Warner's edition is in print. The last is not convincing after Dr. Vogels has proved that the Egerton version is a composite one, accepting the main body of the text from Cotton, with minor variations, and filling a large gap corresponding to p. Cotton, then, although it has lost a few pages our pp.
An earlier pedigree of the various English texts, constructed by Dr. Nicholson and accepted by Sir G. Warner, is thus proved to have no foundation in fact. Wherever the present editor felt tempted to correct the Cotton manuscript, he either found, on comparing with the two Brussels manuscripts and with the printed Harley text, that d'Outremeuse himself was responsible for the misstatement, or that the translator had erred through incompetence. Very few errors, pointed out in the notes, may be due to the copyist or copyists who intervened between the original and the Cotton MS.
Even here, there can be no certainty, as the Englisher was quite capable of any lapse of spelling and grammar, in addition to the many fantastic mistranslations that are undoubtedly his own. A difficult problem is raised by the cases of words correctly rendered in one passage and misinterpreted in another.
Can we believe that the same man knew the meaning of a French word one day and forgot it on the morrow? Other explanations are more probable. His French manuscript might be faulty, as in the confusion of signes with cygnes or in that of cordeleres and c. The context might help in one case, and hinder in another.
His slovenliness is so obvious, that it suffices to account for doubtful examples. For all these reasons, the task of the would-be improver is a hopeless one, and we had to confine ourselves to honestly supplying readers with the original data and to banish the fruits of our own wisdom to the notes. No variants could be printed in the footnotes because the difference between the English MSS. The list of those MSS.
Vogels: once in his paper of , and once in Roehricht. I have only seen those in London, Oxford and Cambridge. As the first duty of a student who undertakes to edit a translation is to master its original, and as only a diplomatic reprint of the Anglo-French Harley , supplemented by Royal XX B. The mistranslations are??
In Sir G. Warner's description of the Cotton MS. The text is written in a neat, well-formed hand, varying somewhat in parts more especially at folio but not enough to make it certain that more than one scribe was employed. The ornamentation is very simple. There is a large initial in gold, on a red and blue ground, at the beginning, and the other initials are in blue, filled in and flourished with lines in red.
The text is divided into chapters by rubricated titles, without numeration. Although not a word is illegible, some letters are so much alike as to be practically identical: so c and t, n and u mendinant may be read mendiuant, cf. Even e and o are sometimes hard to distinguish. We agree with Prof. Kern that the crossing in this case is of no phonetic or grammatical importance. It might have been altogether disregarded in copying. Warner and Dr. Bovenschen, until all but a few pages have been proved to be stolen from some older book, and until all probability of the author having seen with his own eyes and described from his own experience has disappeared.
It seems, then, as if nothing were left for following commentators to do but to repeat what has been said before them. This is not so. In their zeal for unmasking the plagiarist and in the fulness of their learning those two scholars have not been content to measure the extent of their author's reading. On the other hand, they have taken too little account of his familiarity with romances in the vernacular, especially those about the Crusades and about Alexander the Great. Finally, they have insufficiently stressed the use made by him of Vincent of Beauvais's encyclopaedia, both of natural philosophy Speculum Naturale and of history Speculum Historiale.
None of the three principal sources of the Travels, William of Boldensele's pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Friar Odoric de Pordenone's travels to Palestine and to the Far East, William of Tripoli's account of the Saracens De Statu Saracenorum , is included in Vincent, but most of the other books, historical and scientific, plundered for the Mandeville, have been excerpted by him. Where the commentators refer to Pliny, to Solinus, to Isidor of Seville, to Honorius' Imago Mundi, it is certain that d'Outremeuse never went beyond what he learned at school or could read in his encyclopaedia.
If we fail to identify the exact wording of the passage in Vincent, we may assume that d'Outremeuse took liberties with his model or that he used a copy somewhat different from our present printed editions. The names of Vincent's authorities he found carefully noted in each chapter. The fabulous history of Alexander, e. This enabled d'Outremeuse to refer glibly to them all. It is no less certain that, as a reader and writer of Gestes or romances, he knew some verse epics in Middle French, probably the Alexander edited by Michelant.
It is nearly impossible for a modern commentator, provided with recent printed editions, to ascertain what particular versions of the legend, vernacular or Latin, in verse or in prose, d'Outremeuse may have followed besides his Vincent. When he departs from all known authorities, Dr. Bovenschen is inclined to surmise "oral tradition," and Sir G. Warner hesitates between lost sources and the author's invention.
Now that we are acquainted with d'Outremeuse's vagaries, there is little doubt that the latter view is the correct one. Lost authorities are very unlikely to have escaped the minute and protracted search of a number of competent students. As for oral tradition, which is gradually losing its hold on the faith of scholars, there is no reason to postulate it at all.
Extracts from other works must have been obtained in the Latin original. As has already been pointed out by Sir G. Warner p. A so-called Persian alphabet, missing in the Cotton MS. Facing p. Cordier does not say. Warner's comments are that 1 the Greek alphabet offers peculiar forms; 2 the so-called Egyptian is corrupt past recognition; 3 the so-called Hebrew is also corrupt; 4 the so-called Saracen is not Arabic, but has strong affinities with the Slavonic alphabet known as the Glagolitic, and is found in the Cosmographia of Aethicus.
References to: H. Wuttke, Die Kosmographie des Istrier Aithicos, etc. Eccard, De origine Germanorum libri duo, , pl. It there professes to be Chaldaic. This MS. The whole problem is one that cannot be solved without comparing and classifying many facsimiles and photographs, an enterprise not easily achieved in the year of Our Lord Had d'Outremeuse any reason for collecting and reproducing all these alphabets? Why did the copyists and buyers of the Travels go to the trouble and expense of drawing and purchasing them?
Was it on account of the connection between the Glagolitic alphabet, e. Was it because the legend of Prester John of Pentexoire, as stated by Cordier p. In brief, have the alphabets any bearing on the anti-Papal character of the Mandeville? One practical object of keeping half a dozen of them bound together in one volume might be to facilitate secret correspondence, as a common form of cypher in the Middle Ages was the mixing of various alphabets in the same text Al. The objection to this hypothesis is that, if such documents had been in use, at least a few of them ought to have survived, to come under the notice of keepers of records and manuscripts.
So far nothing seems to have been heard about them. Still the question remains, whether sympathisers with the Mandeville's heterodox views did not use its alphabets for secret intercourse. The philosopher Aristotle Nic. Pseudo-Methodius, ed. Sackur, , p. I haue. But, as many understand French better than Latin, I wrote it in French. The Englisher probably did not understand the meaning of the conditional. He also altered the sense to suit his purpose. Hence the later belief that the same author wrote the same book in three different languages! Apart from the hit at the Papacy, the prologue is a string of commonplaces from the literature of the Crusades, utterly hollow, and perhaps ironical.
The land of promise was a common theme for parody. The incipit of the Pilgrim's Text known as Innominatus, published by Tobler, See preface, p. Warner as Red Russia, i. Halicz or Galicia, long in dispute between Hungary and Poland. Semlin, opposite Belgrade. Warner refers to Alb. Vogels , p. Jirecek, Die Heerstrasse, etc. Warner: "This reads like a confused reminiscence of Alb. Brussels, de coyvre doreis, i. Boldensele: de aere … tota deaurata , p.
The mistranslation is ingenious. On the statue, which stood from to , Sir G. Warner refers to Zonaras XIV. The cross on the orb was blown down in Boldensele and Bondelmonti Liber insularum Archipelagi, ed. John of Hildesheim, , p. According to Ward, Cat. In its right hand it holds a key, which will slip out of it whenever the king shall be born in France who is destined to restore Christianity throughout Spain. Mandeville's account is evidently coloured by romances of that type.
In cruce fit palma. Warner: "In the Septuagint, however, they are the cypress, the pine and the cedar S. Jerome, Comm. Mandeville's enumeration agrees with that of Jac. Pes crucis est cedrus; corpus tenet alta cupressus; Palma manus retinet; titulo laetatur oliva. Vincenti, on Solomon and Saturn, , p.
Vincent de Beauvais, Spec. The Englisher misinterprets the grammar and misses the point of the story. Bovenschen p. Klasse der Kgl. D'Outremeuse's Mirror of Histories darkly hints at an esoteric doctrine of an antediluvian book of Seth: "doctrine sens libre de l'escripture Seth de son doit" I. The spot in the middle of the earth where Adam's skull lies buried, with the trees growing out of his mouth is Golgotha, called by the Byzantines E.
