The council declared five redevelopment areas in . The defining feature of Birmingham's politics in the post-war era was the loss of much of city's independence. This was to have major implications for the direction of the city's development. Up until the s it had been a basic assumption of Birmingham's leaders that their role was to encourage the city's growth. Post-war national governments, however, saw Birmingham's accelerating economic success as a damaging influence on the stagnating economies of the North of England , Scotland and Wales , and saw its physical expansion as a threat to its surrounding areas  — "from Westminster's point of view [Birmingham] was too large, too prosperous, and had to be held in check".
This meant that , people would have to leave the city over the following 14 years, that some of the city's industries would have to be removed, and that new industries would need to be prevented from establishing themselves in the city. With the city's power over its own destiny reduced, Birmingham's lost most of its political distinctiveness.
The General Election of was the first for 70 years in which no member of the Chamberlain family stood for Birmingham. Birmingham's economy flourished in the 30 years that followed the end of the Second World War, its economic vitality and affluence far outstripping Britain's other major provincial cities. This prosperity was achieved despite severe restrictions placed on the city's economy by central government, which explicitly sought to limit Birmingham's growth.
Declaring the growth in population and employment within Birmingham to be a "threatening situation", the incoming Labour Government of sought "to control the growth of office accommodation in Birmingham and the rest of the Birmingham conurbation before it got out of hand, in the same way as they control the growth of industrial employment". These policies had a major structural effect on the city's economy. While government policy had limited success in preventing the growth of Birmingham's existing industries, it was much more successful in preventing new industries establishing themselves in the city.
In the postwar years, a massive program of slum clearances took place, and vast areas of the city were re-built, with overcrowded "back to back" housing being replaced by high rise blocks of flats the last remaining block of four back-to-backs have become a museum run by the National Trust. Due largely to bomb damage, the city centre was also extensively re-built under the supervision of the city council's chief engineer Herbert Manzoni during the postwar years.
He was assisted by the City Architect position which was held by several people. Birmingham also became a centre of the national motorway network, with Spaghetti Junction. Much of the re-building of the postwar period would in later decades be regarded as mistaken, especially the large numbers of concrete buildings and ringroads which gave the city a reputation for ugliness.
Council house building in the first decade following the end of the Second World War was extensive; with more than 37, new homes being completed between then and the end of These included the first of several hundred multi-storey blocks of flats. As a result, mass council house building continued for some 20 years afterwards.
The existing suburbs continued to expand, while several completely new estates were developed. Castle Bromwich , which grew into a new town, was developed approximately six miles to the east of the town centre during the s. Castle Vale , near the Fort Dunlop tyre factory to the north-east of the city centre, was developed in the s as Britain's largest postwar housing estate; featuring a total of 34 tower blocks, although 32 of them had been demolished by the end of as part of a massive regeneration of the estate brought on by the general unpopularity and defects associated with such developments.
In , 21 people were killed and people were injured when two city-centre pubs were bombed by the IRA. In the same year as part of a local government reorganisation, Birmingham expanded again, this time taking over the borough of Sutton Coldfield to the north. It was also finally removed from Warwickshire. There were further waves of immigration from Ireland in the s and s as emigrants sought to escape the economic deprivation and unemployment in their homeland.
There remains a strong Irish tradition in the city, most notably in Digbeth's Irish Quarter and in the annual St Patrick's Day parade, claimed to be the third-largest in the world after New York and Dublin. In the years following World War II, a major influx of immigrants from the Commonwealth of Nations changed the face of Birmingham, with large communities from Southern Asia and the Caribbean settling in the city,  turning Birmingham into one of the UK's leading multicultural cities.
The developments were not welcomed by everyone however — the right-wing Wolverhampton MP Enoch Powell delivered his famous Rivers of Blood speech in the city on 20 April Since the early s, Birmingham has seen a new wave of migration, this time from communities which do not have Commonwealth roots, such as Kosovo and Somalia.
Further immigration from Eastern Europe especially Poland came with the expansion of the European Union in Tension between ethnic groups and the authorities led to the Handsworth riots in and October saw the Birmingham riots in the Lozells and Handsworth regions of the city, with street battles between black and Asian gangs, caused by an unsubstantiated rumour resulting in two deaths and much damage.
The collapse of Birmingham's industrial economy was sudden and catastrophic. As late as the West Midlands region — with Birmingham as its principal economic dynamo — still had the highest GDP of any in the UK outside the South East, but within five years it was lowest in England. The City Council undertook a policy of diversifying the city's economy into service industries , retailing and tourism to lessen the dependence upon manufacturing.
