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APA Ungar, M. Chicago Ungar, Melanie. At the turn of the century, the German-speaking countries of central Europe experienced a surge of interest in humor theory as well as unprecedented feminist activity, making the relationship between humor and gender a fruitful area of study. This dissertation therefore examines literary works by decidedly non-feminist authors like Theodor Fontane, Thomas Mann, and Frank Wedekind as well as the feminist activist Hedwig Dohm and analyzes how humor works to influence gender representation in novels, short stories, dramas, and polemic essays.

In order to make these arguments, this dissertation engages with humor theory, classical to contemporary, as well as Judith Butler's theory of gender performativity. Parents: This work has no parents. Tweet Share. Master's Papers Deposit your masters paper, project or other capstone work. After that, a view inside Ida's body is enabled through a post-mortem examination providing the reader with the medical explanation of the cause of death.

Ida is lying dissected in the Friedrichshain hospital: " [ Although we can follow step by step with scientific accuracy what happened to Ida, our senses are confused through the regularity of the above mentioned discourses. The terrible scene is not supported by exclamation of horror or other kind of sensuous exaggeration as in the Greek saga.

There is no pity on a person. People are not united by a joint humane reality - conditio humanis, suffering, compassion, but they are rather - as Hungarian Marxist philosopher Lukacs defines the modern subject in his Theory of the Novel - alienated, homeless, fragmented, and lonely Cf. There are clearly some personal aspects of the relationship between Ida and Franz in this chapter, but the truth is that the public discourses dominate the whole scene. The accumulation of information strips Ida of her individuality and files her into one of the cases of public statistics. The mingling of public and private spheres, or to put it better, the superiority of the public and general over the private and specific has an effect of leveling-down of the experience and standardization of men as a result.

The standardization, or rather the covering of the event with scientific procedures, blurs the picture of terror. Or to be honest, not at all. To recap, although the scientific discourses clarify different aspects of Ida's death, this depersonalized language in general also blurs the picture and causes a perception denial on the side of the reader who is in this way kept at a distance from Franz's barbaric act.

The death, as one of the most unpleasant moment in human life, managed and controlled by men and their rational institutions, is also the theme of the last aspect of technological discourse with which I want to close my paper. The motif of death, or to be more exact, the proximity of death, has always had a momento mori function in literature. The dance macabre in the Middle Ages evoked the futility of all earthly treasures, and later in the same sense Dickens' Christmas Carol and Hofmannsthal's Jedermann und Der Thor und der Tot alluded to the invalidity of property and the discovery of genuine values.

Here I want to make an assumption that in the years of rising industrialization of society, whose rationalizing mechanisms enter the realm of literature, the topos of death gets an additional enlightening function which could be described as follows: Death makes the rational net transparent and its frictionless functionalism fragile. It is a kind of resistance in nature itself [ 9 ] that breaks through the rational spider web and makes one self-forgotten. A man has been hit by a truck and is lying on the ground. The crowd is gathered around him.

A pair approaches the scene of the accident:. Der Herr sagte nach einigem Schweigen zu ihr: "Diese schweren Kraftwagen, wie sie hier verwendet werden, haben einen zu langen Bremsweg. Bewundernswert sind diese sozialen Einrichtungen. The accident causes the collapse of the city order. A man hit by a truck is lying on the curb as if dead. The lady is struck by the scene. Or in more philosophical terms, true being, usually buried under the numerous cognitive layers of ordinary city routines, penetrates the rational net of symbolic representations and causes its fall.

The lady is overcome by the fear for her own existence. The proximity of death makes her hesitant, irresolute, and helpless. It causes her to forget herself, to fall out of her role, but it gives her something back, something she lost a long time ago, and that is compassion, the secret bond with another human being and the world around her. Death as the dark invisible shadow, resistance in nature itself, shakes the very basis of human existence. But her suffering does not last for a long time. The gentleman explains the state of affairs with the following words: "Diese schweren Kraftwagen, wie sie hier verwendet werden, haben einen zu langen Bremsweg.

The lady is relieved, although she does not really understand or care to understand what the word means. The gentleman's explanation helps put this ghastly incident into perspective by reducing it to a technicality of no direct personal concern to her. The lady does not believe her eyes, but relies on a technical magic word behind which there is no visual representation she does not know what the word means but only the scientific haze.