Sackur: Sibyllinische Texte und Forschungen, , p. The romance of the Saint Graal, summarised by P. They bleed when cut with carpenters' axes. For the whole Legend of the Cross, Sir G. Warner refers to A. Mussafia, Legenda del legno della croce, in Sitzungsber. Wiens Vol. Morris, Legends of the Holy Rood, Wilhelm Meyer, Abhandlungen, as above, Vols. Mandeville therefore confused the relics seen by Boldensele in the East nail with those of the Crusading epics. According to L. Paris in Vol. Paris, , p. It is carried before the host to secure victory. Fierabras begins with a description of the relics of the Passion.
A piece of the True Cross is given to William of Orange ibid. Mandeville cheerfully confuses this with the Sainte-Chapelle still extant in Paris, built from by King Saint Louis to hold the Cross and Crown sent to him from Constantinople by Jean de Brienne and by his successor Baldwin. Louis redeemed the relics from the Venetians and Templars, who held them in pawn, not from the Genoese, still less from the Jews, whose name comes in through a characteristic blunder of the Englisher. Warner refers to Count Riant's Exuviae sacrae Constant.
Three mistranslations in four words. Warner quotes Durandus ob. As no source is given for the three kinds of thorn used in the Passion, we may suspect that the author of Mandeville invented them in imitation of the three or four kinds of wood in the Cross. Nul malueis espirit ne puet approcher en lieu ou il soit, i. On this superstition Sir G. Warner quotes Ovid Fasti, VI. Barbarynes: barberry.
Warner refers to Folkard Plant-lore, , p. Emperour of Almayne. The beginning of ch. Anna introduced from another passage of Boldensele. See duplicate, p. The sober Boldensele knew how moisture will ooze out of certain porous stones under the influence of the temperature; Mandeville suppresses his scientific and sensible explanation and prefers the incredible.
According to Mousket, the stone ran with oil, which is still better: "Alueques si est li vasciaus Mervillous et rices et biaus Que nous apielons ydria. Turcople, etc. Athos, placed in the isle of Lemnos in line 11, now reappears on the Continent. Hermes Trismegistus, a legendary sage, after whom the Hermetic or magical philosophy has been named. Roger Bacon, Metaphysica ed. Steele, p. Steele, pp. That some pagans might foresee the coming of Christ was supported with Matt.
Pope John the xxij. Edward III. The fictitious Greek letter of defiance is similar to epistles exchanged between Alexander and Darius in Valerius ed. Gilpin's English translation, See our own note on p. Warner: "Much of what is here said of the religious tenets and usages of the Greeks is to be found in J.
Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos, , pp. Mistranslation: the French text states that the Greeks use fermented bread for the sacrament. The Englisher wipes out the satirical allusion to the Pope, here identified with Simon Magus himself. Simonia, being feminine, would be queen, not king! Brussels has the opposite: et fuist la vigiel, even it were Christmas or Easter eve. D'Outremeuse's zeal for collecting rare bits of knowledge may account for his inserting four alphabets into the Mandeville.
But if he wanted to propagate heterodox views they might be used as cyphers among the initiated. Chaldaean writings and words occur in connection with occult lore in Arthurian romances P. Paris: Romans de la Table Ronde, I. Flower, of the MSS. Nike, Nicaea. Cibotus is mentioned in Crusading literature: "Passent le bras saint Jorge a petite navie Le pui de Civetot qui vers le ciel ombrie, Qui defors Nique siet plus de liue et demie. Paris, , I. Scios] ubi mastix crescit, et, ut, dicunt, nusquam alibi. Gummi est fluens de arboribus parvulis, punctura certi instrumenti in cortice apertis tempore oportuno" p.
Mastic is used for making cordials. John's age, the manna in his tomb, and the stirring of the earth Sir G. See Golden Legend, c. For Myra, H. The manuscript clearly reads "gode," although the "o" appears to have been written in another hand over an erasure. Warner thinks of the murrhina potio, i. Poculum murrheum Sen. The author thought of the Colossus of Rhodes and of the Colossians of St. Paul see p. The French original makes two islands of one, on account of the two names. Sir G Warner: "This story of the daughter of Hippocrates, the physician of Cos, may possibly have been influenced not only by the prominence of the serpent in the cult of Asclepius, of which the island was a noted centre, but by the fact that Hippocrates had a son or grandson Draco.
Williams, , p. The hero here is Guinglain, son of Gawain. Hartland, The Science of Fairy Tales, , pp. Kittredge, Gawain and the Green Knight, , p. Child, English Ballads, I. Givanel Mas: Estudio critico de Tirant lo Blanch, , p. As a possible source one may suggest the story of Perseus, who beheaded Medusa, killed a sea-monster and won a king's daughter as his reward.
Hartland refers to Keats's Lamia, the source of which is in the Anatomy of Melancholy. If the tale of the Lady of Lango points a moral, it is against celibacy, and in agreement with p. There is no rubric at this point in the manuscript. Because the following material is not covered by the rubric of Chapter IV, Hamelius has inserted one here, following Warner, the editor of the Egerton manuscript.
Brussels, bieste, possibly the origin of Cotton's adder or snake. Warner has identified the story with the classic myth of the Gorgon's head. It is the Arthurian episode of the Laide Semblance, discussed by O. Sommer in The Structure of the Livre d'Artus, , p. For its kind is such that all who see it with their eyes must be in peril. Sommer, Vol. Grex brings the Laide Semblance in a barrel to his lady, who has barrel and figure locked in a box of oakwood. Tempests never stop, and Arthur asks the advice of his clerks.
Helias declares that the figure must be thrown back into the sea that surrounds the earth, in a place known to Merlin only. Merlin gets the box from the lady and throws it into the "go[u]ffre de Satellie. When it emerges and beholds ships, they all are in danger of shipwreck. Stubbs, II. Stubbs, III. Wright, p. A summary is found in P. The connection with the myth of Medusa is obvious in Map: "Gorgoneum praetendit ostentum, obrigescunt miseri, vident instar Medusae malitiam.
Runeberg holds that the legend was brought from the East by the Crusaders, and passed through various stages. Sprache, Abhandl. Kohler: Der Ursprung der Melusinensage, The fairy Melusine was the ancestress of the house of Lusignan, the royal house of Cyprus.
WITH NEW EXERCISES IN PART I
The Brussels reading seems correct, Cotton mistranslates. Brussels MSS. Warner thinks of one Sozomenus, Bishop of Potamia, S. Warner identify this with chasteau du dieu d'amour, ancient Didymus, where St. Hilarion died. He carries away a nephew of the Saracen king Corbaran. Hippeau, , Introd. Warner quotes J. Jacques de Vitry reports that guilty Templars were sentenced "ad terram absque mappa cibum tenuem sumere" Hist.
The statement in Mandeville may well be derived from this, as a joke characteristic of d'Outremeuse. Fons Ortorum, etc. Boldensele: "Perveniens in Syriam … applicui ad portum Tyri, quae nunc Sur vulgariter appellatur. Est autem Tyrus antiquissima civitas. Nobilissima et fortissima quondam fuit, nunc vero quasi destructa est. Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps which thou hast sucked Luke xi. Allatius, , p. In qua quondam habitavit Helias propheta; in qua et resuscitavit filium viduae, Jonam scilicet: quem prius ipsa hospitio receperat et caritative foverat et paverat.
Sexdecim milliaria a Sidone Berytus, opulentissima civitas. Jonas the wydwes sone. Eneas and Dido would interest d'Outremeuse as heroes of romances. Scaurus, longitudine pedum 40, altitudine costarum Indicos elephantes excedente, spinae crassitudine sexquipedali" Spec.
Boldensele: "De Tyro in una die veni per terram in Accon, quae Acri vulgariter dicitur. Haec famosa civitas in pulchra planitie situata est supra mare; quae quondam Christianorum fuit et antiquitus Ptolomaida dicebatur. Warner to have the same absurd derivation. Hamelius's note here reads: "Scala Tyriorum. Foss of Mennon. Warner notices that Josephus alludes to the monument of Memnon near the river, and to a concave spot, that yields vitreous sand B.
D'Outremeuse seems to have added the allusion to the Gravelly Sea, which reappears on p. In his Mirror of Histories, he writes: "En unc terreur d'Acre at unc sablon dont ons faite voire cleire et bon awec aighe de mere" vol. This derivation is from Isidore, Etym. Persarum enim lingua thesaurus Gaza nominatur l. The passage follows Boldensele, with additions from the Old Testament. Cesaire: Caesarea. Warner notices that Mandeville misunderstands Boldensele and reverses the positions of the towns along the coast.
Here Haiton of Armenia begins to appear as a source, along with Boldensele. Warner with the town of Canopus and the Canopic branch of the Nile. See A. Ausfeld's note to his translation of the romance of Alexander, , p. This town lies on the Ismailiyeh Canal, not near the kingdom of Halappee [Aleppo]. Mandeville might confound it with Baalbak, 35 miles north of Damascus Sir G. Item alia ecclesia beatae Barbarae virginis, in qua corpus ipsius in parvo monumento marmoreo conservatur" p. Hoc castrum in monte est non alto, sed petroso; largum est et valde pulchris palatiis decoratum.
