleading impression on the rest of the world. Progress is impossible without change, and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.

We are inclined to believe those whom we do not know because they have never deceived us. God has infinite wisdom, goodness and power; he created the universe…He created this speck of dirt and the human species for his glory, and with deliberate design of making nine-tenths of our species miserable for ever for his glory.

This is the doctrine of Christian theologians, in general, ten to one…Wretches! What is his glory? Is he ambitious? Does he want promotion? Is he vain, tickled with adulation, exulting and triumphing in his power and the sweetness of his vengeance? Pardon me, my Maker, for these awful questions. This would be the best of all possible worlds, if there were no religion in it! If all else fails, immortality can always be assured by spectacular error.

People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices. There is not a crime, there is not a vice which does not live in secrecy. Get these things out in the open, describe them, attack them, ridicule them in the press and sooner or later public opinion will sweep them away. Every man who attacks my belief, diminishes in some degree my confidence in it, and therefore makes me uneasy; and I am angry with him who makes me uneasy.

The true scientist never loses the faculty of amusement. It is the essence of his being. Robert Oppenheimer, lecture, Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. Madness … is the exception in individuals, but the rule in groups. Madness is rare in individuals — but in groups, parties, nations, and ages it is the rule. The lot of critics is to be remembered by what they failed to understand. To be good is noble, but to tell others how to be good is nobler, and no trouble. We can hardly expect a committee to acquiesce in the dethronement of tradition.

Only an individual can do that, an individual who is not responsible to the mob. Now that the truly independent man of wealth has disappeared, now that the independence of the academic man is fast disappearing, where are we to find the conditions of partial alienation and irresponsibility needed for the highest creativity? One of the greatest creations of the human mind is the art of reviewing books without having read them.

Whatever system we adopt, it must be kind to rebels, and there must be no good-conduct prizes…If we do not train our students to think for themselves—perhaps it would be fairer to say, if we do not allow them to think for themselves—no opportunities that we provide in later life will be of much avail. Topley, physician The danger comes when scientists allow themselves to be organized, when they begin to respect and obey pronouncements on science by academies, universities, societies, and, finally, governments. May that day never come! Nothing defines humans better than their willingness to do irrational things in the pursuit of phenomenally unlikely payoffs.

As science pushes forward, ignorance and superstition gallop around the flanks and bite science in the rear with big dark teeth. The novelty of these things, as well as some consequences which followed from them in contradiction to the physical notions commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up against me no small number of professors, as if I had placed these things in the sky with my own hands in order to upset nature and overturn the sciences.

Showing a greater fondness for their own opinions than for truth, they sought to deny and disprove the new things which, if they had cared to look for themselves, their own senses would have demonstrated to them. Rebel spirits like Louis Leakey and Alister Hardy are sadly becoming a rare and vanishing species in the scientific world, and it is the poorer for it. I no longer know whether I can be classified as a modern scientist or as an example of a beast on its way to extinction.

Moving between fields is the way to be creative. Keep your fingers in a lot of pies. Our great democracies still tend to think that a stupid man is more likely to be honest than a clever man. For Carruthers, the dawn of excitement came while he was a graduate student at Cornell. He had been studying quantum field theory, a subject that confused him because it seemed riddled with dogma rather than equations that were simple or elegant. Richard P.

Feynman, a Nobel Laureate, came to Cornell and taught a course on the subject. It is dangerous to be right in matters on which the established authorities are wrong. A central lesson of science is that to understand complex issues or even simple ones , we must try to free our minds of dogma and to guarantee the freedom to publish, to contradict, and to experiment. Arguments from authority are unacceptable.

The religious interpretations that compel Muslim women to wear the veil in secular countries where church and state have long been separated and where equality of the sexes is firmly established, reveals a mentality that is not content mere with veiling women, but seeks to shroud man, society, life in general—to pull the veil over the eyes of reason itself. Questioning is not the mode of conversation among gentlemen.

It is assuming a superiority, and it is particularly wrong to question a man concerning himself. There may be parts of his former life which he may not wish to be made known to other persons, or even brought to his own recollection. An unflinching determination to take the whole evidence into account is the only method of preservation against the fluctuating extremes of fashionable opinion.

When all funding for research intended to have an urgent public use is placed in one basket, the funding body is left empty-handed if the hypothesis is barren. Public commitment to a barren hypothesis introduces another prestige factor making it difficult to revise the hypothesis. That factor is the loss of face involved in admitting error. The need to keep up the appearance of the reliability of the scientific consensus thus locked AIDS science into a no-win predicament that becomes ever more intransigent as the futility of the hypothesis becomes ever more apparent.

I call it a mirage because health authorities embrace a contingent future as an incontrovertible truth. The passion invested in the viral epidemic dogma is transferred to the entire AIDS management program, so that the whole is seized by cataleptic rigidity a panic symptom. Our AIDS management systems are incapable of reviewing evidence which shows that there have been mistakes about HIV causality, mistakes of diagnosis, mistakes about its transmission, mistakes about HIV antibody tests, mistakes about therapies.

All things are subject to interpretation whichever interpretation prevails at a given time is a function of power and not truth.. Every elevation of man brings with it the overcoming of narrower interpretations…every strengthening and increase of power opens up new perspectives and means believing in new horizons. The search for truth and justice is always in conflict with the search for wealth and popularity. That is the lesson of my life. The whole problem with the world is that fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves, but wiser people so full of doubts.

This is one of those views which are so absolutely absurd that only very learned men could possibly adopt them. It is in the nature of a hypothesis, when once a man has conceived it, that it assimilates every thing to itself, as proper nourishment; and, from the first moment of your begetting it, generally grows stronger by every thing you see, hear, read or understand. There are three kinds of lies — lies, damned lies and statistics. Generally speaking, truth management is merely one application of the arts of persuasion, promotion, and propaganda. It is not distinguished by the novelty of its devices, but in the boldness of their application to the one patch of modern culture that is supposed to be impervious to these arts.

The details of the promotion of the viral theory of AIDS show that managing truth is not an occasional lapse from rigid integrity. Every man has some favourite topic of conversation, on which, by a feigned seriousness of attention, he may be drawn to expatiate without end. Happy is he who has been able to learn the causes of things.

The most formidable weapon against errors of every kind is Reason. I have never used any other, and I trust I never shall. Nothing is more interesting to the true theorist than a fact which directly contradicts a theory generally accepted up to that time, for this is his particular work. Science advances funeral by funeral… A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents finally die out. An important scientific innovation rarely makes its way by gradually winning over and converting its opponents: it rarely happens that Saul becomes Paul.

What does happen is that its opponents gradually die out, and that the growing generation is familiarised with the ideas from the beginning. If anybody says he can think about quantum problems without getting giddy, that only shows he has not understood the first thing about them. Man will occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of the time he will pick himself up and continue. Atomic energy might be as good as our present-day explosives, but it is unlikely to produce anything very much more dangerous.

Plato is my friend — Aristotle is my friend — but my greatest friend is truth. What is wanted is not the will to believe, but the wish to find out, which is the exact opposite. People almost invariably arrive at their beliefs not on the basis of proof but on the basis of what they find attractive. In all science, error precedes the truth, and it is better that it should go first than last. Most men can seldom accept even the simplest and most obvious truth if it obliges them to admit the falsity of conclusions which they have delighted in explaining to colleagues, which they have proudly taught to others, and which they have woven thread by thread into the fabric of their lives.