She does not believe her inner feeling but in an external appearance, a rational ghost of security. She prefers to set something before herself, the scientific glasses with painted spectacle lens, in order not to see. She prefers the technical haze to the painful reality.

Soon the ambulance comes and takes care of the victim. The lady, now encouraged by this triumph of modern society, has an unjustified feeling that she has experienced something unusual.

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The rational web woven by the society and its procedures is revealed by the proximity of death as a decisive reality. Death confronts the subject with true being. This, too, was a period of undiminished productivity.

Theodor Fontane: Effi Briest (1/35) - ElstersLesehöhle

Different phases of work reached their zenith: the realistic novel touched with romanticism, in "Efia Briest"; the satiric narrative of the Berlin bourgeoisie, in "Frau Jenny Treibel"; the ripe character study set against a political background, in the last narrative, "Der Stechlin. These done, Fontane contemplated a return to the "gods of earlier years," to romance and studies of Branden- burg. He wrote with enthusiasm of prospective work on East- Frisian material, "Die Likedeeler," that he had picked up in the course of a summer outing ten years before; again, Sep- tember 17, , of a plan to treat "Das Landchen Friesack und die Bredows," for which he had been collecting material since They bear evidence that in spite of his seventy-nine years his creative faculty was as fresh as his humor and his sympathy with youth.

These fundamental restrictions have perhaps more than or- dinary bearing upon Theodor Fontane's dramatic criticism. He was not a critic who wandered at will in the highways and by-ways of books. The impelling force of earning a comfortable livelihood for himself and his family was always behind him. Only in his creative work — the poems, bal- lads, novels, and prose tales — did he enjoy a certain freedom from transmuting into material maintenance the opportunity which the moment offered; and that degree of freedom, which he enjoyed there, he earned in large part in the servi- tude of occasional criticism.

The business of making literature for the sake of daily bread was distasteful to him, as to all men of creative bent. The feverish quest of news was not his idea of journalism. He writes to Ma- thilde von Rohr Jan.

Metzels Laune eben nicht golden machen. Ich bin nie und nimmer der Meinung gewesen, dass es uns gliicken wiirde, hinsichtlich neuester Nachrichten mit unseren Collegen concurriren zu konnen, ja, ich habe im Oktober eigens erklart, dass das unmoglich sei. Ich habe die Ansicht gehabt, dass es sich um die Ver- fechtung und Vertretung eines Prinzips handle, und dass es darauf an- komme, verniinftige, wohl iiberlegte Dinge zu sagen, aber es war mir fremd, dass eine Hetzjagd in Bezug auf Neuigkeiten angestellt werden soil. From , for example, there is a paragraph indicating that the range of his reading had previously excluded much, known certainly to men of letters and to many casual readers as well: "Meine Lekture von Neujahr bis Ende Marz war Willibald Alexis.

Alexis fur Rodenbergs 'Salon. Juli ich und der ganze Haushalt nach Krummhubel. Sehr schone Zeit. What may be termed Fontane's real activity in the line of dramatic criticism falls into two periods of very unequal length. The second is the period of reports for the Vossische Zeitung on the Royal Theater of Berlin and covers, with but two short breaks, a sweep of almost twenty years At its beginning his "Wanderungen" and the books on the Danish war and the Austro-Prussian war had already added to the reputation of the ballad-writer.

At its end he had gained distinct popularity as "Brandenburg Traveler," and had added to his literary achievements success in the realistic novel. Band meines Romans, war nun aber so herunter, dass ich aus Berlin fortmusste. Ich ging in den Harz. In Thale auf Partien, die totlich langweilig sind, verzichtete ich machte ich die Correctur des 3. Bandes und beschrankte mich darauf, um s Uhr Nachmittage in den 'Waldkater' zu gehen und hier bei Thee und Milch und wahrend die Bode unmittelbar in meinem Riicken brauste, Walter Scott zu lesen und zwar den 'Alterthumler.

In he said that he had had the material in mind for ten years, and spoke of dependence on Scott in a general way in his work upon it W, i! Appendix, previous to Ein Nachruf" Deutsche Rund- schau, Nov. Schlenther; but his work in realistic narrative and his ap- preciative criticisms of Ibsen's technic had prepared the way for this distinction. In addition to the criticism in fulfilment of definite obliga- tions through a period of almost two score years, both letters and feuilletons flowed freely from his pen.