Dicitur quod continue, pro diversis ipsius. Soldani servitiis et custodia ejus, in ipso castro commorentur circa sex milia personarum, quibus quotidie de curia victualia ministrantur" p. The citadel is El-Kalah. I duelled with him. The Englisher mistakes the Caliph's dignity, here equalled to a king's, for a realm or territory. Well-informed medieval writers compared the Caliph to the Pope and the Sultans to the Kings of the West.
See note to p. The last two, Melechmader p. They may very well be fictitious. We borrow Sir G. Warner's list: 1. Zarocon Siraconus in Will. His nephew not son Saladin, the hero of the Crusading poems, and especially of the Pas Saladin, a rhymed account of a tournament p. Melechsalan, Melik-es-Salih, d. Cachas, named Kutuz, wrongly described as Melecmees by Hayton. Bendochdare, known to the West as Beybars or Bibars, defeated St.
Louis, d. Meleschsach, i. Melik-es-Sa'eed was his son. Mellethasseraf, Melik-el-Ashraf Khaleel. Melechnasser, Melik-el-Nasir Mohammad. The Egerton MS. Vogels Mand. X and Sloan , and from two Latin ones V. The text is corrupt and the translation doubtful. Cuius viz. Melechmandabron's filius senior, Melechmasser nomine, scripsit litteras summo pontifici, tenorem qui sequitur continentes:.
Ortodoxi fundamentum fidei christianorum, robur discretorum, fortitudo prudencium; hoc omnia in capitis tui cellula quasi thesaurus requiescunt; memoria vero tua strepit, incipiens vacillat, obedescit stulticia. Qui pater diceris, et filiis tam inaudita mala machinaris! Tu enim et philippus francorum rex, et alii reguli in baculo arundinis confiditis, spem vobis ponentes, que velut stuppa incensa evanescit et uno flatu consumitur.
Nam quicquid contra nos moliendo poteritis cogitare, totum animi matura deliberacione pervidimus, non timemus. Qualis enim pater es tu, qui filios non morte naturali, sed subita perire conpellis? An putas, quod sagittis et pharetris careamus, in quas filios tuos mittere non formidas, ut eas in se recondant et vivaces animas sic morti tradant? A quo subversa est preciosissima civitas Jerusalem? A quo funditus destructa est civitas Achon potentissima? A quo desolata et deleta est Tripolis famosissima? Tu filios in mare procellissimum, ubi flumina furiunt, ire conpellis; sed tu ipse non sequeris, in arido stas et stultos pauperes in flumine mergis.
Pater quidem nomine, sed non re nuncuparis. Sufficiat ergo tibi te sic more Turcorum conducere. Attamen si terram nostram desideras, ecce Achon et Tripolim filiis tuis aperiemus et reparare concedimus taliter, ut sint nobis perpetui censuales. Consulimus itaque, ut dominum tuum, si potes, primo invoces, ut per nos numerus martirum impleatur, et ut iuvenes renascantur, qui patrum cruorem vindicantes ad nos properent penam consimilem recepturi.
Nichil enim aliud quam sanguinem christianorum querimus, quem sitimus. Consule igitur tibi ipsi, qui prudens diceris, et salva iam morti expositos—alioquin occisor eris et seductor simplicium—quod ipse nature a te demon graviter requirit. Quem nobis posse rebellare credis, cum tota gens tua respectu nostre multitudinis sit quasi gutta maris? Melechmandabron's elder son, named Melechmasser, wrote a letter to the Sovereign Pontiff, the import of which is as follows:. The foundation of the true faith of Christians, the strength of the cautious, the bravery of the discreet, all these repose, like a treasure, within the hollow of thy head.
Yet thy memory resounds, it begins to shake; stupidity devours thee. Father art thou called, and for thy children thou preparest such unheard-of evils! For thou and king Philip of France and other kinglets put your trust in a staff of reed, raising to yourselves a hope that vanishes like burning tow and is consumed with one breath.
For whatever you may scheme and imagine against us, we perceive it all in the clear thoughts of our mind, nor do we fear. What kind of father indeed art thou, to drive thy sons to a sudden, unnatural death? By whom has the most precious city of Jerusalem been overthrown? By whom has the powerful city of Acre been razed to its foundations?
By whom has far-famed Tripoli been laid waste and ruined? Have not we subjected three hundred and fifty-five towns, formerly built by the servants of the Crucified? Thou forcest thy sons into a stormy sea, where streams are raging, but dost not follow thyself; thou stayest on dry land, and drownest poor fools in the stream. Truly thou misleadest the simple, but dost not go first.
Father art thou called in name, but not in deed. Let it suffice thee therefore so to behave in the manner of the Turks. If however thou desirest our land, lo, we shall open Acre and Tripolis to thy children and allow them to restore them, provided they are our tenants for ever. We accordingly advise thee first to call on thy Lord, if thou canst, that the number of martyrs may be increased by us, and that young men may rise again and, in revenge for the killing of their fathers, hurry towards us to receive similar punishment.
For we want nothing more than the blood of Christians, and we thirst for it. Be advised, therefore, thou that art called wise and save those now in danger of death, otherwise thou wilt be a murderer and seducer of simple folk, even the spirit of nature earnestly entreats thee to it. Who dost thou think can resist us, as all thy people, compared to our multitude, are as a drop in the sea? The Philip of this mock-heroic epistle can only be Philippe Auguste, who fought Saladin in the third Crusade.
Mandeville boldly doubles the figure!
Gallicism, meaning: they always belong to him. Prutz, p. Chauvin to ch. Bovenschen was greatly impressed by the air of truthfulness of these indecent jokes! The reading of the two Brussels MSS. No messenger from abroad appears before him to make a request without it being granted, provided it is sensible and not opposed to his law. The Cotton version makes no sense. For they say that none ought to come before the prince without being better off, and [that people] ought to be gladder on leaving his presence than on appearing before him.
Cotton makes no sense. Locus autem desertus dicitur et quasi inaccessibilis propter ferarum crudelium et venenosorum animalium ibidem commorantium multitudinem numerosam. Adso De ortu et tempore Antichristi, ed. See p. Warner traces this story to Herodotus I. Mandeville elsewhere has the form Moseach on p.
Warner quotes Eugesippus: "Arabia jungitur Idumeae in confinibus Bostron" p. XIIo: Egredere e terra et de cognatione tua et de domo patris tui, de qua civitate fuit gloriosus doctor Effrem et etiam Theophilus, quem virgo Maria de manu enimici liberavit" ed. Prutz, Ephrem Syrus lived in the fourth century. Hippeau, II. Warner identifies Susis with Shushan. H: "Il soleit auoir en temps passez iii. Cis Darrabiens et de Caldiens demorroit en la cite de Baldak desuisdit; et a Cair delez Babiloigne demorroit le Califfe des Egipciens; et au Marrok sur la meer doccident demoirroit le Califfe des Barbariens et de Affricaux.
Prutz, c. Mandeville goes beyond his authority, a common practice with d'Outremeuse. Gyson somtyme clept Nyle. Ausfeld, Alexanderroman, traces this to Pausanias II. Boldensele repeats it p. Bovenschen quotes Honorius Augustodunensis, Imago Mundi: "Geon qui et Nilus iuxta montem Athlantem [Mandeville's Aloth] surgens, mox a terra absorbetur, per quam occulto meatu currens, in littore rubri maris denuo funditur, Aethiopiam circumiens per Aegyptum labitur, in septem ostia divisus, magnum mare iuxta Alexandriam ingreditur" Migne, Patrol.
Pliny: "revocatur intra ripas in libra" 5. Meaning: when the sun is in Libra, the river shrinks back into its banks. Mandeville sends the Euphrates all the way to Morocco before letting it merge in the Nile! Egypt is a long contree. The other source is Hayton, c. The whole sentence means: Egypt is no wider than the stretch which the floods of Nile serve to fertilise, or than the waters can spread over the land.
Cotton's nouns make no sense. Warner guesses at Kus on the east bank of the Nile, a little below Luxor and at Kosseir, the port opposite to it on the Red Sea. Probably the scribe's mistake. Read: contree of lybye. Meaning: more than twice so much of desert? The medicine to blacken the complexion is used by Maugis the enchanter in the Four Sons of Aymon. In the Alexander romance, the dark queen Candace writes to the Macedonian that the minds of her people are lighter than the brightest among the Greeks ed. Ausfeld, , p. John of Hildesheim writes of the black Nestorian heretics: "Et in ecclesiis suis depingunt Christum et matrem eius et beatum Thomam nigros et diabolos albos in despectum alborum" [text: aliorum], ed.