A number of initiatives were undertaken to make the city more attractive to visitors. Although it is actually just inside neighbouring Solihull, it was instigated, and largely owned by, Birmingham Council, and is thought by most people to be in the city. It has been expanded several times since then. The bombings were the worst terror attacks in Great Britain up until the London bombings  and consisted of bombs being planted in two pubs in Central Birmingham.
Six men were convicted , who became known later as the Birmingham Six and sentenced to life imprisonment, who were acquitted after 16 years by the Court of Appeal. The convictions are now considered one of the worst British miscarriages of justice in recent times. The true perpetrators of the attacks are yet to be arrested.
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The West Midlands Serious Crime Squad , which was responsible for the Birmingham Six investigations, attracted further controversy after other convictions were questioned, and was closed down in Around 40 prosecutions collapsed due to malpractice in the s, and a further 60 convictions have since been quashed, mostly because of tampering with suspects' statements, to add in 'confessions'. Many cases also depended on 'Supergrass' evidence which has since been found to be highly unreliable.
West Midlands Police had two serious firearms incidents, in and In , David Pagett held his pregnant girlfriend as hostage while resisting arrest at flats in Rubery. Officers returned fire, and shot her. His house was then searched. His five-year-old son, John, was shot by police searching under the child's bed.
An internal inquiry was held, and as a result, use of firearms was restricted to a specialised and trained unit. The regeneration of the city during the s and s also saw many residential areas of the city substantially altered. A notable example was the Pype Hayes council estate in the Erdington area of the city, which was built in the interwar years but was eventually completely redeveloped due to structural defects. Many of the city's s council properties, mostly multi-storey flats and maisonettes, have also been demolished in similar redevelopments, including the large Castle Vale estate in the north-east of the city, where all but two of the estate's 34 tower blocks were demolished as part of the regeneration of an estate which had been blighted by crime, unemployment and poor housing.
In September , the Bullring shopping complex was opened following a three-year project. In , the city failed in its bid to become the European Capital of Culture , under the banner " Be in Birmingham ". Birmingham continues to develop, following the removal of the Inner Ring Road , which acted as a 'concrete collar' preventing the expansion of the city centre, a massive urban regeneration project known as the Big City Plan in progress.
The city was affected by the riots that spread through the country in August , resulting in extensive criminal damage in several inner city areas and three deaths in the Winson Green area. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the history of the English city. Birmingham City Council. Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 9 June Hurst, Derek; Jackson, Robin eds.
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Burnt mounds and beyond: the later prehistory of Birmingham and the Black Country. Archived from the original doc on 25 September Retrieved 14 August Baker, pp. Batey, p. A History of Birmingham. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore. Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Moth M. The Times. Retrieved 23 November Denis Faul and Fr. The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 July Birmingham Mail. Birmingham Live. Retrieved 22 July History of England. Social history of England History of education in England History of the economy of England History of the politics of England English overseas possessions History of the English language.
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Beate Gansauge. Reagan v. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. You submitted the following rating and review. We'll publish them on our site once we've reviewed them. Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout.
Remove FREE. Unavailable for purchase. Continue shopping Checkout Continue shopping. Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori. Choose Store. Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! Skip this list. The U. Bull-Bear Indicator see Fig. The Shorter-term weeks to months Indicator see Fig. The indicator ended the week at 36, unchanged from the prior week. Separately, the Intermediate-term Quarterly Trend Indicator — based on domestic and international stock trend status at the start of each quarter — was negative entering January, indicating negative prospects for equities in the first quarter of In the Secular years to decades timeframe Figs.
The Bull-Bear Indicator months to years remains positive Fig. In the intermediate timeframe, the Quarterly Trend Indicator months to quarters is negative for Q1, and the shorter weeks to months timeframe Fig. Therefore, with two indicators positive and one negative, the U.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average rallied points to end the week at 25,, a gain of 3. As grouped by Morgan Stanley Capital International, developed markets added 2.
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Gold tacked on 0. Oil continued its rally surging 6. The industrial metal copper, seen as an indicator of global economic health due to its variety of uses, retreated The reading lifted the monthly average of new jobless claims to a one-year high of ,—a possible sign the U. Continuing claims, which counts the number of people already collecting unemployment benefits, increased by 37, to 1. That number remains near its lowest level in decades.
Also in labor news, the humorously-named JOLTS Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey report showed that the number of job openings surged at the end of last year, hitting an all-time high. The Labor Department reported job openings climbed to 7. This reading of job openings is at its highest level since the government began keeping track in It also exceeded by a wide margin the 6. In the details, job openings in construction led the way with an increase of almost , new positions. Healthcare providers, hotels, and restaurants also posted more available positions. Inflation at the consumer level remained flat in January, held down by weakness in energy prices and a stronger U.