The most lengthy discussions of drama found in the letters are with reference to the Free Stage, but many other bits are of importance because of the spontaneity for which Fontane's letters stand. The vast number of scattered feuilletons come into considera- tion only in a limited way, since they were in large part on subjects not connected with drama. In all, the dramatic criticism represents a development of thirty-five years, begin- ning with what is usually considered the prime of life, closing when Fontane's own creative power had, in spite of his seventy years, not yet reached its zenith.

Because of this continuity and the rare phenomenon of his late development, there is no other single line of his work and interest that affords as complete a basis for judging his general growth in esthetic conviction as this. For the early dramatic criticism, spasmodic in nature as compared with the later work, a clear perspective is best secured through a review of some of the facts of Fontane's life from to i He married in October, , on the prospect of a position in the Literary Bureau of the Ministry of the Interior.

In February, , shortly before leaving to try his for- tunes in London, he wrote to Wolfsohn, advising him against Berlin. London conditions, too, were by no means encouraging. A letter of July 20 reveals the fact that through a successful interview on the part of his wife with Dr. Quehl, the press manager in Berlin, they were again assured of the 40 Reichstaler, on the pros- pect of which they had married. Nevertheless Fontane ex- pressed very decidedly the wish to remain temporarily in England, and considered various means to make this possible on a basis independent of the ministerial press.

Bunsen, the Prussian ambassador at the English court, attempted to secure a professorship for him at Cambridge or Oxford. He wrote to his wife L — dated, 2. Pfingsttag; the year is omitted, but the letter was with those of and agrees with them in content : "Man stiirze sich in diesen Menschenstrudel, der sich London nennt, und die Seele kehrt frisch, wie aus einem Bade, immer wieder zu ihrem Tagewerk zuruck. Juni, : " Ich hittte dir London gem gezeigt; denn wiewohl mir nicht allzuviel hier ge- gliickt ist, bleib' ich doch nach wie vor dabei: es ist das Grosste was diese Erde hat.

Auf der anderen Seite kann ich mir wieder nicht denken, dass man sie absolut unbedeutend findet, man wiirde sonst bereits Anstalten getroffen haben, mich von hier abzuberufen.


Im Uebrigen ist mein Geld total consumirt, da ich von Mr. Hudson noch nichts erhalten habe und mich weder melden kann noch mag. Ich hoffe, dass du im Stande bist, mir was zu schicken. In September, , he was sent back to London to es- tablish a German-English correspondence for the promotion Unterstiitzung of Prussian political interests. This stay lasted till January, , broken only by brief visits home in the fall of and the spring of ;' The first year and a half — the period of the Shakspere reports — was again a time of unrest, of strenuous demands and anxious uncer- tainty as to the permanency of the new undertaking.

There was an increase in salary, and in July his family joined him for the remainder ' He writes to his wife i — August 23, : "Die Sachen stehen in diesem Augenblick wieder gut. Das Eine halte fest, wenn auch wieder mein HofEen und Harren hier umsonst sein sollte — das Geld ist nicht weggeschmissen. Glaube nicht, dass das dem Geiste Nahrung gibt, dass man irgend etwas dabei lernt; man wird flinker, kriegt Routine, das ist alles; im Uebrigen wird man jeden Tag mit Gottes und der Zeitungen Hilfe dummer.

So liegen die Sachen, nicht eben erbaulich. Es gabe doch ein Zauberwort, das alles doch aus Grau in Rosa zu farben; wenn Meizel schriebe: 'ich bin mit Ihrer letzten Wochenarbeit zufrieden; ich soU Ihnen gleichzeitig die Aner- kennung des Ministerpr3. Es war die letzte Vorstellung, und wenn ich sie nicht sah, so war sie mir fur immer verloren.

Ich werde nun auf einer 3ten und wenn ich Gluck habe auf einer 4ten Vorstadt-Biihne, Shake- spearesche Stiicke auffiihren sehen und dann 3 oder 4 Briefe iiber diesen Gegenstand an's Kunstblatt schicken. Wenn die Kreuz-Zeitung es dann nicht druckt oder vielleicht es kurzt, so hab' ich dann doch Deine Abschrift. Ich will namlich einen grossen Aufsatz fiber die Shakespeare- Aufffihrungen in London schreiben, ahnlich wie fiber die Wochenblatter. It was published in Berlin as a Thursday weekly, and edited by Friedrich Eggers, a friend of Fontane. Fontane's letters on the London theaters appeared anonymously in the supplement, Lileratur Blatt, under the general title "Shakespere auf der modernen englischen Buhne" as follows: Nov.