Nota, etc. Warner: "St. Antony, whose encounter with a satyr is described by St. Jerome in his Vita S. Pauli" Migne, The salvation of this monster is a parallel to that of Hermogenes on p. The monster is called a satyr and faun in Vincent de Beauvais, Spec. Meaning: and his tail is striped across, yellow and red. Warner traces this to Pliny IX. Brussels, tresque. Egerton: on a clustre. His account is supplemented by Mandeville from Vincent de Beauvais Spec.
Warner and Bovenschen mention many more sources, most of them quoted in the Speculum Naturale. In the manuscript it is marked for deletion by subpunction ; who made the marks and when, I cannot tell. Enochbalse, Abebissam, Guybalse. They may have been in use among pharmacists, or d'Outremeuse may have invented them. In the romance of Balan, Fierabras takes two barrels of balm in Rome G. I haue not seen it. He had not seen the speaking trees! And some put fruit of balm to boil in wood oil.
French: se cailler] at once. Gerneres of Joseph. Mandeville's petulant advocacy of the wrong view is thoroughly characteristic. Cotton's slip may be a scribal blunder. Cotton's or none is redundant. Hartland quotes this in a discussion on changelings Science of Fairy Tales, , p.
A horse is said to strive to kick a changeling and to lick human children. According to Sir G. Warner, Pliny VII. Jean d'Outremeuse's Mirror of History writes that women take their children to be tried by a snake in Africa Vol. Egerton: Greff. Warner notices that Corfu did not belong to the Genoese, and therefore thinks of Corsica, but Mandeville would not be so particular. Myrok , explained by Sir George as Hiericho Spruner, pl. D'Outremeuse would remember that the name of Duras was borne by a Belgian family. The Englisher slightly alters the meaning. The author of Mandeville adds two palm trees, as his way is Exod.
The two meanings of the word large, the English one and the French one, are confusing to the Englisher. Boldensele, his source, writes: De Kadro et Babylonia recedens partibusque Aegypti in Arabiam properavi, venique ad montem Synai eques in decem diebus p. The ". Brussels, de rains ou des branchez de oliue. My French texts are corrupt; a possible reading may be: des rains ou des baies d'olivier, i.
The Englisher would then have repeated the French baies instead of translating it. Nam et ex tumba eius oleum manat, et cuncta debilium membra sanat Spec. The birds may be an invention of d'Outremeuse's, or a reminiscence of Ezek. Warner refers to Thietmar's Peregrinatio , where the Virgin promises the monks an inexhaustible supply of oil, if they will stay in their convent ed. Laurent, , p.
Les Pelerinaiges pour aler en Jherusalem ed. Catherine p. Bovenschen refers to Petrus Comestor, Lib. Instrument of syluer. As is commonly the case with d'Outremeuse's duplications, the fictitious account precedes the second, which is more or less faithfully borrowed from a source. On ever-burning lights in romances see Faral: Recherches sur les sources latines des contes et romans courtois, , pp. Bovenschen refers to Reinfrid von Braunschweig, fol. Bartsch, ll. Jacques de Vitry, describing the Holy Land as the country of wonders, has a chapter on wonderful occurrences in the Holy Land, on earthquakes, thunderstrokes, showers and snowfalls Hist.
Then they told me that either miracle had often occurred. In that abbey enter neither flies, nor gnats, nor fleas nor other such vermin. The Englisher expands, perhaps because he knew no equivalent for moucheron. The source is Boldensele, p. D'Outremeuse dramatises as is his wont. June, III. D'Outremeuse carries the well from inside to the space outside the gate! Reisins of Staphis. Warner has found no other mention of St. John's vine in this neighbourhood, we may assume d'Outremeuse's invention as the source. His body will be claimed.
Lancelot is to open the abyss P. The romances contain similar accounts. Bersabee the wif. Sackur, , pp. Et estoit si franche qe homme resceuoit la totes futifs dautre lieu pour lour malfaites. Bovenschen quotes Eugesippus, p. H: … Lie, en le declin de la montaigne. Et dessur eaux y ad vne bele esglise, kernele [i.
This was probably omitted by the copyist of Cotton. It is translated from Boldensele, p. Karicarba , Kirjath-Arba, Joshua xiv. Brussels la mesmes, i. Boldensele: In hac sancta valle Hebron locus est, ubi Abraham in ostio sui tabernaculi sedens in ipso fervore diei tres vidit et unum adoravit. Adam formed. Ager iste in rei veritate valde rubeam habet terram, quae omnino flexibilis sicut cera. De qua tuli in magna quantitate.
Similiter faciunt peregrini alii et Christiani visitantes loca ista. Sarraceni insuper terram istam portant camelis in Aegyptum et Aethiopiam et Yndiam et ad alia loca, pro speciebus valde caris vendentes eam. Et tamen modica apparet fossio illo in loco. Dicitur enim, quod anno revoluto, quantumcumque magna sit fossio, semper miraculose repletur.
Sed oblitus fui quaerere rei veritatem; hoc tamen dico, quod modica fuit fossio, cum essem ibi, ita quod vix quatuor viri sedissent in ea; nec erat profundior, quam usque scapulas meas. Dicitur tamen, quod, quicunque terram istam secum portat, animal eum non offendit. Hominem insuper dicitur a casu conservare ed. This guarded statement is turned by our text into a bold tale of wonders. Warner has traced this word to the Pandectae Medicinae of Matthaeus Silvaticus circ. Lugduni, , fol. D'Outremeuse may have learned it from the English doctor John de Mandeville.
Ducange, Gloss. It is not earth, but a dust-like powder obtained from a shrub. Modern name: Kamala. Non remote ab Ebron est mons Mambre, et in ipso monte stat arbor, scilicet quercus arida, quae ab antiquitate sua speciale sibi nomen meruit habere in universo mundo, et vocatur arbor sicca. Sarraceni dicunt eam dirp.
Haec creditur stetisse a tempore Abrahae, et quidem ab initio mundi, virens, donec passionis Christi tempore siccaretur p. In Cordier's edition of Odoric, , the Biblical passages given as the source of the romance are: Mark xi. Restored partly from Eg. Taylor, Political Prophecies : "The Last-King-of-Rome story, relating to the successful Crusade of an English king and his death in the Holy Land, was used in prophecies from the thirteenth century on, and was applied to Edward II. D'Outremeuse would be familiar with prophecies occurring in Arthurian romances, and connected with the name of Merlin.
Taylor, p. A Biblical source is Ezek. Hartland, The Science of Fairy Tales, discusses second advent theories on pp. Ovid, Metamorphoses, l. Warner notices that Eugesippus does not mention this curative virtue of the Dry Tree, but only its power to protect a horseman from a fall. Nam si quis eam siccam portet, non infunditur bestia cui insidet. Egerton: kirnelles.
Michelant et Raynaud, Mistranslation repeated in Egerton. Robin Flower, of the British Museum, has pointed out the source of this in a manuscript described in Mr. James's Catalogue of MSS. In a Life of the Virgin it is related that Abraham's daughter became pregnant through the smell of a flower on the Tree of the Cross. Being suspected, she has to enter a fire, which God turns to roses, lilies and eglantines. The sparks and flames become singing birds. The girl's son Phanuiaus Phanuel gives birth to Anne through his thigh. John of Hildesheim, stella stetit immobilis et infra muros lapideos et fictiles per modicum intervallum stella cum tanta et tali claritate et fulgore se demersit, sic quod omnia in tugurio et spelunca fuerunt illuminata p.
Odoric, De Terra Sancta: puteus, ubi videtur stella, quae duxit tres reges ad Christum in praesepio ed. Et quadam vice modicum lactis de sua mamilla super lapidem cecidit. Cuius lactis species usque in praesentem diem super ipsum lapidem permansit, et quanto plus abraditur quanto plus crescit p. Brussels moult a despit. Perhaps this is the right reading: all those that eat pork they hold in great despite. Jerome, Epitaphium Paulae: "… ingressa est [Paula?
Odoric, De T. Bovenschen refers to Isidor, Etym. Boldensele: In hac sancta valle Hebron locus est, ubi Abraham in ostio sui tabernaculi sedens in ipso fervore diei tres vidit et unum adoravit. Adam formed. Ager iste in rei veritate valde rubeam habet terram, quae omnino flexibilis sicut cera. De qua tuli in magna quantitate. Similiter faciunt peregrini alii et Christiani visitantes loca ista. Sarraceni insuper terram istam portant camelis in Aegyptum et Aethiopiam et Yndiam et ad alia loca, pro speciebus valde caris vendentes eam.