I am tired of this thing called science…. We have spent millions on that sort of thing for the last few years, and it is time it should be stopped. The peer pressure on both sides of that argument creates people that are going to be followers and people that are going to be leaders. You know, you go out drinking beer and there is one person that is kind of the leader of the group and if you want to stay in the group then you kind of agree. We know it will discover exciting things. Simplicity is infinitely more fascinating than intelligence. Intelligence has its limits while stupidity has none.

I love learning of new findings that overturn or at least complicate abiding verities, even when I may have written about those verities in the past… In fact, if there is any lesson I have learned in my years of following science, it is that nothing is as it seems. Instead, things are as they seem plus the details you are just beginning to notice.

New truth rarely overturn old ones; they simply add nuanced brushstrokes to the portrait. If a man is offered a fact which goes against his instincts, he will scrutinize it closely, and unless the evidence is overwhelming, he will refuse to believe it. If, on the other hand, he is offered something which affords a reason for acting in accordance to his instincts, he will accept it even on the slightest evidence.

The origin of myths is explained in this way. He who has never been deceived by a lie does not know the meaning of bliss. From a drop of water a logician could predict an Atlantic or a Niagara. Knowledge is a process of piling up facts; wisdom lies in their simplification. Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it. They write about things people know nothing about, including themselves sometimes.

I accepted the Copernican position several years ago and discovered from thence the causes of many natural effects which are doubtless inexplicable by the current theories. I have written up many reasons and refutations on the subject, but I have not dared until now to bring them into the open, being warned by the fortunes of Copernicus himself, our master, who procured for himself immortal fame among a few but stepped down among the great crowd for this is how foolish people are to be numbered , only to be derided and dishonoured.

I would dare publish my thoughts if there were many like you; but since there are not, I shall forbear. Nothing is more estimable than a physician who, having studied nature from his youth, knows the properties of the human body, the diseases which assail it, the remedies which will benefit it, exercises his art with caution, and pays equal attention to the rich and the poor. There are only two things, science and opinion; the former yields knowledge, the latter ignorance. One should as a rule respect public opinion in so far as is necessary to avoid starvation and to keep out of prison, but anything that goes beyond this is voluntary submission to an unnecessary tyranny, and is likely to interfere with happiness in all kinds of ways.

Experimental evidence is strongly in favor of my argument that the chemical purity of the air is of no importance. The universe consists only of atoms and the void: all else is opinion and illusion. It is the province of knowledge to speak and it is the privilege of wisdom to listen. It would be interesting to inquire how many times essential advances in science have first been made possible by the fact that the boundaries of special disciplines were not respected…. Trespassing is one of the most successful techniques in science. People who write obscurely are either unskilled in writing or up to mischief.

Freedom is for science what the air is for an animal. Trying to determine what is going on in the world by reading newspapers is like trying to tell the time by watching the second hand of a clock. The real problem is not whether machines think but whether men do. Skinner, Contingencies of Reinforcement All problems are finally scientific problems. That principle is condemnation without investigation. It is a test of true theories not only to account for but to predict phenomena. Be enthusiastic. It would be a poor thing to be an atom in the universe without physicists, and physicists are made of atoms.

Henderson Science is the topography of ignorance. If a scientist were to cut his ear off, no one would take it as evidence of a heightened sensibility. The scientific mind does not so much provide the right answers as ask the right questions. Every scientist is an agent of cultural change. He may not be a champion of change; he may even resist it, as scholars of the past resisted the new truths of historical geology, biological evolution, unitary chemistry, and non-Euclidean geometry. But to the extent that he is a true professional, the scientist is inescapably an agent of change.

His tools are the instruments of change: skepticism, the challenge to established authority, criticism, rationality and individuality. It is always the minorities that hold the key to progress; it is always through those who are unafraid to be different that advance comes to human society. You are thrown into it by your personal sense of responsibility, combined with a complex set of external circumstances. You are cast out of the existing structures and placed in a position of conflict with them. It begins as an attempt to do your work well, and ends with being branded an enemy of society.

Where a calculator on the ENIAC is equipped with 19, vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons, computers in the future may have only 1, vacuum tubes and perhaps only weigh 1. Popular Mechanics, March A half truth, like half a brick, is always more forcible as an argument than a whole one. It carries better. A ready man is made by conversation. He has no facility of inculcating his speculations, of adapting himself to the various degrees of intellect which the accidents of conversation will present; but will talk to most unintelligibly, and to all unpleasantly.

Doubt is not a pleasant condition, but certainty is a ridiculous one. Thousands upon thousands of persons have studied disease. Almost no one has studied health. Modest doubt is called the beacon of the wise. Ten thousand fools proclaim themselves into obscurity, while one wise man forgets himself into immortality. The most erroneous stories are those we think we know best — and therefore never scrutinize or question. I notice that as soon as writers broach this question they begin to quote.

I hate quotation. Tell me what you know. The quest for certainty blocks the search for meaning. Uncertainty is the very condition to impel man to unfold his powers. Certain experiments have been conducted, and have yielded certain observed results, which have been recorded. A datum, obviously, must be a fact known by perception. This constitutes a problem. It is ironical that, in the very field in which Science has claimed superiority to Theology, for example — in the abandoning of dogma and the granting of absolute freedom to criticism — the positions are now reversed. Science will not tolerate criticism of special relativity, while Theology talks freely about the death of God, religionless Christianity, and so on.

All scientific knowledge is provisional. That is the essence of science: ask an impertinent question, and you are on your way to the pertinent answer. In every generation there is some fool who will speak the truth as he sees it. Every truth passes through three stages before it is recognized: In the first it is ridiculed.

In the second, it is opposed. In the third it is regarded as self-evident. In the third stage, that it has long been known. To truth only a brief celebration of victory is allowed between the two long periods during which it is condemned as paradoxical or disparaged as trivial. The passion for truth is silenced by answers which have the weight of undisputed authority. If you want to see with your own eyes and from close to what early inoculation with faith can do, look at the English, nature has favored them before all other nations and furnished them with more understanding, judgment and firmness of character than all the rest; yet they have been degraded lower than all the rest, indeed been rendered almost contemptible, by their stupid church superstition, which infiltrates all their capabilities like an idea fixe, a downright monomania.

As scarce as truth is, the supply has always been in excess of the demand. I speak the truth, not as much as I would, but as much as I dare; and I dare a little more, as I grow older. One truth discovered, one pang of regret at not being able to to express it, is better than all the fluency and flippancy in the world. There once was a time when all people believed in God and the church ruled.

That time was called the Dark Ages. The most savage controversies are those about matters as to which there is no good evidence either way. When the human mind has once quitted the luminous track pointed out by nature, it returns to it no more; it wanders round the truth, but never obtains of it more than a few faint glimmerings, which, mingling with the false lights of surrounding superstition, leave it, in fact, in complete and palpable obscurity. When one admits that nothing is certain one must, I think, also admit that some things are much more nearly certain than others.

It is much more nearly certain that we are assembled here tonight than it is that this or that political party is in the right. Certainly there are degrees of certainty, and one should be very careful to emphasize that fact, because otherwise one is landed in an utter skepticism, and complete skepticism would, of course, be totally barren and completely useless.