Yet there is no evidence other than this that he attached any great importance to this work. In presenting the ma- terial to the public a second time, he makes no claim for it and that of the companion essays except its treatment of comparatively new themes. The content, in so far as given in both, is, however, largely identical, and the point of departure for the criticism of the individual plays is never changed. The chief difference lies in the fact that in the combined essay the performances are treated — for the sake of unity — under the subdivisions of the several theaters, as the main title, "Die Londoner The- ater," would suggest.

Fontane attributes the appearance of the new volume to his desire to rescue his honest efforts from the oblivion that is the usual fate of newspaper articles; but it is with the admission that there is always involved in the revival of such things the question whether form and content justify giving them new life or whether the decree must be to let the dead rest. His attitude toward his prose work in general was in the early years one of indifference.

In , when he decided at all costs upon a literary career, he took his stand, in spite of discouragingly small receipts, on the basis of verse in the main. It included in addition to the divi- sion on the London stage, a lengthy report of the Manchester Art Ex- hibition, a chapter on the London weeklies and one on the dailies. The section on art gives attention to Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Gains- borough; the historic painters with emphasis on Benjamin West; the genre-painters, especially David Wilkie and Landseer; the landscape artists, with emphasis upon Turner.

All of these subjects are connected, therefore, with the reference to new themes. He had, too, the conviction that his natural gift was in this line, although he was conscious that he lacked the lyric temperament which makes a great poet. In poetischen Dingen hab' ich die Erkenntnis 30 Jahre friiher gehabt als in der Prosa; daher lese ich meine Gedichte mit Vergnugen oder doch ohne Verlegenheit, wahrend meine Prosa aus derselben Zeit mich bestandig geniert und erroten macht. One of the chief sustaining forces in his struggle in the literary world was confidence in his ability.

He writes to his wife from London concerning the anxiety he notes in his mother's letters in regard to his future. Ich bin ' W, 2, X, f. He wrote to Storm Feb. He wrote to his wife Jan. Es drippelt nur so. Der einzelne Tropfen mag ganz gut und klar sein; aberes ist und bleibt nur ein Tropfen, kein Strom, auf dem die Nationen fahren und hineinsehn in die Tiefe und in das himmlische Sonnenlicht, das sich drin spiegelt.

Aber nach menschlicker Berechnung liegt kein Grund vor, warum ich zum Verhungern ausersehen sein soli. Ich weiss wie viel mir fehlt, aber ich weiss auch, dass ich in der langen Reihe derer, die von ihrer Feder und ihren Kenntnissen leben, lange nicht der dummste und erbarmlichste bin. Ich argerte mich iiber einige dumme Bemerkungen und muss noch jetzt sagen, dass ich ein Recht dazu hatte. Ich kann mich nicht mehr wie den ersten besten kleinen Kriiger trak- tiren lassen. Ich verlange, dass cine Redaktion den Unterschied fuhlt und anerkennt, der zwischen einem Feuilleton von mir und den gewohnlichen Machwerken einzelne glanzende Ausnahmen gem zuge- geben existiert und wenn sie das nicht kann oder will, so passen wir nicht zusammen.

Although Fontane took a pharisaic at- titude on the whole toward things academic, because of their deadening influence upon personality, yet he realized that his tools were none too well whetted for the vocation he had chosen. His best training had been as an apothecary. He had taken his place behind the prescription counter early, and entertained afterward a plan that did not prove feasible for returning to the school desk. Fontane and follows immediately one of July 25, The published letters for this month and year throw no light upon the opening sentence of the excerpt. Heute Abend sehe ich den 'Othello' in einem Vorstadttheater.