Et tamen modica apparet fossio illo in loco. Dicitur enim, quod anno revoluto, quantumcumque magna sit fossio, semper miraculose repletur. Sed oblitus fui quaerere rei veritatem; hoc tamen dico, quod modica fuit fossio, cum essem ibi, ita quod vix quatuor viri sedissent in ea; nec erat profundior, quam usque scapulas meas. Dicitur tamen, quod, quicunque terram istam secum portat, animal eum non offendit.
Hominem insuper dicitur a casu conservare ed. This guarded statement is turned by our text into a bold tale of wonders. Warner has traced this word to the Pandectae Medicinae of Matthaeus Silvaticus circ. Lugduni, , fol. D'Outremeuse may have learned it from the English doctor John de Mandeville.
Ducange, Gloss. It is not earth, but a dust-like powder obtained from a shrub. Modern name: Kamala. Non remote ab Ebron est mons Mambre, et in ipso monte stat arbor, scilicet quercus arida, quae ab antiquitate sua speciale sibi nomen meruit habere in universo mundo, et vocatur arbor sicca. Sarraceni dicunt eam dirp. Haec creditur stetisse a tempore Abrahae, et quidem ab initio mundi, virens, donec passionis Christi tempore siccaretur p.
In Cordier's edition of Odoric, , the Biblical passages given as the source of the romance are: Mark xi. Restored partly from Eg. Taylor, Political Prophecies : "The Last-King-of-Rome story, relating to the successful Crusade of an English king and his death in the Holy Land, was used in prophecies from the thirteenth century on, and was applied to Edward II.
D'Outremeuse would be familiar with prophecies occurring in Arthurian romances, and connected with the name of Merlin. Taylor, p. A Biblical source is Ezek. Hartland, The Science of Fairy Tales, discusses second advent theories on pp. Ovid, Metamorphoses, l. Warner notices that Eugesippus does not mention this curative virtue of the Dry Tree, but only its power to protect a horseman from a fall.
Nam si quis eam siccam portet, non infunditur bestia cui insidet. Egerton: kirnelles. Michelant et Raynaud, Mistranslation repeated in Egerton. Robin Flower, of the British Museum, has pointed out the source of this in a manuscript described in Mr. James's Catalogue of MSS. In a Life of the Virgin it is related that Abraham's daughter became pregnant through the smell of a flower on the Tree of the Cross. Being suspected, she has to enter a fire, which God turns to roses, lilies and eglantines.
The sparks and flames become singing birds. The girl's son Phanuiaus Phanuel gives birth to Anne through his thigh. John of Hildesheim, stella stetit immobilis et infra muros lapideos et fictiles per modicum intervallum stella cum tanta et tali claritate et fulgore se demersit, sic quod omnia in tugurio et spelunca fuerunt illuminata p. Odoric, De Terra Sancta: puteus, ubi videtur stella, quae duxit tres reges ad Christum in praesepio ed. Et quadam vice modicum lactis de sua mamilla super lapidem cecidit.
Cuius lactis species usque in praesentem diem super ipsum lapidem permansit, et quanto plus abraditur quanto plus crescit p. Brussels moult a despit. Perhaps this is the right reading: all those that eat pork they hold in great despite. Jerome, Epitaphium Paulae: "… ingressa est [Paula? Odoric, De T. Bovenschen refers to Isidor, Etym. Abowten Ierusalem. Warner notice that the distances from Jerusalem to the surrounding cities vary from those given by geographical authorities. The blame may be laid either on d'Outremeuse or on his translator, or on the scribes. Warner quotes Comestor, Evang.
Did d'Outremeuse connect the word compago, skeleton, with the radical of pictura? Here the two blunderers, French and English, are seen at work on the same expression. If the Mandeville had been written forty years later, we should have to place it about , an impossible date. If the date of , given at the close p. The author of the Travels did not trouble to lie consistently, and he may have blindly copied an earlier writer, as Sir G. Warner suggests. He may also have put in a figure haphazard. Both Brussels MSS. This would make the date of composition , five years after Boldensele wrote.
It should be compared to the miracle by which Godfrey of Bouillon was elected king, p. Otheos , etc. Cyos myst , etc. Warner prints this, after Tobler, as: [Greek] The stone which thou seest is the foundation of the world's faith. Warner credits the author of Mandeville himself with this piece of sophistry, and Dr. Bovenschen remarks that it shows great ignorance. It may be added that it throws ridicule on the prophecies and on the people who believe in and comment on them. In a year of ten months, each month must needs be longer than in a year of twelve.
D'Outremeuse omits the reference to simpleminded people. Burchard, De Terra Sancta, , similarly writes of white stone marked with red spots: color sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi apparet hodie in ipsa scissione petrae p. And again, of the pillar of scourging: Est autem de lapide porfiritico subnigro, habens maculas rubeas naturaliter, quas credit vulgus tincturas esse sanguinis Christi p.
Stories of statues or images sweating blood, tears or milk belong to the common stock of romances, especially those of Alexander. The vessel of Enydros at Constantinople is connected by d'Outremeuse with the same class of fables see p. And of one of the nails the Emperor Constantine made a bit for his horse to wear in battle. Warner points out an inconsistency: the centre of the world, here placed on the spot where the wounds were washed after the Descent from the Cross by that hero of the Graal romances, Joseph of Arimathia, is elsewhere located in the place where the True Cross revived a dead body p.
A lance pitched here at midday on the Equinox would cast no shadow p. Sensible people in the Middle Ages disbelieved such stories. Thomas, is often mentioned by d'Outremeuse. For the close of this chapter, each particular has been traced to one or more sources by Sir G. Warner and Dr. The distance of two hundred paces l. Et ad grande place entour sanz nulle maison; et est la place bien pauee par tot de marbre blanc.
Egerton, like Cotton, omits the reference to the place or square. I hadde lettres. Multi iverunt ultra mare, magni et parvi, nobiles et ignobiles, sed hujus temporis nullus hoc modo, quod reputo singularem gratiam et donum gratuitum Salvatoris. Mandeville, pretending to write as an eye-witness, proves a mere plagiarist.
Nevertheless, it may be original: from his notarial practice, d'Outremeuse would be familiar with the distinction between a seal and a signet. Mandeville had pretended p. The truthful Boldensele, who really enjoyed advantages, makes no such claims.
The Englisher or the Cotton copyist omits the negative. Corpus Domini is the host, ceremoniously worshipped by believers in the real presence. Still, we need not see here an allusion to the doctrine of transubstantiation. The distance is correctly stated. Peyteres; Chartres. The authorities quoted by Sir G. Warner for the preputium story are: De Situ p. Poitiers and Chartres, in the French text, appear to be misreadings of d'Outremeuse possibly of his copyists for Charroux in Poitou, where a Benedictine abbey was founded by Charlemagne, and where the relic was transferred by Charles the Bald.
Bovenschen agree that no single source has been found for those particulars. Boldensele, the topographers, Scripture and the author's imagination have all contributed. This Emperor ordered the church of the Holy Sepulchre to be enclosed and walled in with the city, which before lay far outside the city. The Englisher mistook the adverb of space for the adverb of time.
The French refers to the past of the Old Testament, the Englisher transfers the statement to his own time. It would perhaps be fanciful to apply it to the drying up of the springs of piety in the Church. Vidi aquam. Warner states that this is not directly from Holy Writ, but from an antiphon for the sprinkling of holy water at Easter, Graduale Rom.
Riant, , p. Hamelius's placement of the error in his edition two lines following is wrong. The lineation of this page 56 is off by one, which may have contributed to the mistake. The English seems past mending. The two occurrences of the preposition of seem due to the French des. Brussels aournemens. Scribe's mistake? Brussels auec vij figures. The Englisher read cygnes, swans, instead of signes, signs.
The French text meant the signs of the Zodiac. The French original omits ll. This description of a sundial was probably too hard for the translator. Salomones scole , so called after Boldensele, appears to be identical with the temple of Salomon of l. The present is a mistranslation. The order of Templars was abolished in Probatica piscina. Vincent de Beauvais, l. Descendente scilicet ad visitationem ligni Dominicae passionis ibidem absconditi a tempore Salomonis.
Et post aquae motionem sanabatur unus, quicumque descenderet in eam prius Iuxta hunc ergo lacum sanavit Dominus in sabbato Paralyticum, sub templo Domini et monte Syon. In his Mirror of Histories, Jean d'Outremeuse reports that after the Tree of the Cross was removed from the pool, its water cured diseases after stirring. The tree was laid across as a bridge vol. Boldensele is matter-of-fact, as usual: Non longe versus aquilonem est illa Probatica piscina, curatrix debilium secundum evangelium motu angeli descendentis, et ecclesia sanctae Annae, aviae Christi, ubi beata Virgo concepta et nata fuisse dicitur p.