Every man, wherever he goes, is encompassed by a cloud of comforting convictions, which move with him like flies on a summer day. The clever men at Oxford, Know all there is to be Knowed. But they none of them know as half as much As intelligent Mr. When a man is freed of religion, he has a better chance to live a normal and wholesome life.

I think we ought to have as great a regard for religion as we can, so as to keep it out of as many things as possible. There will always be a part, and always a very large part of every community, that have no care but for themselves, and whose care for themselves reaches little further than impatience of immediate pain, and eagerness for the nearest good.

Faith consists in believing when it is beyond the power of reason to believe. It is not enough that a thing be possible for it to be believed. A casual stroll through the lunatic asylum shows that faith does not prove anything. The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd; indeed in view of the silliness of the majority of mankind, a widespread belief is more likely to be foolish than sensible.

It takes a very unusual mind to undertake the analysis of the obvious. New opinions are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason but because they are not already common. To fix the thoughts by writing, and subject them to frequent examinations and reviews, is the best method of enabling the mind to detect its own sophisms, and keep it on guard against the fallacies which it practises on others: in conversation we naturally diffuse our thoughts, and in writing we contract them; method is the excellence of writing, and unconstraint the grace of conversation.

It will not do to investigate the subject of religion too closely, as it is apt to lead to infidelity. There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Something is rotten in the state of Denmark. Science can teach us, and I think our own hearts can teach us, no longer to look around for imaginary supports, no longer to invent allies in the sky, but rather to look to our own efforts here below to make this a fit place to live in, instead of the sort of place that the churches in all these centuries have made it.

Public opinion, a vulgar, impertinent, anonymous tyrant who deliberately makes life unpleasant for anyone who is not content to be the average man. With public sentiment, nothing can fail. Without it, nothing can succeed. If you keep your mind sufficiently open, people will throw a lot of rubbish into it. Some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall. That which enters the mind through reason can be corrected. That which is admitted through faith, hardly ever. The whole conception of God is a conception derived from the ancient Oriental despotisms. It is a conception quite unworthy of free men.

When you hear people in church debasing themselves and saying that they are miserable sinners, and all the rest of it, it seems contemptible and not worthy of self- respecting human beings. Every great advance in natural knowledge has involved the absolute rejection of authority. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them.

Oh God, that men should put an enemy in their mouths to steal away their brains! The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe.

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If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself. If the greatest philosopher in the world find himelf upon a plank wider than actually necessary, but hanging over a precipice, his imagination will prevail, though his reason convince him of his safety. The very bulk of scientific publications is itself delusive.

It is of very unequal value; a large proportion of it, possibly as much as three-quarters, does not deserve to be published at all, and is only published for economic considerations which have nothing to do with the real interests of science. Mankind have a great aversion to intellectual labor; but even supposing knowledge to be easily attainable, more people would be content to be ignorant than would take even a little trouble to acquire it. Joyous distrust is a sign of health. Everything absolute belongs to pathology.

The mind of a bigot is like the pupil of the eye: the more light you pour upon it, the more it will contract. Holmes Jr. It seemed so simple when one was young and new ideas were mentioned not to grow red in the face and gobble. There are boxes in the mind with labels on them: To study on a favorable occasion; Never to be thought about; Useless to go further; Contents unexamined; Pointless business; Urgent; Dangerous; Impossible; Abandoned; Reserved; For others; My forte; etc.

We are not won by arguments that we can analyze but tone and temper, by the manner which is the man himself. The intelligent man finds almost everything ridiculous, the sensible man hardly anything. Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. False face must hide what the false heart doth know. Only when we know little do we know anything. Deodore F. Forsyth, Southern Commissioner; and several members of the Senate and Congress.

Douglas did the honors of her house with grace and charming good-nature. I observe a great tendency to abstract speculation and theorizing among Americans, and their after-dinner conversation is apt to become didactic and sententious. Few men speak better than Senator Douglas; his words are well chosen, the flow of his ideas even and constant, his intellect vigorous, and thoughts well cut, precise, and vigorous - he seems a man of great ambition, and he told me he is engaged in preparing a sort of Zollverein scheme for the North American continent, including Canada, which will fix public attention everywhere, and may lead to a settlement of the Northern and Southern controversies.

For his mind, as for that of in any Americans, the aristocratic idea embodied in Russia is very seductiye; and he dwelt with pleasure on the courtesies he had received at the court of the Czar, implying that he had been treated differently in England, arid perhaps France. Douglas become President of the United States, his good-will towards Great Britain might have been invaluable, and surely it had been cheaply pur.

Our Galleos Very often care for none of these things. As Col. I had pleasure in making the acquaintance of Governor Romnn. Sewird they evidently regarded as the ablest and most unscrupuions of their enemies; but the tone in which they alluded to the whole nf the Northern people indicated the clear con vietion that trade, commerce, the pursuit of gain, manufacture, and the base mechanical arts, had so degraded the whole race, they would never attempt to strike a blow in fair fight for what they pAzed so highly in theory and in words.

Whether it be in consequence of some secret influence which slavery lias upon the minds of men, or that the aggression of the North Jpon their institutions has been of a nature to excite the deep. This practice, accordincr to them, is highly wholesome and meritonous; and, indeed, it may be admitted that in the state of society which is reported to exist ii the Southern States, it is a useful check on such men as ii restrained in our own islands in the last century.

I was inclined to question the correctness of tlie standard which they had set up, and to inquire whether the virtue which needed this murderous use of the pistol and the dagger to defend it, was not open to some doubt; but I found there was very little sympathy with my views among the company. Disbelief of anything a Northern man - that is, a I? Seward made, as, according to them, not tlie least reliance was to be placed his word. Sumner's case was quoted as the type of the affairs of the kind between the two sides.

I happened to say that I always understood Mr. Sumner had been attacked suddenly and unexpectedly, and struck down before he could rise from his desk to defend himself; whereupon a warm refutation of that version of the story was given, and I was assured that Mr. Brooks, who was a very slight man, and much interior in height to Mr. Sumner, struck him a slight blow nt first, nnd only inflicted the heavier strokes when irritated by the Senator's cowardly demeanor In reference to some remark made' about the cavaliers and their connection with the South, I reminded the gentleman that, after all, the descendants of the Puritans were not to be despised in battle: and that the best gentry in England were worsted at last by the train-bands of London, and the "rabbledom" of Cromwell's Independents.

But this gendeman was a professed buccaneer, a friend of Walker, the gray-eyed rnan of destiny - his comrade in his most dangerous razzie. Floyd and Mr. If the States had a right to go out, hey were quite right in obtaining their quota of the national property which would not have been given to tbem by the Lincolnites. Therefore, their friends were not to be censured because they had sent arms and money to the South.

Altogether the evening, notwithstanding the occasional warmth of the controversy, was exceedingly instructive; one could understand from the vehemence and force of the speakers the full meaning of the phrase of "firing the Southern heart," so often quoted as an illustration of the peculiar force of political passion to be brought to bear against the Repub.