Noch andere Vorstellungen stehen in Aussicht. Diese Theaterabende sind das beste, was ich bisjetzt gehabt habe. Fontane's regular work as critic began ten years later, when he was engaged by the Vossiche Zeitung to report on the Royal Stage. Es entbehrt wahrer Herzlichkeit und Gemiitlichkeit, die am Ende fiir einen Deutschen keine Luxus- artikel sind — aber es ware ungerecht solch Leben deshalb ein schlechtes und trauriges zu nennen. Es wilrde trostlos sein, so immer leben zu miissen, aber auf Monate, die noch dazu eine Schuheit sein soUen, ist es am Ende auszuhalten, wenn man nicht eine besonders dicke Sentimen- talitats-Ader im Leibe hat.

Ich bin zu Zeiten sehr traurig gewesen, aber nie well ich mich in meiner Isoliertheit kreuz-unglucklich gefuhit hatte, sondern immer nur, wenn mich die Furcht anwandelte: 'am Ende ist alles vergeblich gewesen und Du kehrst nach Berlin gerad' so zuriick wie Du weggegangen bist — ein Halbgelehrter oder noch weniger. The one all-consuming interest — the war — dulled enthusiasm for dramaturgy, and only weekly reports followed up to the middle of September. He was released late in November to find that his experience had gained him not a little newspaper-fame, and resumed his theater reports on December i4th.

Various letters referring to his ex- perience in France are found, W, 2, VI. The request for a third war- book came to him from R. Decker W, 2, VI, , , printer in ordinary to the court. Decker had published the earlier war-books of Fontane also, and these had had some recognition from the throne, as the following entry in the diary under the general heading "" shows: "Geh. Anfang Juli uberreichte Geh.

Rath v. Wilmowski S. Halbband meines 66er Kriegsbuches, wofur ich abermals ein Geschenk von so Friedrichsd'or erhielt. Es brachte grosse Freude ins Haus und heiteren Sinnes reisten wir, die Wohnung zuschliessend, am Juli von hier ab, um 4 Wochen in Warnemunde zuzubringen. Aber schon am Ein ungeheurer Larm brach los, dessen Wellen wir selbst in dem stillen Warnemunde ver- spurten. It is uncertain to whom this was addressed, probably — in the opinion of Mr. Friedrich Fontane — to Dr. Kletke, editor-in- chief of V. It reads: "Besanjon d. Oktober, Hochgeehrter Herr Doctor.

Unechte Korrespondenzen - Theodor Fontane - Google книги

Sie werden moglicherwise schon wissen, dass ich in Domremy, zu Fussen der Jungfrau von Orleans, verhaftet worden und von Ort zu Ort geschaSt worden bin bis hierher. The position did not prove to his taste and he resigned it after a few months to resume independent literary pursuits and the reports on the theater. Schauspiele verbleibt; es wird nicht schwer halten einen SteUvertreter zu finden.

Dazu kommt, dass das Theater, so lange der Krieg dauert, nur ein untergeordnetes Interesse bietet. Geht dies aber alles nicht, oder hegen Sie die Ansicht, dass der Friede noch weit sein kann, so werd' ich es allerdings nur begreiflich finden konnen, wenn Sie sich nach einem andern Berichterstatter umsehen. Januar fragte mich Zoellner, auf einer grossen Reunion bei Heydens, ob ich wohl geneigt sein wiirde, an Stelle des jungst verstorb. Gruppe, die Stelle eines ersten Sekretairs der Akademie der Kiinste anzunehmen?

Ich sagte 'ja. Marz, nachdem ich uumittelbar vorher meine Bestallung erhalten hatte, wurde ich in inein neues Amt eingefiihrt. Ich fand es von Anfang an miserabel, schleppte mich aber bis Ende Mai hin, wo mir der Geduldsfaden riss. Ich hatte eine Scene im Senat, und reichte am andern Tage meinen Abschied ein. Nach langen, iangweiligen und kamp fereichen Wochen, in denen ich die Menschennatur nicht von ihrer glanzendsten Seite kennen lernte, erhielt ich am 2.

August meine Entlassung, die schon am Juli vom Kaiser bewilligt war. Theater bei der Vossin eingetreten war. Eine Reise machte ich in diesem Jahre nicht, weder Zeit, noch Geld, noch Stimmung waren dazu vorhanden. The novel referred to here is "Vor dem Sturm" — cf. In addition to this break in Fontane's criticism due to the temporary secretaryship at the Academy of Arts, there were briefer intermissions almost yearly due to variable health. Physical limitations had to be combated throughout his whole career. As early as he wrote to Wolfsohn that a cough of six months' persistence had ranked him as a tubercular.