Bovenschen agree that Pet. Comestor, Hist. Aristotle advised him to give them crowns p. The noun loos, i. Warner knows no source for this or for the piece of St. Stephen's head. Warner traces it to Odoric, c. Warner knows no source. Bovenschen has nothing. And there is the spot where the Jews wanted to throw down the body of Our Lady. Peter ad Gallicantum. The Mandeville follows Boldensele. The Galylee of l. Warner's authorities, and often identified with the Gallicantus. Ex opposito ejus statua quaedam lapidea bonae magnitudinis et artificiosa discernitur, quam, ut dicitur, Absalon ob memoriam sui fieri praecepit, et in libro Regum manus Absalon appellatur p.
The method of expansion is characteristic. Chant VIII. That the surface of the earth is constantly changing is a fact recognised by Vincent de Beauvais, Spec. Naturale, l. Earthquakes were interpreted as miracles. Hippeau , Canto II. Such wonders were added by d'Outremeuse to Boldensele's sensible remark: In hujus vallis principio a sinistris est ecclesia beatissimae Virginis, in quam descenditur per plures gradus lapideos, quae pro majori parte sub terra est, quod credo etiam ruinis civitatis Hierusalem vallem replentibus accidisse, which corresponds to ll.
Riant, : En cel liu aperent les deys des mains Nostre Seignur p. Burchard, De Terra Sancta knows of other marks in stone: knees and hands p. Iosaphath was kyng. Deinde in valle Josaphat, dicta a rege Josaphat ibi sepulto … p. Both Sir G. Bovenschen think that the medieval legend of Barlaam and Josaphat Golden Legend, c. Hermits are mentioned as living in the valley by Joh. Paris, Romans de la Table Ronde, , I. Marie Egipcyane. Warner notices a tomb of St.
Pelagia on Mount Olivet. D'Outremeuse altered the name. Symon leprous. Warner states that his identity with Julian the Harbourer is disputed in the Golden Legend, c. Warner, particularised in the Golden Legend c. It seems an invention of d'Outremeuse's, like the stone of p. Jericho used to be a beautiful town. Boldensele: deserto quodam montoso medio existente p. The Englisher or the Cotton scribe runs the two sentences into one, mixing up the grammar and the topography. Diez, Etymol. Like the word cambil, the form alkatran betrays a derivation from Arabic, perhaps through books of medicine.
The present tenses "make" l. Warner mentions Josephus as the ultimate source of these fables, widely current in the Middle Ages. Brown has proved this to be the source of Cleanness, ll. The Author of Pearl, , p. Cleanness, ll. Brown, Author of Pearl, , p. Warner notices a contradiction between the Medieval sources: Comestor declares that the heaviest things are cast up by the Dead Sea, while Antoninus Martyr ed. Tobler, p. It is repeated in Cleanness, ll. This quotation leaves no doubt that its source is a French Mandeville.
Nascuntur enim ibi poma virentia sub tanta specie maturitatis, ut edendi desiderium gignant, quae si carpas, fatiscunt, ac resolvuntur in cinerem, et fumum exhalant, quasi adhuc ardeant p. The corresponding passage in Cleanness bears some evidence of being derived from the French: Bot quen hit [viz.
Boldensele: mare Mortuum, foetens et horridum, lacus detestabilis et abjectus p.
Complete French Grammar
Like a number of his emendations, this one is not absolutely necessary for sense or syntax. Similarly H. Yet they are too many to be negligible. Per mare Tiberiadis fluens, prope locum ubi Christiani communiter balneantur, in mare Mortuum praedictum dilabitur, et non apparens ulterius inibi absorbetur ed. And gon the hilles.
Warner remarks that the topographers write that the valley of the Jordan not the hills of Lebanon extend to the desert of Pharan. D'Outremeuse misinterpreted his sources, and was followed by the Englisher. D'Outremeuse adopted the more startling view. Warner as Bostra, now Buzrah, about eighty miles south of Damascus. Meldan in Sarmoyz. The course ascribed to the Jordan in ll. Meldan is the form given by Eugesippus to the word spelt Medan by Vincent and known in the East as meidan, Arabic for a square or open space.
Undis hujus fluvii Naaman Syrus a lepra curatur. Englisher's blunder: he takes the French article la to be part of the name of the city. Carak en Sarmoyz. D'Outremeuse adopts his blunder. The Englisher took the French word sarasinois, describing the Arabic language, for the name of a country, like on p. Moreover, he read in as m. Baldwyn … of France. Jacques de Vitry states that Mons Regalis [i. Baldwin II. Bongars, t. Hence d'Outremeuse's blunder. Hic vota et sacrificia populi Domino reddebantur, Samueli primo Deus locutus est et sibi inter cetera de mutatione sacerdotii intimavit et revelavit.
Prope a sinistris est Gabaon, et ex opposito Gabaa, de propinquo Rama Benjamin, quorum locorum sacra historia recordatur. Inde procedens veni in Sichem vel Sichar, ubi est provincia Samaritanorum. Is this the source of d'Outremeuse's strange spelling? The Englisher misread n as u, mistook the second syllable for a proper name, and translated "mont" as "hill"! Boldensele: Nune Sebaste dicitur et multum assimilatur civitati sanctae in situ p.
The mistake may be the Englisher's or the copyist's. Iohn the Baptist. John's eve. Martin's Church [at Tours? Thecla conveyed it to Maurienne among the Alps of Savoy. A virgin called Tecla figures in the epic cycle of Charlemagne, Paris: Hist. Oeuvres de St. Charlemagne, t. The original French reading of d'Outremeuse is doubtful. It may be: entre les Alpes, or outre les Monts, or outre les Alpes, or entre les Monts. The close of this sentence was linked up by the Englisher with the beginning of the next.
Warner states that the head is reported to have been immured, not at Samaria, but in Herod's palace at Jerusalem. Franciscan nuns. The Englisher read the initial c. Bovenschen, who suspects "oral tradition" as the source of this passage, nor Sir G. Warner has pointed to the impudence of such jokes against the Papacy and against the worship of relics. We may suspect a sly intention in the collocation of this miracle with those worked by St.
John's relics. Et etiam in habitu ab aliis distinguuntur quia, cum in his partibus habitantes generaliter involvant capita linteis longissimis, Christiani quidem flavis, Sarraceni albis, Judaei glaucis, horum capita rubeis involvuntur; et se dicunt Dei electissimos inter omnes p. The only change from this introduced in the Mandeville is that in the colour of the turban: Christians wear yellow in Boldensele, and Jews blue.
De hiis duabus civitatibus ait Jesus: Ve tibi, Betsayda, ve tibi Corrosaim! It agrees with Adso, see note to p. Warner knows no source for this. It may have been current among opponents of the Papacy. Propter hanc causam in euangelio Dominus tertio sententiam dedit dicens: Ve tibi Corozaim, ve tibi Bethsaida, et tibi Chaparnaum, si usque in celum exaltaveris, usque ad infernum discendes p.
But Endor was called a mountain in the early Itineraries. Boldensele refers to the hills of Gilboa. The author of Mandeville mixes up all his sources, as Dr. Bovenschen has shown in detail. Torrens Cison. Judges v. The article has been omitted by the copyist. D'Outremeuse seems responsible for the treatment of the Biblical narrative. Psalm lxxxiii. Martin's day, he was soaked to the skin ed. The Mandeville never has such touches of homely truthfulness. Godefroy, Dict.
The readings of my two Brussels manuscripts are impossible. Boldensele: In hoc loco pulchra fuit ecclesia atque magna; sed heu! D'Outremeuse irreverently converts the tabernacle where the Immaculate Conception is said to have taken place into a box for collecting the pilgrims' money! Boldensele: Prope ad unum miliare locus est, qui Saltus Domini appellatur, ubi, cum Christus ductus esset, ut praecipitaretur de montis cacumine, ipse transiens per medium illorum ibat, evangelio attestante p.
The additions are either from the "folklore of charms" Sir G. Warner or from d'Outremeuse's imagination. The reading of Brussels differs from H. Bovenschen remarks that the verses here ascribed to the psalter are from Gen. Hic est filius. Boldensele: Est autem hoc mare locus multum magnus, scilicet forsitan circa 30 miliaria in circuitu continens, per cujus medium fluvius Jordanis currit; bonos habet pisces in magna copia, etc.
Boldensele: dum in ipso mergi coepisset p. Modice fidei. Boldensele: In hoc mari saepe Dominus navigavit p. Et cognouerunt. Odoric, De Terra Sancta : Ubi accidit, quod, cum puer Jesus cum quodam cognato suo moram ibi traheret, commotus homo predictus arripuit facem ardentem, et post Jesum proiecit, volens eum percutere; sed fax infixa terrae in arborem crevit maximam, quae usque in hodiernum diem flores et fructus producit p. D'Outremeuse confounds it with the Sephoris of p.