His name is historical in America - liis flither flllcd high offlee, and his son has also exercised diplomatic function. Despotisms and Republics of the American model approach each other closely. It is quite possible to have made a mistake in such matters, but I am almost certain that the colored waiters who attended us at table looked as sour and discontented as could be, and seemed to give their service with a sort of protest. April t. He professed to have no apprehension for the safety of tlie capital; but in reality there are only some or regulars to protect it and the Navy Yard, and two field-batteries, commanded by an officer of very doubtful attachment to the Union.

The head of the Navy Yard is openly accused of treasonable sympathies. As matters look very threatening, I must go South and see with my own eyes how affairs stand there, before the two sections come to open rupture. Seward, the other day, in talking of the South, described them as being in every respect behind the age, with fashions, habits, level of thought, and modes of life, belonging to the worst part of the last century. The Southern men come up to the Northern cities and springs, but the Northerner rarely travels southwards.

Indeed, I am informed, that if he were a wellknown Abolitionist, it would not be safe for him to appear in a Southern city. I quite agree with my thoughtful and - earnest friend, Olmsted, that the United States can never he con. The gentry of Columbia are thoroughly Virginian in sentiment, and look rather south than north of the Potomac for political results.

The President, 1 hear this evening, is alarmed lest Virginia should become hostile, and his policy, if he has any, is tempoflzing and timid. Train after train adds to their numbers. They cumber the passages. The hall is crowded to such a degree that suffocation might describe the degree to which the pressure reaches, were it not that tobacco-smoke invigorates and sustains the constitution. As to the condition of the floor it is beyond description.

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Seward's - Rough draft of official despatch to Lord I. Russell - Estimate of its effect in Europe - The attitude of Virgiuia. April 7th. I am tired and weary of this perpetual jabber about Fort Sumter. Men here who know nothing at all of what is passing send letters to the New York papers, which are eagerly read by the people in Washington as soon as the journals reach the City, and then all these vague surmises are taken as gospel, and argued upon as if they were facts.

The "llerald" keeps up the courage and spirit of its Southern friends by giving the most florid accounts of their prospects, and making continual attacks on Mr. Lincoln and his government; but the majority of the New York papers are inclined to resist Secession and aid the Government. I dined with Lord Lyons in the evening, and met Mr. Sumner, Mr. Blackwell, the manager of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, his wife, and the members of the Legation. After dinner I visited M. Tassara, the Minister of Spain, who had small receptions.

There were few Americans present. As a rule, the diplomatic circle, which has, by. The great people here are mostly the representatives of the South American powers, who are on more intimate relations with the native families in Washington than are the transatlantic ministers. April 8th. Last night there were torrents of water in the streets literally a foot deep. It still runs in muddy whiHing streams through the channels, and the rain is falling incessantly from a dull leaden sky. The air is warm and clammy. There are all kind of rumors abroad, and the barbers' shops shook with "shaves" this morning.

Sumter, of course, was the main topic. Some reported that the President had promised the Southern Commissioners,. Seward, to ask him if he could enable me to make any 4efinite statement on these important matters. The Southerners are alarmed at the accounts they have received of great activity and preparations in the Brooklyn and Boston navy yards, and declare that "treachery" is meant. I find myself quite incapable of comprehending their position. I promised the professors some skins of Himalayan pheasants, as an addition to the collection.

In the library we were presented to two very fine and lively rock snakes, or pythons, I believe, some six feet long or more, which moved about with much grace and agility, putting out their forked tongues and hissing sharply when seized by the hand or menaced with a stick. I was told that some persons doubted if serpents hissed; I can answer for it that rock snakes do most audibly.

They are not venomous, but their teeth are sharp and needle like. The eye is bright and glistening; the red forked tongue, when protruded, has a rapid vibratory motion, as if it were moved by the muscles which produce the quivering hissing noise. The fact is, that the influence of the great mountain-chain in the west, which intercepts all the rain on the Pacific side, causes an immense extent of country between the eastern. On returning to my hotel, 1 found a note from Mr.

On going to his house, 1 was shown to the drawing-room, and found there only the Secretary of State, his son, and Mrs. Seward, who was my partner, talked as he played, so that the score of the game was not favorable. But his talk was very interesting. The Government, finding the property of the State and Federal forts neglected and left without protection, are determined to take steps to relieve them from that neglect, and to protect them.

But we are determined in doing so to make no aggression. The President's inaugural clearly shadows out our policy. Seward lighted the drop light of the gas, and on her husband's return with the paper left the room. The Secretary then lit his dgar, gave one to me, and proceeded to read slowly and with marked emphasis, a very long, strong, and able despatch, which he told me was to be read by Mr. At all the stronger passages Mr.

Seward raised his voice, and made a pause at their conclusion as if to challenge remark or approval. At length 1 couJd not help saying, that the despatch would, no doubt, have an excellent effect when it came to light in Congress, and that the Americans would think highly of the writer; but 1 ventured to express an opinion that it would not be quite so acceptable to the Government and people of Great Britain.

This Mr. Seward, as an American statesman, had a right to make but a secondary consideration. Seward thinks he can establish the supremacy of his own Government, and at the same time gratify the vanity of the people. Lven war with us may not be out of the list of those means which would be available for re-fusing the broken union into a mass once more.

However, the Secretary is quite confident in what he calls "reaction. Seward anticipates this process will at once begin, and that Secession will all be done and over in three months - at least, so he says. It was after midnight ere our conversation was over, much of which of course I cannot mention in these pages. Aprn7 9tk. The streets are converted into watercourses. From the country we hear of bridges washed away by inundations, and roads rendered impassable.

By-the-by, I observe that my prize-fighting friend of the battered nose has been rewarded for his exertions at last. I dined at the Legation in the evening, where there was a small party, and returaed to the hotel in torrents of rain. Aprit 10th. I received a characteristic note from General Scott, asking me to dine with him to-morrow, and apologizing for the shortness of his invitation, which arose from his only having just heard that I was about to leave so soon for the South.

The General is much admired by his countrymen, though they do not spare some "amiable weaknesses;" but, in my mind, he can only be accused oE a little vanity, which is often found in characters of the highest standard. Some time ago lie wrote a long letter to the "National Intelligencer," in which he quoted Shakespeare and Paley to prove that President Buchanan ought to have garrisoned the forts at Charleston and Pensacola, as he advised him to do; and he has been the victim of poetic aspirations.

They were not bad of their class, and the horses, though light, were active, hardy, and spirited; but the men put on their uniforms badly, wore long hair, their coats and buttons and boots were unbrushed, and the horses' coats and accoutrements bore evidence of neglect. The General, who wore an undress blue frock-coat, with eagle-covered brass buttons, and velvet collar and cuffs, was with Mr.

Seward and Mr. Bates, the AttorneyGeneral, and received me very courteously. But there is no privacy for public men in America. Seward insisted. I said I was not a judge, but certainly similar liberal usage of a well-known figure of prosody might be found to justify the phrase. The only attendants at table were the General's English valet and a colored servant; and the table apparatus which bore such good things was simple and unpretending.

To me his conversation was very interesting, particularly that liortion which referred to his part in the last war, where he was wounded and taken prisoner. The General made the most of his side: "We had, sir, twenty-one hundred and sev 4. Young Scott, then i'eading for the bar, became corporal of a troop of these patrols.