In he writes of a long period 14 The letters on the London stage have at least this advan- tage over the work of the later period that the choice of sub- ject is not only spontaneous, but based solely on deep interest in the master-poet of Avon. The list of plays upon which the later reports are made shows,' on the contrary, that the of ill health during which his work suffered W, 2, VI, The years and were particularly unfruitful because of illness W, 2, VII, i.

Excerpts from the diary for , , and are re- spectively as follows: "Bis Mitte Februar verging alles leidlich, dann wurde ich krank, sine bose, endlose Grippe, eine wahre Geduldsprobe, die mich uber 10 Wochen lang zu jeder Arbeit unfahig machte. Dann hielt ich mich bis Ende Marz und beendigte in dieser Zeit den a. Band meines Romans. Nun aber kam Krankheit; ich wurde recht elend und war erst Mitte Mai wieder leidlich im Gange. Hayns Erben. In making up these averages the years and have been omitted entirely, since they were years of little critical activity on Fontane's part.

The greater number of inferior playwrights have been omitted from the following list altogether, if their hold upon the repertoire of the Royal Stage was either strictly ephemeral, spasmodic, or persistently so small as to be practically negligible. Average no. Bauernfeld, Eduard von, performances yearly, 15 yrs. Benedix, Roderich, average of 20 performances yearly plays , 18 yrs. Brachvogel, Albert E. Byron, "Manfred" given 4 times, Calderon, performances yearly, 5 yrs. Erckmann-Chatrian, "Die Rantzau" given 25 times, , and times each year after, except Freytag, Gustav, average of 4 performances yearly, i8 yrs.

A greater number of the performances Gensichen, Otto F. Goethe, performances in all: average, 13 yearly, 18 yrs. Gottschall, Rudolf von, performances yearly, s yrs. Grillparzer, Franz, average of 3 performances yearly, 10 yrs. Gutzkow, Karl F. Hebbel, Friedrich, 2 performances, Heyse, Paul, rare up to ; after that, average of 12 performances yearly, ranging ; "Die Weisheit Salomos," 21 times, Hillern, Wilhelmine von, 18 performances, ; after that, yearly up to Ibsen, "The Lady from the Sea" given 15 times, Iffland, August W.

Kleist, Heinrich von, average of s performances yearly, 17 yrs. Kotzebue, August F. Laube, Heinrich, performances yearly, 9 yrs. Lessing, average of 9 performances yearly ranging , 18 yrs. Lindau, Paul, average of 13 performances yearly, 16 yrs. Lindner, Albert, 17 performances in all, Ludwig, Otto, 2 performances of "Erbforster" i, i88i; i, MoliSre, 34 performances in all, spasmodically.

Mosenthal, Salomon von, performances yearly, 8 yrs. Moser, Gustav von, performances in all: average of 16 yearly, 18 yrs. Scribe, Eugene, average of 8 performances yearly ranging , i6 yrs. Shakspere, performances in all plays ; average 34 yearly, 18 yrs. Spielhagen, Friedrich, , 6 performances; , Topfer, Carl, performances yearly, 18 yrs. Turgenef, "Natalie"' given 10 times, Voss, Richard, from average performances yearly. Wichert, Ernst, performances in all: average of 7 yearly, 15 yrs. Wilbrandt, Adolf, 85 performances in all: average of i-io yearly, 15 yrs. Wildenbruch, Ernst von, performances in all, beginning , ranging yearly; , S7- 16 of the Royal Stage were, to be sure, devoted yearly to Shak- spere than to any other dramatist.

Schiller ranked next. Goethe showed no mean proportion, but ranked nevertheless below von Moser. Kleist and Grillparzer received little at- tention and Hebbel was almost tabooed. Foreign plays — chiefly translations from the French — and an overwhelming mass of prosaic or trivial third or fourth rate material, taken in part from the evanescent productions of the day, and in part — when this source failed — from the "harmless" and dramatically sterile period of the 30's and 40's, filled in the repertoire.

Even in , when all the world was opening its eyes to the just demand for new life in drama and to the compelling innovations of the modern school, established tradition retained its grip on the Royal Stage. Die 'Gespenster' frisch und lebendig, wie nur je eine lebendige Brigitta; 'Brigitta' so tot, wie nur je Gespenster sain konnen. Fiir die Freie Buhne und fiir die realistische Schule, die nach Herrschaft oder doch mindestens nach Mitregierung ringt, kann nichts Besseres passieren als die Vor- fiihrung solcher R.