The right reading is in Brussels de vers bise jusques vers midy, i. The length of the Holy Land is miles in the Mandeville, variant in Boldensele! The list of Syrian provinces is shorter and less orderly than in Boldensele. The Crusading epic refers to the pigeon post of the Saracens. The Crusaders brought the pigeons down with arrows or hawks, read the messages, and dispatched the carriers with deceitful letters.
Warner: "De Vitry rightly says that they had their name, not from St. James the apostle, but 'a quodam magistro suo dicto Jacobo cujusdam Theodosii Alexandrini patriarchae discipulo,' meaning Jacob al-Baradai, or Baradaeus, a monk of Constantinople in the sixth century, by whose energy the sect was organised; and he [viz. Jacques de Vitry] is responsible for the statement that saint John baptised them, only in so far as he incidentally mentions St.
John the Baptist in speaking of the confession of sins. Auricular confession was often opposed by dissenters from Roman Catholicism. In d'Outremeuse's own time, the Lollards were accused of denying confession to the priest: Sed hoc Lollardi renuunt, Cum soli Deo instruunt Nostras culpas detergere. Wright: Political Poems and Songs, I. Slight change of meaning. A formula repeated in ix. Quoniam cogitacio. Warner refers to Ps.
This is not very near. Natheles seynt Austyn. In the Brussels version, those Fathers of the Church are definitely pitted against the Papal doctrine of auricular confession. Qui scelera. Longorum temporum. But the Holy Fathers the Popes who have come since. Similarly, one can give no appropriate penance unless one knows the character of the deed. The Englisher has followed H. The orthodox conclusion of d'Outremeuse's unorthodox argument is from Jacques de Vitry, who inveighs against the Jacobites: Pereunt ex defectu doctrinae, vulnera sua medicis spiritualibus abscondentes, quorum est inter lepram et lepram discernere, et peccatorum circumstancias pensando poenitentias iniungere, etc.
Burchard, De Terra Sancta, writes of the Syrians: In habitu concordant cum Sarracenis, nisi quod tantum per cingulum laneum discernuntur ed. Another derivation of the name is from Our Lady's Girdle, given to St. D'Outremeuse brings them in. Indians who are of Prester John's land. Helizeus Damascus. From Eugesippus and other Itineraries. Most other data in the notice of Damascus are from Boldensele. Sardenak —Prutz, Kulturgesch. All the Itineraries report the miracle, which may be connected with the Jewish practice of anointing stone pillars with oil Gen.
See the miracle of St. Catherine, p. Boldensele: In casali pulchro, quod sub monasterio est, Christiani scismatici commorantur, bono vino satis abundantes D'Outremeuse seems to have read some such word as cava, caverna, vault, instead of casale, village! The French convertit was probably meant as a preterite.
At this point, three leaves of the manuscript are missing. Hamelius's note in the text reads: "A long gap here occurs in the Cotton MS. As the only alternative text is in a more Northern dialect, we print it in appendix. Sackur, Comedebant enim hi omnes cantharo speciem omnem coinquinabilem vel spurcebilem, id est canes, mures, serpentes, etc.
Alexander asks God to enclose those impure nations between the Uber mountains. Batho d. Batho is mentioned by Hayton, p. It would be a good country for sowing fern and broom and thorns and brambles. Warner guesses at Dorostena or Drestra, the old name of Silistria. But the irresponsible d'Outremeuse may have thought of the Dur-Este of romance mentioned, e.
Brussels seleis. Egerton: sleddes. Grandgagnage, Dict. Kreuzz: Postquam dictum est de egressu Macometi et suorum, progressu eorum atque occasu, restat videre, quid sentiendum est de eorum lege seu libro Alcoranum, Meshaf seu Harine c. Ad nutum etiam desiderii rami arborum fructum porrigent optatum ori comedentis, flumina lactis et mollis meri et liquidissime limphe deorsum defluent, menia et mansiones pro meritis singulorum assignabuntur singulis ex lapidibus preciosis edificate et ex auro precioso Ofir Prutz, Et ipse puer dixit: … Deus … me fecit benedictum prophetam ed. The Angel.
Glosa Sarracenorum: Taquius erat quidam incantator, qui subito intrabat super virgines et supprimebat eas speciosus et pulcher ut angelus. Et dixit: Ego sum nuncius Dei tui: donabitur tibi filius innocens et purus ed. D'Outremeuse has followed this so closely that no conclusion is possible as to his own views on the Immaculate Conception. Bovenschen rightly points out that the gross calumnies of Medieval Christians against Islam and its founder, known to the author of Mandeville through Vincent de Beauvais, Jacques de Vitry, and other writings, have not been repeated here.
Warner explains the name Taquius as a mistranslation of a word in the Koran Transl. Rodwell, , p. Et cum advenisset tempus partus, peperit sub palma. Et tunc dixit: O ut mortua fuissem, antequam hoc evenisset mihi et oblivioni fuissem tradita! Et mox natus de ea dixit: Ne tristeris, ait, posuit sub te Deus secretum. Trahe ad te ramum palme cum fructu et super te cadet fructus electus maturus; comede ex eo et bibe et esto leta ed. Missus est Angelus. Item dicunt, quod Deus contra suam iusticiam egisset, si permisisset Christum innocentem occidi ed.
Prutz, pp. This is the doctrine called Doketism, which was common among heretics both before and after d'Outremeuse's time. Schmidt, Histoire des Cathares, II. Jundt, Hist. Hoc dixit et scripsit, qui auctore Deo plus quam mille iam baptizavit ibid. Et si in oculis tuis displiceat uxor, trade ei libellum repudii et abire permittas ed.
Item cum audiunt, quod Deus, qui est verbalis, hoc est habens verbum, ut vivus et vita vitarum, vitam tribuens viventibus cunctis, in vita vivens, fons vite indeficiens, unde vitam hausit omnis creatura corporalis et spiritualis, concedunt Deum habere vitam sive spiritum, quem dicimus sanctum ed. Inter quos quatuor Jesus verbum Dei est maior, cuius magnitudinis laudes et preconia monstrata sunt supra ed. The French original is less orthodox than the English translation.
The French original accuses the foolish infidels, who take Scripture literally, of persecuting the wise who interpret it aright. A heretic position. Bovenschen accepts this as truthful and autobiographical. Warner looks upon it as fiction and compares it to the commonplaces of satirical literature in the Middle Ages.
Prutz refers to Jacques de Vitry I. Strange, I. The latter two readings, containing an attack on the clergy, are obviously right, as opposed to the lewed peple of l. The MS. Warner gives variants:—S. Brussels, ou broisde ou contailles. Brussels broude puis decope et entretaillie. The Englisher probably thought of coutel, couteau, i. Concordant super hoc aruspices, magi, arioli, et numinum nostrorum responsa et prophetarum dicta pp.
Cantos xii. Can the Englisher have read damask and thus reached cloth? Seynt Gabriell. D'Outremeuse raises him to princely rank. Warner identifies Corodane as the name of Khorasan in the Crusading historians. Vincent de Beauvais Sp. Vincent de Beauvais: Post haec vero Machomet caepit cadere frequenter epileptica passione. Quod Eadiga cernens valde tristabatur, quod nupsisset impurissimo homini et epileptico. Quam ille placare desiderans, talibus sermonibus demulcebat eam dicens; quia Gabrielem Archangelum loquentem mecum contemplor, et non ferens splendorem vultus eius, utpote carnalis homo deficio et cado.
Credidit ergo mulier, et omnes Arabes, et Ismahelitae, quod ex ore Archangeli Gabrielis illas susciperet leges, quas suis discipulis dabat, eo quod Gabriel Archangelus saepe a Deo mittatur hominibus sanctis ed. Item Ismaelitae ab Ismael nuncupati. Our text seems to separate him into two. Ob quam causam sodales cogitaverunt Bahayram interficere, sed timebant magistrum. Accidit igitur quadam nocte, ut gravati longa collatione, qua tenuit magistrum reclusus, cum cernerent magistrum tremulentum, pugione ipsius Machometi iugulaverunt virum sanctum nocte illa, imponentes eidem magistro, quod nimia ebrietate alienatus suum interfecerat magistrum et auctorem.
Mane autem facto dum Machometus sanctum virum quaereret licentiam accepturus et dicturus vale, inveniens ipsum mortuum vehementer contristatus cepit quaerere homicidas, et cum argueretur a sodalibus tamquam auctor sceleris ebriosus, credens verum esse, quod dicebant, conscius quod ebrius exstiterat nocte illa et videns proprium gladium cruentatum, contra ebrietatem et vinum ebrietatis causam maledixit omnes vini portitores [potatores? Warner: For sugarcanes, "calamelli, calami pleni melle," and "canamellae, de quibus zucchara ex compressione eliquatur," see J.