Give way, my lads! We found the boat manned by four sailors, and filled with vegetables and other supplies, and took possession of it; and I believe it is tlie tlrst instance of a man-of-war's boat being captured by cavalry. The Legislature of Virginia, however, did not approve of the capture, and the officer was given up accordingly.

He was, I remember quite well, Corporal Scott. The Secretary read it, and became a little agitated, and raised his eyes inquiringly to the General's face, who only shook his head. Bates, who read it, and gave a grunt, as it were, of surprise. The communication was evidently of a very unpleasant character. He would not hear of a guard, nor any thing of the sort, so, without his knowing it, I have sentries posted all round the house all night. On our return to the sitting. Seward in his carriage.

He replied that, although the capital was almost defenceless, it must be remembered that the bold bad men who were their enemies were equally unprepared for active measures of aggression. April l2tk. I resolved, therefore, to start for the Southern States to-day, proceeding by Baltimore to Norfolk instead of going by Richmond, which was cut off by the floods. Before leaving, I visited Lord Lyons, Mr. Lincoln, Gencial Scott, Mr. Douglas, Mr. Sumner, and otliens. Some ladies said to me that when I caine back I would find some nice people at Washington, aitd -that the rail-splitter, his wife, the Se wards, and all the rest of them, would be driven to the place where they ought to be: "Yarina Davis is a lady, at all events, not like tlie other.

In the train there was a crowd of people, many of them disappointed place-hunters, and much discussion took place respecting the propriety of giving supplies to Sumter by force, the weight of opinion being against the propriety of such a step. That's true! On my arrival, the landlord, no less a person than a major or colonel, took me aside, and asked me if I had heard the news.

There was nothing surprising in the fact that the Cliarleston people had resented any attempt to reinforce tlie forts, as I was aware, from the language of the Southern Commissioners that they would resist any such attempt to the last, and make it a casus and causa be lii. April 14th. The American landlord is a despot who regulates his dominions by ukases affixed to the walls, by certain state depnrtments called "offices" and "bars," and who generally is represented, whilst he is away on some military, political, or commercial undertaking, by a lieutcnant; the deputy being, if possible, a greater man than the chief.

It requires so much capital to establish a large hotel, that there is little fear of external cornpetition in the towns. And Americans are so gregarious that they will not patronize small establishments. I was the more complimented by the landlord's attention this morning when he came to the room, and in much excitement informed me the news of Fort Sumter being bombarded by the Charleston batteries was confirmed, "And now," said lie, "there's no saying where it will all end.

The whole feeling of the landed and respectable classes is with the South. He asked me whether I would still let him iccompany me. The young gentleman will certainly never lose any thing for the want of asking. At the black barber's I was meekly interrogated by my attendant as to my belief in the story of the bombardment. He was astonished to find a stranger could thijik the event was probable.

But maybe it'll come bad after all. The slaves are sent out to do jobs, to stand for hire, to work on the quays and docks. Sometimes the master is content with a fixed sum, and all over that amount which thL slave can get may be retained for his private purposes. Why Baltimore should be called the "Monumental City" could not be divined by a stranger.

At dark 1 started for Norfolk in the steamer "Georgiana. There was no flag on the staff above the walls, and the place looked dreary and desolate. It has a fine bastioned profile, with moat and armed lunettes - the casemates were bricked up or occupied by glass windows, and all the guns I could make out were on the parapets.

A few soldiers were lounging on the jetty, and after we had discharged a tipsy old officer, a few negroes, and some parcels, the stenin-pipe brayed - it does not whistle - again, and we proceeded across the mouth of tiie channel and James River towards Elizabeth River, on which stand Portsmouth and Gosport. Just as I was dressing, the door opened, and a tall, neatly dressed negress came in and asked me for my ticket.

She told me slie was ticket-collector for the boat, and that she was a slave. The latter intelligence was given without any reluctance or hesitation. On my way to the upper deck I observed the bar was crowded by gentlemen engaged in consuming, or waiting for, cocktails or mintjuleps. The latter, however, could not be had just now in such perfection as usual, owilig to the inferior condition of the mint. In the matter of drinks, how hospitable the Americans are!

I was asked to take as many as would have rendered me incapable of drinking again; my excuse on the plea of inability to. SI grapple with cocktails and the like before breakfast, was heard with surprise, and I was urgently entreated to abandoa so bad a habit.


  1. The Awakening (werewolf romance) (The Breeding Prophecy Book 1).
  2. best of 2011 photos.
  3. My diary North and South.: By William Howard Russell..

A clear, fine sun rose from the waters 9f the bay up into the purest of pure blue skies. On our right lay a low coast fringed with trees, and wooded densely with stunted forest, through which creeks could be seen glinting far through the foliage. Anxious looking little wooden lighthouses, hard set to preserve their equilibrium in the muddy waters, and bent at various angles, marked the narrow channels to the towns and hamlets on the banks, the principal trade and occupation of which are oyster selling and oyster eating. We are sailing over wondrous deposits and submarine crops of the much4oved bivalve.

Wooden, houses painted white appear on the shores, and one large building with wings and a central portico surmounted by a belvedere, destined for the reception of the United States sailors in sickness, is a striking object in the landscape. Behind, the shed there rose tiled and shingled roofs of mean dingy houses; and we could catch glimpses of the line of poor streets, narrow, crooked, ill-paved, surmounted by a few church-steeples, and the large sprawling advertisement-boards of the tobaccostores and oyster-sellers, which was all we could see of Portsmouth or Gosport.

The only man-of-war fit for sea was a curiosity - a stumpy bluff-bowed, Dutch-built looking sloop, called the "Cumberland. A fleet of oyster-boats anchored, or in sailless observance of the Sunday, dotted the waters. There was an ancient and fishlike smell about the town worthy of its appearance and of its functions as a seaport.

As the vessel came close along-side, there was the usual greeting between friends, and many a cry, "Well, you've heard the news? The Yankees out of Sumter! Isn't it fine! Two I made sure of were Englishmen, and when the coxswain was retiring from his fruitless search, 1 asked him where he hailed from. I got away, sir. Emigrated, you know! That man iii the bow there is a mate of mine, from the sweet Cove of Cork; Driscoll by name, and there's a Belfast man pulls. They were in men-of-war too. There's plenty more of us aboard the ship.

The infliction of tobacco-jiiice on board was reinarkable. Although it was but seven o'clock every one had his quid in working order, and the air was filled with yellowish-brown rainbows arid liquid parabolas, which tumbled in spray or in little fiocks of the weed on the foul decks.

The omnibus which was waiting to receive us must have been the earliest specimen of carriage building in that style on the continent; and as it lunged and fiopped over the prodigious. Poor G. There is not a hill for the traveller to ascend towards the close of a summer's day, nor a moated castle for a thousand miles around. An execrable, tooth-cracking drive ended at last in front of the Atlantic llotel, where 1 was doomed to take up my quarters.

It is a dilapidated, undeanly place, with tobacco-stained floor, full of flies and strong. The waiters were all slaves: untidy, slipshod, and careless creatures. The people, I observe, are of a new and marked type, - Very tall, loosely yet powerfully made, with dark complexions, strongly-marked features, prominent noses, large angular mouths in square jaws, deep-seated bright eyes, low, narrow foreheads, - and are all of them much given to ruminate tobacco.

