At the beginning of the 13th century, Jean Bodel , in his Chanson de Saisnes , divided medieval French narrative literature into three subject areas: the Matter of France or Matter of Charlemagne ; the Matter of Rome romances in an ancient setting ; and the Matter of Britain Arthurian romances and Breton lais. The first of these is the subject area of the chansons de geste "songs of exploits" or "songs of heroic deeds" , epic poems typically composed in ten-syllable assonanced occasionally rhymed laisses.
More than one hundred chansons de geste have survived in around three hundred manuscripts. Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube in his Girart de Vienne set out a grouping of the chansons de geste into three cycles : the Geste du roi centering on Charlemagne, the Geste de Garin de Monglane whose central character was William of Orange , and the Geste de Doon de Mayence or the "rebel vassal cycle", the most famous characters of which were Renaud de Montauban and Girart de Roussillon.
A fourth grouping, not listed by Bertrand, is the Crusade cycle , dealing with the First Crusade and its immediate aftermath. Jean Bodel 's other two categories—the "Matter of Rome" and the "Matter of Britain"—concern the French romance or roman.
Cent dictionary definition | cent defined
Around a hundred verse romances survive from the period — By the late 13th century, the poetic tradition in France had begun to develop in ways that differed significantly from the troubadour poets, both in content and in the use of certain fixed forms. The new poetic as well as musical: some of the earliest medieval music has lyrics composed in Old French by the earliest composers known by name tendencies are apparent in the Roman de Fauvel in and , a satire on abuses in the medieval church, filled with medieval motets , lais , rondeaux and other new secular forms of poetry and music mostly anonymous, but with several pieces by Philippe de Vitry , who would coin the expression ars nova to distinguish the new musical practice from the music of the immediately preceding age.
The best-known poet and composer of ars nova secular music and chansons of the incipient Middle French period was Guillaume de Machaut. Most historians place the origin of medieval drama in the church's liturgical dialogues and "tropes". Mystery plays were eventually transferred from the monastery church to the chapter house or refectory hall and finally to the open air, and the vernacular was substituted for Latin. In the 12th century one finds the earliest extant passages in French appearing as refrains inserted into liturgical dramas in Latin, such as a Saint Nicholas patron saint of the student clercs play and a Saint Stephen play.
An early French dramatic play is Le Jeu d'Adam c. A large body of fables survive in Old French; these include mostly anonymous literature dealing with the recurring trickster character of Reynard the Fox. Marie de France was also active in this genre, producing the Ysopet Little Aesop series of fables in verse. Related to the fable was the more bawdy fabliau , which covered topics such as cuckolding and corrupt clergy. These fabliaux would be an important source for Chaucer and for the Renaissance short story conte or nouvelle.
Old French was constantly changing and evolving. However, the form in the late 12th century, as attested in a great deal of mostly poetic writings, can be considered standard. The writing system at this time was more phonetic than that used in most subsequent centuries. The phonological system can be summarised as follows: . In Old French, the nasal vowels were not separate phonemes but only allophones of the oral vowels before a nasal consonant.
In addition to diphthongs, Old French had many instances of hiatus between adjacent vowels because of the loss of an intervening consonant. Manuscripts generally do not distinguish hiatus from true diphthongs, but modern scholarly transcription indicates it with a diaeresis , as in Modern French:. Old French maintained a two-case system, with a nominative case and an oblique case , for longer than some other Romance languages like Spanish and Italian did.
Case distinctions, at least in the masculine gender , were marked on both the definite article and the noun itself. In later Old French, the distinctions had become moribund. There are some cases with significant differences between nominative and oblique forms derived from Latin nouns with a stress shift between the nominative and other cases in which either it is the nominative form that survives or both forms survive with different meanings:. In a few cases in which the only distinction between forms was the nominative -s ending, the -s was preserved in spelling to distinguish otherwise-homonymous words.
As in Spanish and Italian, the neuter gender was eliminated, and most old neuter nouns became masculine. Some Latin neuter plurals were reanalysed as feminine singulars: Latin gaudium was more widely used in the plural form gaudia , which was taken for a singular in Vulgar Latin and ultimately led to modern French la joie , "joy" feminine singular.
Nouns were declined in the following declensions :. Class I is derived from the Latin first declension. Class Ia mostly comes from Latin feminine nouns in the third declension. Class II is derived from the Latin second declension.