Vossschen Stiicke. The note of regret that most of the actors of the Royal Stage cannot do tragedy and history is frequent. There are repeated references, too, in Fontane's reports to mediocre ideas and to lack of interest ' Lack of progressive spirit showed itself also in various ways in con- nection with even the plays accepted. Brahm notes that a recent program of the Royal Stage follows finally the change made by Heyse in V. Sacrificing the original love-episode, he transformed Heinrich Marx into the brother of Rose Blank. In , he writes: "Diese Theater- Wirtschaft muss doch endlich ein Ende nehmen.

Von Sonnabend bis Sonnabend 4mal, und die beiden langen Bilder- besprechungen, das ist zuviel. Da muss man Pietsch sein. Ich bin froh, dass ich's los bin ; es ging solch Doppelreferat iiber meine Krafte. Freitag den 2ten Nov. Unter allerlei Theater-Manieren eine Rolle herkommlich 'runterzuspielen genau wie ein Leierkasten- stUck heisst nicht Schauspieler sein. Ich bange vor dem, was kommt. Nur Lustspiele sind ertraglich. The reports were written to meet the obligation of the day, without any thought on his part — so far as is known — of preservation in permanent form.

The collection which he later made of them was made to satisfy his own interest and for reference. W, 2, X, f-. Had this not been so, it is not likely that he would have endured a service that offered only material compensation for its bonds. The whole argument of his life is against persistence on his part in a situation which did not satisfy to some degree an inner need and afford a certain freedom for self-expression.

Ich wundre mich iiber diese Erklarung gar nicht, — sie ist ganz in der Ordnung; aber es geht daraus hervor, dass ich fur jane Zeitung nicht schreiban kann, wenn gerade das, was mich am meisten erwarmt und erhebt, von ihr varworfan warden muss. Ich bin nun mal Praussa, und fraua mich es zu sain. He writes to his mother from England :' " Finally, upon resigning the secretaryship at the Royal Academy of Art, he writes to his ' Cf.

Fontane had been connected with the min- isterial press from the beginning of his literary profession, with the Neue Preussische Zeitung, of which Dr. Dinge, Personen, Zustande sind alle gleich unerquicklich. Ich passe in seiche Verhaltnisse nicht hinein und will mich lieber welter qualen. Among these, a belief in the theater as a power probably played some part, although no excessive importance is to be attached to this factor. It was not the purpose of the drama, in his opinion, to exploit truths or to teach facts, although he demanded that due regard be paid to these, when they provided a natural and necessary background for the human beings whose inner life was there to be set in relief.

For him the stage stood first among good and elevating diversions. From England he asks the question, why such a play as "Antony and Cleopatra" is not given at home? He spurns the excuse that the great mass cannot appreciate it and declares it to be the problem of the stage to awaken such appreciation. The enthusiasm with which he writes of the feeling of the folk in England for Shakspere, who in Germany is considered "caviar for the people," shows clearly his ideal for the stage.

His resignation took place in A some- what tardy addition to tlie diary under refers to it as follows: "Am Oster-Sonnabend 16 April hatte ich eine Scene mit Dr. Beut- ner, ennujdrte mich aufs ausserste und beschloss meine Stellung auf- zugeben und in Freiheit ein neues Leben zu beginnen. Am Mlttwoch nach Ostern Es war ein Wagniss, aber in diesem Augenblick, 4 Monate nach dem Abbruch, preise ich meinen Entschluss. Es scheint, dass es das Richtige war. At any rate, he labored zealously to arouse in the Royal Theater of Berlin the desire to take the place incum- bent upon it of leader in German dramaturgic art.

There are not infrequent withering suggestions to the effect that the Royal Stage is unworthy of its calling. There are various indications of the belief that criticism was in this sense a thankless task, that conditions were practically in- flexible. The persistence with which he maintained his standards brings with it ever-increasing admiration for his courage in facing lack of response.

It is impossible to dis- connect his detailed and careful suggestions for improvement from all hope of realizing visible result. In other lines of work he was by no means insensitive to worthy appreciation and praise. Furthermore, a letter at the end of his long and steady race, containing suggestions concerning his successor, shows a far different dream of what criticism might do.