The clergy. The influence extended itself gradually and all the men near the door were leaving rapidly. The minister, obviously interested, continued to read, raising his eyes towards the door. It was a terrible wflting. At all the street corners men were discussing the news with every symptom of joy and gratification. Now I confess I could not share in the excitement at all.

The act seemed to me the prelude to certain war. I walked up the main street, and turned up some of the alleys to have a look at the town, coming out on patches of water and bridges over the creeks, or sandy lanes shaded by trees, and lined here and there by pretty wooden villas, painted in bnght colors.

Not a word were they talking about Sumter. Der hem a fire at Squire Nichol's house last night; least way so I hear, sare. Was it a very stupid poco-curante, or a very cunning, subtle Sambo? Some brigs and large vessels lay along-side the wharves and large warehouses higher up the creek. Observing a small group at the end of the pier, I walked on, and found that they consisted of fifteen or twenty well-dressed mechanical kind of men, busily engaged in "chaffing," as Cockneys would call it, the crew of the man-of-war.

Why don't you go, and touch off your guns at Charleston? Hurrah for the Southern Confederacy! Back water all. Who threw the shells? What do you mean by barking at the Stars and Stripes? Do you see that ship? And now who's coming on? The dinner iii the Atlantic Hotel was of a description to make one wish the desire for food had never been invented.

There's nary one killed nor wownded. At night the mosquitoes were very aggressive and successful. A mutton. Monday, April Crossed by ferry to Portsmouth, and arrived at railway station, which was at no place in particular, in a street down which the rails were laid. Robinson, the superintendent, gave me permission to take a seat ia the engine car, to which I mounted accordingly, was duly introduced to, and shook hands with the engineer and the stoker, and took my seat next the boiler.

They consist of a light frame placed on the connection of the engine with the tender, and projecting so as to include the end of the boiler and the stoke-hole. They protect the engineer from rain, storm, sun, or dust. Windows at each side afford a clear view in all directions, and the engineer can step out on the engine itself by the doors on the front part of the shed. There is just room for four persons to sit uncomfortably, the persons next the boiler being continually in dread of roasting their legs at the furnace, and those next the tender being in danger of getting ogs of wood from it shaken down on their feet.

It is true one a enjoyment was marred by want of breakfast, for I could not manage the cake of dough and the cup of bitter, sour, greasy nastiness, called coffee, which were presented to me in lieu of that meal this morning. But the novelty of the scene through which I passed atoned for the small privation. I do not speak of the ragged streets and lines of sheds through which the train passed, with the great bell of the engine tolling as if it were threatening death to the early pigs, cocks, hens, and negroes and dogs which.

The trestle-work over which the train was borne, judged by the eye, was of the slightest possible construction. Sometimes one series of trestles was placed above another, so that the cars ran on a level with the tops of the trees; and, looking down, we could see before the train passed the inky surface of the waters, broken into rings and agitated, round the beams of wood. The trees were draped with long creepers and shrouds of Spanish moss, which fell from branch to branch, smothering the leaves in their clammy embrace, or waving in pendulous folds in the air.

Cypress, live-oak, the dogwood, and pine struggled for life with the water, and about their stems floated balks of timber, waifs and strays carried from the rafts by flood, or the forgotten spoils of the lumberer. Once a dark body of greater size plashed into the current which marked the course of a river. The strange tract we are passing through is the "Dismal Swamp," a name which must have but imperfectly.

In the centre of this vast desolation there is a large loch, called "Lake Drummond," in the juiigle and brakes around which the runaway slaves of the plantations long harbored, and once or twice assembled bands of depredators, which were hunted down, broken up, and destroyed like wild beasts. I made a remark to that effect. They tell a story one day, to contradict it the next. If it comes to blows after this, they will lose all, and I must stand by my own friends down South, though I don't belong to it. The silence of these woods is oppressive.

Then the engineer opens the valve; the sonorous roar of the engine echoes though the woods, and now and then there is a little excitement caused by a race between a pig and the engine, and piggy is occasionally whipped off his legs by the cow-lifter, and hoisted volatile into the ditch at one. When a herd? The steam horn is sounded, the bell rung, and steam is eased off; and every means used to escape collision; for the railway company is obliged to pn,y tlie owner for whatever animals the trains kill, and a cow S body on one of these poor rails is an impediment sufficient to throw the engine off; and "send us to immortal smash.

It was a building of logs, SOluC twenty fee long by twelve feet broad, made in the rudest manner, with at carthen roo? Although the day was exceedingly hot, there were two logs blazing on the hearth, over which was suspended a pot of potatoes. The air inside was stifling, and the black beams of the roof glistened with a clammy sweat from smoke and unwholesome vapors. There was not an article of fbrniture, except a big deal chest and a small stool, in the place; a mug and a teacup stood on a rude shelf nailed to the wall. The owner of this establishment, a stout negro, was busily engaged with others in "wooding up" tlie engine from the pile of cut timber by the roadside.

The necessity of stopping caused by the rapid consumption is one of the desayremens of wood fuel. The negro was one of many slaves let out to the company. White men would not do the work, or were too expensive; but the overseers and gangsmen were whites. If you went into it in the very hottest day in summer, you would find the niggers sitting close up to blazing pine4ogs; and they sleep at night, or by day when they've fed to the full, in the same way.

Here it was that the normal forest and swamp had. Presently we came in sight of a tIag fluttering from a lofty pine, which had been stripped of its branches, throwing broad bars of red and white to the air, with a blue square in tiie upper quarter containing seven stars. And long may it wave-oer the land of the free and the borne of the ber-rave! The cry was returned by the passengers in the train. For the first time in the States, I noticed barefooted people. Now began another phase of scenery - an interminable pine-forest, far as the eye could reach, shutting out the light on each side by a wooden wall.

The stems of the trees around are marked by white scars, where the tappings for the turpentine take place, and many dead trunks testitied bow the process ended. Again, over another log village, a Confederate flag floated in the air; and the people ran out, negroes and all, and cheer ed as before. The new flag is not so glanng and gaudy a tlie Stars and Stripes; but, at a distance, when the folds hang together, there is a considerable resemblance in the general effect of the two.

These pieces of colored bunting seem to twine themselves through heart and brain. The stations along the roadside now gradually grew in pro. Around these still grew the eternal forest, or patches of cleared land dotted with black stumps. There were always some negroes, male and female, in attendance on the voyagers, handling the baggage or the babies, and looking comfortable enough, but not happy. The only evidence of the good spirits and happiness of these people which I saw was on the part of a number of men who were going off from a plantation for the fishing on the coast.

The negro likes the mild exciteinent of sea fishing, and in pursuit of it he feels for the moment free. At Goldsborough, which is the first place of importance on the line, tlie wave of the Secession tide struck us in full career. The men hectored, swore, cheered, and slapped each other on the backs; the women, in their best, waved handkerchiefs and flung down garlands from the windows.

All was noise, dust, and patnotism. It was a strange sight and a wonderful event at which we were assisting. The enthusiasm of the "citizens" was unbounded, nor was it quite free from a taint of alcohol. The cars this way, General! I say these are my cars! And - sir, I'll arrest you. As the train started on its journey, there was renewed yelling, which split tlie ear-a savage cry many notes higher than the most ringing cheer. They were hurrying off full of zeal and patriotism to tender their services to the Montgomery Government. In a bug, lofty. I asked for a room, but I'was told that there were so many people movilig about just now that it was not possi ble to give me one to myself; but at last I made a bargain for exclusive possession.