They are noticed also by the crusading historians, e. But though the canes and the sugar are mentioned, the drink is not. For the medicinal properties of sugar it is gode for the breest see Alb. Magnus, De Veget. Jessen, p. Here, as in the variant quoted in our note to p. The words are not in William of Tripoli. La ellec, etc. The formula is from William of Tripoli. Warner: This alphabet is found in the Cosmographia of Aethicus … it has strong affinities with the Sclavonic alphabet known as Glagolitic.
If, as the present editor believes, d'Outremeuse wrote the Mandeville, he would have learned the names and shapes of those two letters from a traveller, possibly from the English doctor Sir John Mandeville. Babylon the Great was in Mesopotamia.
- Related titles!
- Histoire critique?
- Works of Gertrude Page.
Haec ab oriente sub mari Caspio surgens, per ora oceani septentrionalis usque ad Maeotides paludes per deserta et inculta extenditur. Huic terrae canes ingentes sunt, tantaeque feritatis, ut tauros premant, leones perimant Sp. According to a footnote to Dan. The fourteenth-century version of the Chevalier au Cygne places the high sea near Paradise: Et puis le haulte mer qui paradix costie, Et la mist Dieu Adam et Eve son amie.
Compare Dante's hill of Paradise and Purgatory, arising in the midst of the Antipodean sea like Mandeville's mountayne, l. Pountz, Pontus Euxinus or the Black Sea. Here d'Outremeuse begins to follow friar Odoric's account of his travels in the East. Quicumque wlt, the first words of the Athanasian Creed, which is not now believed to be by Athanasius. The story of his quarrel with the Pope, described by Sir G. Warner as highly fanciful, really contains one more attack upon the Papacy. The fiction of an English authorship is again supported by the introduction of an English word.
Hayton of Armenia, an author familiar to d'Outremeuse, had been a lord of Cruk. Cordier, , pp. It is a duplicate of what d'Outremeuse had written about the Nile p. Cordier quotes from Chardin I. Sir I. Daniel de Thaurisio calls Ararat mons Noe. His commentators summarise the legend of a monk James, who tries to ascend to the top, but falls asleep on the way, and finds himself at his starting-point again when he awakes.
After several fruitless attempts, an angel tells him that God takes pity on him and gives him a piece of the ark, which was first preserved in St. James's monastery, and is now at Etchmiadzin Dan. Warner: The ruins of Ani, once the capital of Armenia, are about sixty miles north-west of Ararat, near Kars. Its thousand churches are mentioned by Rubruk in as then existing p.
Any is a mere duplicate of Dayne, according to d'Outremeuse's familiar method. Cordier, , p. D'Outremeuse adds the rivers and ships! Warner hesitates between Yezd and a place immediately to the north of Ispahan, now called Gez. So in B. Warner, following the Egerton MS. But vappa is only the Latin for flat wine, as in Massinger's Believe as you list: ………. Your viper wine, So much in practice with grey-bearded gallants, But vappa to the nectar of her lips. Act IV, Scene 1.
Warner identifies it as "given by J. Eccard, De origine Germanorum libri duo, , pl. It there professes to be Chaldaic. This MS. Are of Gosra. John of Hildesheim writes that it is a moot point among the Jews how the Lord could praise Job, though he was but a Gentile ed. The rest is from Vincent de Beauvais, Spec. No source has been traced for it. Similarly, the two Brussels MSS.
Meaning: In the kingdom of Chaldea, men are fair and go most nobly arrayed, with gilded head-dresses, and their garments also are adorned with orphreys and large pearls and precious stones very nobly. The Englisher has not translated couvre-chefs, i. Odoric: Les hommes y sont beaux et les femmes laides. La vont les hommes aournez ainsy que cy vont nos femmes et portent sur leurs chiefs d'or clos et chappeaux de perles p. The ultimate source is Gen. Warner here insert an alphabet, not recognisable to that learned palaeographer. Bovenschen refers especially to the Historia de preliis of the archpriest Leo.
Zarncke: Mariti praedictarum mulierum non morantur cum eis nec audent ad eas venire nisi statim vellent mori. Statutum est enim, quod quicumque vir intraverit praedictam insulam ipso die morietur. His duae fuere reginae, Marthesia et Lampeto vicissim terminos defendentes Spec. Non intacta manet, sed aduritur altera, lentos Promptius ut tendant arcus. Alexandreis, ed. Mueldener, , l. The distinction made between aristocratic girls, who lose the left breast, and the infantry, who lose the right, seems a characteristic duplication, imagined by d'Outremeuse.
Warner refers to Brun. Latini, who locates Termegite east of the Caspian I. He identifies it with Alexandria Margiana, now Merv, the foundation of which is attributed also to Seleucus. Isidore's west becomes the Mandeville's south through carelessness. Vincent de Beauvais: fons qui friget calore diei, et calet frigore noctis Spec. In the Arthurian romances, the Duke of Bellegarde having struck off King Lancelot's head, it falls into the brook. When the Duke dips his hand into the water, which had been very cold, it begins to boil with such violence, that he hardly has time to withdraw his fingers, which are burning to coal P.
Can the Englisher have read jaune? The Englisher seems to have mixed up cheueu and chenu. Esse rursum gentem alteram, quae in juventa cana sit, in senectute nigrescat, ultra aevi nostri terminos perennantem Spec. D'Ynde li brun d'uel coulor Sont li droit masle et li millor; D'Arabe sont li blanc femeles, Bones sont, ne sont pas si beles. Union pearls are begotten in that way according to Vincent de Beauvais: Naturaliter tamen aperit se contra rorem caeli, ipsumque in se recipit, et continet tanto tempore, quanto mulier foetum gestat in utero suo Spec. Ex contactu etiam prodesse dicitur insanis Spec.
Egerton: of violet colour. Eles of. Diu etiam credita est tertia pars terrarum, nec mirum sit, vel de hominum, vel de urbium copia, cum soli Indi nunquam a natali solo recesserint Spec. In and about India are over five thousand inhabitable isles, good and large, without those that are uninhabitable.
Warner quotes Barth. In Roger Bacon's Metaphysica, ed. Steele, the house of Jupiter, the ninth, "est peregrinacionum atque itinerum," etc. The moon is the house of mendacity! D'Outremeuse's astronomical geography seems made up of illdigested recollections. One of the variants there for Hormuz is Ornez, the source for the Mandeville's distortion of the name c.
Such medical jokes may be adduced as arguments for the authorship of the English doctor Mandeville. Alexander Achillinus, , reports that the people of Ormuz escape from the heat by spending the day in the water up to their chins. Bartsch, p. Thomas of India, a favourite hero of d'Outremeuse's, is ordered to worship a golden statue of the sun Spec. Warner and Bovenschen point to a similar distinction in Isidore, Etym. But the Mandeville seems more logical in contrasting natural and unnatural or monstrous images. The French original opposes many-headed figures, like the ones seen in India, to those with heads of animals, as in Egypt.
The Englisher collects the heads of several species on one trunk. Jacques de Vitry writes that some Orientals worship the first thing that they meet in the morning Michaud, Bibl. Dennis, Bell, , p. Warner suggests Panche, fourteen days' journey from Tana, in one MS. See below, note to p. La forest ou il croist a bien xviii.
En ceste forest a deux nobles citez: l'une a nom Flandrine et l'autre Singulir p. Postea producunt interius parvos fructus, qui leucopiper, idest piper album dicuntur, quia albi sunt. Efficacius est piper nigrum Spec. Quod incorruptum ab igne, piper album ibid. Warner, the common Arabic name, given by medical writers, such as Matth. That fires are lighted near the pepper forest is from Isidore Etym. The refutation seems d'Outremeuse's own invention. Explained as Quilon, on the Malabar coast, called Koulam in Arabic ed.
He drinks from it with all his people. It cures all ills that men may feel or suffer, unless there be death in them. The further adventures of Ogier also resemble the narrative in the Mandeville Vol. One of the cantos of the Romance of Alexander, edited by Michelant, , is devoted to the Fontaine de Jouvence pp. Warner refers to Huon de Bordeaux p.
Ce beuf ilz nourrissent six ans, etc. To the close of the chapter Odoric is closely followed. Prester John's Letter ed. Zarncke, p. Perhaps d'Outremeuse here intended a satire against the papacy. Haec ergo contendunt inter se de morte viri, et ambitio summa certantium est testimonium castitatis digna morte decerni Spec. Item les femmes y font rere leur barbe et non li homme.
Cordier traces this nonsense to a misinterpreted Latin text: mulieres etiam faciunt sibi abradi frontem et barbam homines non ed. Cordier: the Coromandel coast. Arabic: Ma'bar p. Warner: S, dehors le vessel; G, dehors du vaissel, i.