W, 2, XI, f. W, 2, VI, The necessity for self-expression was behind his work. He evidently enjoyed objectively, too, the sense of adding his word to the current of daily opinion.

Das ist aber falsch und unklug. Wir miissen vielmehr unsere Seele mit dem Glauben an die Nichtigkeit dieser Dinge ganz erfuUen und unser Gliick einzig und allein in der Arbeit, in dem uns Betatigen unser selbst finden.

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Natural as it was that there should have been periods of depression and that when at seventy he relinquished regular work of this kind, the sense of compulsion in it should have come to be burden- some,' yet various degrees of pleasure came to him quite spontaneously in connection with his visits to the theater. W, 2, XI, letter to Friedrich Stephany, June 6, , in regard to a criticism which he was contributing voluntarily. W, 2, XI, letter to P. He wrote to his wife from London: ' "Ich kann dir hier keine Geniisse versprechen, aber wir sind nun mal auf ein apartes Leben angewiesen und vor allem darauf, rastlos zu probieren, wo Frau Fortuna denn eigentlich steckt.

Fontane's personal opinion is clear from the statement that what isn't tabooed verboten is permissible; but he says that the effect was very good. Das heisst nach aussen bin, in meinem Gemute nicht. May 8, The lines in question — from the Schlegel translation cf. Er macht es den Lumpen-Komodianten so naturlich nach, wie man was sehen kann. When the of- fering lacked the excellence which affords artistic pleasure, he was interested in it as a product of conditions. Yet for Fontane this mutilated "Richard III" was food for reflection as an interesting proof that Shakspere may be made to appeal to even the lower classes.

Fontane's more than usual interest in human beings, also contributed without doubt to his enjoyment of this work. His fondness for intercourse with people amounted to a real need. Pressed as he was by the necessity of making his work lucra- tive, he never for this reason isolated himself for any great length of time. One of the frequent notes in his diary in the early years of pressure, incomplete as this seems to be — at times in fact the only subjective note — is "geplaudert.

Daraus hast Du aber nicht zu schliessen, das es sehr schon war; es war nur sehr interessant, Parallelen Ziehen zu konnen und in mehr als einer Beziehung lehrreich. Liibke liest ein Kapitel aus seiner Xunstgeschichte Masaccio und Ghirlandajo. Gearbeitet Longfellow. In den Rtttli bei Prof. Gesprache fiber bairische und sachsische Kriegsgeschichte — die letztere wird von Blomberg und Menzel sehr verteidigt.

Nachher Plaudereien uber Kopisch, Ferrand und Minding. His family letters show interest in every detail connected with the domestic and social life of his wife and children; Both diary and letters mention constantly people of interest whom he meets in social gatherings or in the course of the summer half -holiday.

His " Kinder jahre" and "Von Zwan- zig bis Dreissig" are very largely recollections of people. Festsetzung einer Concurrenz zum letzten Sonntag im April — ein erzahlendes Gedicht. Nach Haus. Gelesen Oxford. W, 2, III, 13 ; s, 15; , 23; , is; , is; i8so, 7; , 4; , 8; i8s3, 7; ,4; ,4; , 11; ,2; ,3; , i; , I. Three prizes are recorded: for "Der Tag von Hemmingstedt" in cf. Fon- tane himself laid value upon the influence of the Tunnel in his develop- ment cf.

W, 2, X, ; XI, His words: "Das Beste was ich weiss, hab ich durch Umgang, Erzahlung, Lektiire gelernt" L — to his wife, London, March 18, , cannot but have reference in part to this. Fontane was one of the original members and was devoted to it as late as , when he had become one of only three attendants W, 2, XI, The Ellora was composed also chiefly of members of the Tunnel.

It was limited to seven. It began with weekly meetings Lubke, , and Fontane mentions attending it in Sept. Es fehlt mir aller Zu- spruch, alia Aufmunterung, alles Mitbestreben, alias, was wohltut, erfreut, erhabt, begaistert. Wie lebe ich denn in der Reichshauptstadt? Von Tagan verlaufen nach dieser Vorschrift. Du denkst 'ich wunsche es so. Moreover, they brought him into contact with the creative impulse of author and impersonator engaged in the solution of problems of art, in the striving for an ideal.