He said he had been pounced opon by the Vigilance Committee, who were raiher drunk, and vely inquisitive. They were haunting the precincts of tlie post-office and the railway station, to detect Liiicolnites and 4boiitionists, and were obliged to keep themselves wide awake by frequent visits to the adjacent bars, and he had with difficulty dissuaded them from paying me a visit. I cannot say what reply was given to their questioning; but I certainly refused to have any interview with the Vigilance Committee of Wilmington, and was glad they did not disturb me.

Rest, however, there was little or none. I might have as well slept on the platform of the railway station outside. Seward, underlies all "secession proclivities. The Carolinians are capable of turning out a fair force of cavalry. The conductor who took our tickets was called "Captain. They'll have some pretty tall swimming, and get knocked on the head, if ever they gets to land. Tlie hotel was full of notabilities. I was taken after dinner and introduced to General Beauregard, who was engaged, late as it was, in his rooni.

He received me n the most cordial manner, and introduced me to his engineer officer, Major Whiting, w horn he assigned to lead me over the works next day.

afyxiym.tk Ebooks and Manuals

After some general conversation I took my leave; but before I went, the General said, "You shall go everywhere and see everything; we rely on your discretion, and knowledge of what is fair in dealing with what you see. Of course you don't expect to find regular soldiers in our camps or very scientific works. Who that lias ever met him can be indifferent to the charms of manner and of personal appearance, which render the exGovernor of the State so attractive?

There were others present, senators or congressmen, like Mr. Chestnut and Mr. Porcher Miles. We talked long, and at last angrily, as might be between friends, of political affairs. I own it was a little irritating to me to hear men indulge in extravagant broad menace and rodomontade, such as came from their lips. The Yankees are cowardly rascals. We have proved it by kicking and cuffing them till we are tired of it; besides, we know John Bull very well. Political economy, we are wdl aware, is a fine science, but its followers are capable of tremendous absurdities in practice.

Here were these Soutliern gentlemen exulting in their power to control the policy of Great Britain, and it was small consolition to me to assure them they were mistaken; in case we did not act as they anticipated, it could not be denied Great Britain would plunge an immense proportion of her people - a nation of - manufacturers - into paupeflsni, which must leave them dependent on tlie national funds, or more properly on tlie property and accumulated capital of tlie district.

About 8'3O, P. The guards will arrest any who are found out without passes in half an hour. Aj;41 l7tA. Crowds of armed men siliging and promenading the streets. Sumter has. There are pamphlets already full of the incident. It is a bloodless Waterloo or Solferino. After breakfast I went down to the quay, with a party of tbe General's staff, to visit Fort Sumter. The senators and governors turned soldiers wore blue military caps, with "palmetto" trees embroidered thereon; blue frock-coats, with upright collars, and shoulder-straps edged with lace, and marked with two silver bars, to designate their rank of captain; gilt buttons, with the palmetto in relief; blue trousers, with a gold-lace cord, and brass spurs - no straps.

New edishun! Old as I am, I can carry a musket - not far, to be sure, but I can kill a Yaiikee if he comes near. The original formation of these volunteers is in companies, and they know nothing of battalions or regiments. The tendency iii volunteer outbursts is sometimes to gratify the greatest vanity of the greatest number.

These companies do not muster more than fifty or sixty strong. Some were "dandies," and "swells," and affected to look down on their neighbors and comrades. Major Whiting told me there was difficulty ia getting them to qbey orders at first, as each man had an idea that he was as good an engineer as anybody else, "and a good deal better, if it came to that.

As we got on deck, the Major saw a number of rough, longhaired-looking fellows in coarse gray tunics, with pewter buttons and worsted braid lying on the hay-bales smoking their dgars. The Major grumbled, and worse, and drew off. Among the passengers were some brethren of mine belong. It is these fellows who have brought all this trouble on our country. The shore opposite Charleston is more than a mile distant and is low and sandy, covered here and there with patches of brilliant vegetation, and long lines of trees.


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  • Combinación de números dígitos (Matemática imaginativa nº 2) (Spanish Edition).
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  • It is cut up with creeks, which divide it into islands, so that passages out to sea exist between some of them for light craft, though the navigation is perplexed and difficult. The city lies on a spur or promontory between the Ashley and the Cooper rivers, and the land behind it is divided in the same manner by similar creeks, and is sandy and light, bearing, nevertheless, very fine crops, and trees of magnificent vegetation.

    The steeples, the domes of public buildings, the rows of massive warehouses and cotton stores on the wharves, and the bright colors of the houses, render the appearance of Charleston, as seen from the river front, rather imposing. Looking to our right, the same standard was visible, waving on the low, white parapets of the earthworks which had been engaged in reducing Sumter. That much-talked-of fortress lay some two miles ahead of us now, rising up out of the water near the middle of the passage out to sea between James' Island and Sullivan's Island.

    It struck me at first as being like one of the smaller forts off Cronstadt, but a closer inspection very much diminished its importance; the material is brick, not stone, and the size of the place is exaggerated by the low background, and by contrast with the sea4ine. There is a similar promontory from Sullivan's Island, on which is erected Fort Aloultrie, on the right from the sea entrance. Castle Piackney, which stands on a small island at the exit of the Cooper River, is a place of no importance, and it was too far from Sumter to take any share in the bombardment: the same remarks apply to Fort Johnson on James' Island, on the right hank of the Ashley River below Charleston.

    The floating battery, covered with railroad-iron, lay a long way off; and eould not have contributed much to the result. As we approached Morris' Island, which is an accumulation of sand covered with mounds of the same material, on which. The sand-bag battenes, and an ugly black parpapet, with guns peering through port-holes as if from a ship's side, lay betore us. A guard with bayonets crossed in a very odd sort of manner, prevented any unauthorized persons from landing.

    Their unbronzed firelocks were covered with rust. The soldiers lounging about were mostly tall, well-grown men, young and old, some with the air of gentlemen; others coarse, longhaired fellows, without any semblance of military bearing, but full of fight, and burning with enthusiasni, not unaided, ia some instances, by coarser stimulus.

    The day was exceedingly warm and unpleasant, the hot wind blew the fine white sand into our faces, and wafted it in Ininute clouds inside eyelids, nostrils, and clothing; but it was necessary to visit the battenes, so on we trudged into one and out of another, walked up parapets, examined profiles, looked al9ng guns, and did everything that could be required of us.

    The whole of the island was full of life and excitement. Oflicers were galloping about as if on a fieH-day or in action. Commissariat carts were toiling to and flo between the beach and the camps, and sounds of laughter and revelling came from the tents. These were pitched without order, and were of all shapes, hues, and sizes, many being disfigured by rude charcoal drawings outside, and inscrlptlons such as " The. The vicinity of the camps was in an intolerable state, and on calling the attention of the medical officer who was with me, to the danger arising from such a condition of things, he said with a sigh, "I know it all.