Class IIa generally stems from second-declension nouns ending in -er and from third-declension masculine nouns; in both cases, the Latin nominative singular did not end in -s , which is preserved in Old French. Class III nouns show a separate form in the nominative singular that does not occur in any of the other forms. Regular feminine forms of masculine nouns are formed by adding an -e to the masculine stem unless the masculine stem already ends in -e. Adjectives agree in terms of number , gender and case with the noun that they are qualifying.
Thus, a feminine plural noun in the nominative case requires any qualifying adjectives to be feminine, plural and nominative. For example, in femes riches , riche has to be in the feminine plural form. Adjectives can be divided into three declensional classes: . Class I adjectives have a feminine singular form nominative and oblique ending in -e. They can be further subdivided into two subclasses, based on the masculine nominative singular form. Class Ia adjectives have a masculine nominative singular ending in -s :. For Class Ib adjectives, the masculine nominative singular ends in -e , like the feminine.
There are descendants of Latin second- and third-declension adjectives ending in -er in the nominative singular:. Class III adjectives have a stem alternation, resulting from stress shift in the Latin third declension and a distinct neuter form:.
Modern French thus has only a single adjective declension, unlike most other Romance languages, which have two or more. Verbs in Old French show the same extreme phonological deformations as other Old French words. Morphologically, however, Old French verbs are extremely conservative in preserving intact most of the Latin alternations and irregularities that had been inherited in Proto-Romance. Old French has much less analogical reformation than Modern French has and significantly less than the oldest stages of other languages such as Old Spanish despite the fact that the various phonological developments in Gallo-Romance and Proto-French led to complex alternations in the majority of commonly-used verbs.
The following paradigm is typical in showing the phonologically regular but morphologically irregular alternations of most paradigms:. All serve to eliminate the various alternations in the Old French verb paradigm. Even modern "irregular" verbs are not immune from analogy: For example, Old French je vif , tu vis , il vit vivre "to live" has yielded to modern je vis , tu vis , il vit , eliminating the unpredictable -f in the first-person singular.
The simple past also shows extensive analogical reformation and simplification in Modern French, as compared with Old French.
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The Latin pluperfect was preserved in very early Old French as a past tense with a value similar to a preterite or imperfect. Old Occitan also preserved this tense, with a conditional value; Spanish still preserves this tense the -ra imperfect subjunctive , as does Portuguese in its original value as a pluperfect indicative. In Latin, stress was determined automatically by the number of syllables in a word and the weight length of the syllables.
That resulted in certain automatic stress shifts between related forms in a paradigm, depending on the nature of the suffixes added.
In many Romance languages, vowels diphthongized in stressed syllables under certain circumstances but not in unstressed syllables, resulting in alternations in verb paradigms: Spanish pienso "I think" vs. In the development of French, at least five vowels diphthongized in stressed, open syllables. Combined with other stress-dependent developments, that yielded 15 or so types of alternations in so-called strong verbs in Old French. In Modern French, the verbs in the -er class have been systematically levelled. Many of the non- er verbs have become obsolete, and many of the remaining verbs have been levelled.
A few alternations remain, however, in what are now known as irregular verbs , such as je tiens , nous tenons ; je dois , nous devons and je meurs , nous mourons. Some verbs had a more irregular alternation between different-length stems, with a longer, stressed stem alternating with a shorter, unstressed stem. That was a regular development stemming from the loss of unstressed intertonic vowels , which remained when they were stressed:.
Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections are generally invariable, one notable exception being the adverb tot , like Modern French tout : all, every. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Centime from Latin : centesimus is French for " cent ", and is used in English as the name of the fraction currency in several Francophone countries including Switzerland , Algeria , Belgium , Morocco and France. In France the usage of centime goes back to the introduction of the decimal monetary system under Napoleon.
This system aimed at replacing non-decimal fractions of older coins.
A five-centime coin was known as a sou , i. Spoken and written use of the official form cent in Francophone Canada is exceptionally uncommon. In the European community cent is the official name for one hundredth of a euro. However, in French-speaking countries the word centime is the preferred term. Indeed, the Superior Council of the French language of Belgium recommended in the use of centime , since cent is also the French word for "hundred". An analogous decision was published in the Journal officiel in France 2 December In Morocco, dirhams are divided into centime s and one may find prices in the country quoted in centime s rather than in dirhams.
Sometimes centime s are known as francs or in former Spanish areas , pesetas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.