    But we can do nothing. Rememher they're all volunteers, and do just as they please. Cases of champagne and claret, French pate's, and the like, were piled outside the canvas walls, when there was no room for them inside. In the middle of these excited gatherings I felt like a man in the full possession of his senses coming in late to a wine party. They assume that the British crown rests on a cotton bale, as the Lord Chancellor sits on a pack of wool. In one long tent there was a party of roystering young men, opening claret, and mixing "cup" in large buckets; whilst others were helping the servants to set out a table for a banquet to one of their generals.

    Such heat, tobacco-smoke, clamor, toasts, drinking, ha nd-shaking, vows of friendship! Many were the excuses made for the more demonstrative of the Edonian youths by their friends. But Secession is the fashion here. Young ladies sing for it; old ladies pray for it; young men are dying to fight for it; old men are ready to demonstrate it. The founder of the school was St. Here his pupils carry out their teaching in thunder and fire. States' Rights are displayed after its legitimate teaching, and the Palmetto flag and the red bars of the Confederacy are its exposition.

    After a long and tiresome promenade in the dust, heat, and fine sand, through the tents, our party returned to the beach, where we took boat, and pushed off for Fort Sumter. The Confederate flag rose above the walls. On near approach the marks of the shot against the pain coupe', and the embrasures ear the salient were visible enough; but the damage done to he hard brickwork was trifling, except at the angles: the edges of the parapets were ragged and pock-marked, and the quay wall was rifted here and there by shot; but no injury of a kii'.

    The greatest damage inflicted was, no doubt, the burning of the barracks, which were culpably erected inside the fort, close to the flank wall facing Cumming's Point. As the boat touched the quay of the fort, a tall, powerfullooking man came through the shattered gateway, and with un6ven steps strode over the rubbish towards a skiff which was waiting to receive him, and into which he jumped and rowed off: Recognizing one of my companions as he passed our boat lie suddenly stood up, and with a leap and a scramble tumbled in among us, to the imminent danger of upsetting the party. Our new friend was dressed in the blue frock-coat of a civilian, round which he had tied a red silk sash - his waistbelt supported a straight sword, something like those worn with Court dress.

    His muscular neck was surrounded wit ii a loosely-fastened silk handkerchief; and wild masses of black hair, tinged with gray, fell from under a civilian's hat over his collar; his unstrapped trousers were gathered up high on his legs, displaying ample boots, garnished with formidable brass spurs. If you look some day when the sun is not too bright into the eye of the Bengal tiger, in the Regent's Park, as the keeper is coming round, you will form some notion of the cx.

    It was flashing fierce, yet calm - with a well of fire burning behind and spouting through it, an eye pitiless in anger, which now and then sought to conceal its expression beneath half-closed lids, aiid then burst out with an angry glare, as if disdaining concealment. This was none other than Louis T.

    Wigfitll, Colonel then of his own creation in the Confederate army, and Senator from Texas in the United States - a good type of the men whom the institutions of the country produce or throw offa remarkable man, noted for his ready, natural eloquence; his exceeding ability as a quick, bitter debater; the acerbity of his taunts; and his readiness for personal encounter. It bore the Colonel and a negro oarsman. I am sorry to say, our distinguished friend had just been paying his respects sans homes to Bacchus or Bourbon, for lie was decidedly unsteady in his gait and thick in speech; but his head was quite clear, and he was determined I should know all about his exploit.

    Major Whiting desired to show me round the work, but lie had no chance. He was pretty well scared when he saw me, but I told him not to be alarmed, but to take me to the officers. Major Whiting shook his military head, and said something uncivil to me, in private, in reference to volunteer colonels and the. Ia my letter 1 described the real extent of the damage inflicted, and the state of the fort as I found it. At first the batteries thrown up by the Carolinians were so poor, that the United States officers in the fort were mightily amused at them, and anticipated easy work in enfilading, neocheting, and battering them to pieces, if they ever dared to open fire.

    One niorning, however, Capt. There wLs a working party of volunteers clearing away the rubbish in the place. It was evident they were not accustomed to labor. And on asking why negroes were not employed, I was informed: "The nigge rs would blow us all up, they're so stupid; and the State would have to pay the owneis for any of them who were killed and injured.

    A very small affair, indeed, that shelling of Fort Sumter. And yet who can tell what may arise from it? The universal Yankee nation swallowed us up. They fling themselves against the grim, black future, as the Cavaliers under Rupert may have rushed against the grim, black Ironsides. Will they carry the image farther? TIje exploration of Sumter was finished at last, not till we had visited the officers of the garrison, who lived in a windowless, shattered room, readied by a crumbling staircase, and who produced whiskey and crackers, many pleasant stories and boundless welcome.

    After a time our party went down to the boats, in whirh we were rowed to the steamer that lay waiting for us at Morris' Island. Below, in the cabin, there was spread a lunch or quasi dinner; and the party ot Senators, past and present, aides-de-camp, journalists, and flaneurs, were not indisposed to join it. For me there was only one circumstance which marred the pleasure of that agree able reunion. Sumner, whose name he loaded with obloquy, he spoke of Lord Lyons in terms bO coarse, that, forgetting the condition of the speaker, I reseated the language applied to the English Minister, in a very.

    In a moment I was followed on deck by Senator Wigfall: his manner much calm ci', his hair brushed back, his eye sparkling. We were joined by Mr. Wigfall's explanations. And so we returned to Charleston. The Colonel and Senator, however, did not desist from his attentions to the good-or bad- things below.

    It was a strange scene - these men, hot and red-handed in rebellion, with their lives on the cast, trifling and jesting, and carousing as if they had no care on earth - all excepting the gentlemen of tlie local press, who were assiduous in note and food-taking. It was near nightfall before we set foot on the quay of Charleston. As I walked towards the hotel, the evening drove of negroes, male and female, shuffling through the streets in all haste, in order to escape the patrol and the last peal of the curfew bell, swept by me; and as I passed the guard-house of the police, one of my friends pointed out the armed sentries pacing up and down before the porch, and the gleam of arms in the room inside.

    That is the horse patrol. They scour the country around the city, and meet at certain places during the night to see if the niggers are all quiet. A4i, Fuscus! The club was filled with officers; one of them, Mr. But listen! There is a great tumult, as of many voices coming up the street, heralded by blasts of music. Such an agitated, lively multitude! Yes, sir - and so we will certa4-n su-re! April lStk. Cotton suddenly. These are Northern stories.

    Familieshoot – Fotografie Karolien Deprez

    Tlic tables in the eating-room are disposed in long rows, or detached so as to suit private parties. When I was coming down to Charleston, one of my fellow. The carte is much the same at all American hotels, the vanations depending on local luxuries or tastes. Marvellous exceedingly is it to see the quantities of butter, treacle, and lannaceous matters prepared in the heaviest form - of fish, of many meats, of eggs scrambled or scarred or otherwise prepared, of iced milk and water, which an American will consume in a few minutes in the mornings. There is, positively, no rest at these meals - no repose.

    I was introduced to a vast number of people and was asked many questions respecting my views of Sumter, or what I thought "old Abe and Seward would do? Five out of six of the men at table wore uniforms this morning. Having made the acquaintance of several warriors, as well as that of a Russian gentleman, Baron Sternberg, who was engaged in looking about him in Charleston, and was, like most foreigners, impressed with the conviction that acturn est de 1?