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The tool allows for the user to manipulate the information and view the comparison in multiple formats, including side-by-side and histogram. This comparison edition is also linked from the Romantic Circles edition ed. Stuart Curran. Romantic Circles Editions. Romantic Circles, May This edition preserves both the and publications of Frankenstein.

The novels can be read online as well as compared using a Juxta Commons link. The edition includes a critical introduction and study aids plot summary, characters, additional materials. An appendix lists more than previous editions of the novel. The Shelley-Godwin Archive. The manuscript for Frankenstein can be read in its original manuscript versions or in its first printed three-volume text.

Each page is exquisitely rendered and optimized for audience reading, zooming, and comparing. Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus Online page images of the edition that can be read online in a page-turner version. Frankenstein by Mary Shelley; David H. This edition of Frankenstein pairs the original version of the manuscript -- meticulously line-edited and amended by Charles E. Robinson, one of the world's preeminent authorities on the text -- with annotations and essays by leading scholars exploring the social and ethical aspects of scientific creativity raised by this remarkable story.

The result is a unique and accessible edition of one of the most thought-provoking and influential novels ever written. Mellor, Alfred Nordmann. F73 C36 Theoretically informed but accessibly written, this volume relates Frankenstein to various social, literary, scientific and historical contexts, and outlines how critical theories such as ecocriticism, posthumanism, and queer theory generate new and important discussion in illuminating ways. The volume also explores the cultural afterlife of the novel including its adaptations in various media such as drama, film, television, graphic novels, and literature aimed at children and young adults.

Written by an international team of leading experts, the essays provide new insights into the novel and the various critical approaches which can be applied to it. F73 E5. The twelve essays in this collection attest to the endurance of Mary Shelley's "waking dream.

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When several of the contributors to this book discovered that they were all closet aficionados of Mary Shelley's novel, they decided that a book might be written in which each contributor-contestant might try to account for the persistent hold that Frankenstein continues to exercise on the popular imagination. Within a few months, two films--Warhol's Frankenstein and Mel Brooks's Young Frankenstein--and the Hall-Landau and Isherwood-Bachardy television versions of the novel appeared to remind us of our blunted purpose. These manifestations were an auspicious sign and resulted in the book Endurance of Frankenstein.

M27 Author of six novels, five volumes of biographical lives, two travel books, and numerous short stories, essays, and reviews, Mary Shelley is largely remembered as the author of Frankenstein, as the wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley, and as the daughter of William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft. This collection of essays, edited by Betty T. Bennett and Stuart Curran, offers a more complete and complex picture of Mary Shelley, emphasizing the full range and significance of her writings in terms of her own era and ours. Mary Shelley in Her Times brings fresh insight to the life and work of an often neglected or misunderstood writer who, the editors remind us, spent nearly three decades at the center of England's literary world during the country's profound transition between the Romantic and Victorian eras.

Other topics include Mary Shelley's work in various literary genres, her editing of her husband's poetry and prose, her politics, and her trajectory as a female writer. M Other works of Shelley are also examined in this collection of critical essays. He is, moreover, heroically generous. Letter III is a rather short one in comparison to the two preceding letters. It is written on July 7th, four months after the second one, and reaches his sister through a merchant who is bound homeward from Archangel.

Though Walton longs to see his native land again, he writes about the determination of his crew. Resolute in their mission, they do not allow minor dangers to deter them. Letter IV consists of three separate letters, the first of which is written on August 5th and is markedly different from the reassuring mood of the prior letter, and begins by stating that the events he is about to record are a truly incredible story. The following morning, Walton finds his crew talking to someone in the water who was floating on a sleigh sitting atop a large piece of ice, with only one dog still alive.

The stranger, who appeared to be a European man, will later be identified as Victor Frankenstein. Most remarkable of all, however, is that though the stranger, shivering and sickly, is in great need of rescuing, he will only come aboard if he is told where the ship is headed. I never saw a man in so wretched a condition. The letter ends with Walton declaring that the stranger is the friend whom he had hoped to meet, stating that he loved him as a brother. While Victor thanks him for his concern, he also informs Walton that it is hopeless. Beaufort 30 fell into dire financial straits and, consequently, decided to leave town with his daughter, Caroline, in an effort to avoid humiliation.

Alphonse, grieving for the absence of his trusted friend, finally located Beaufort and offered to help him, though the proud Beaufort turned him down. Beaufort eventually died of grief and his daughter, Caroline, was left an impoverished orphan. Alphonse, as her protector, left her in the care of a relative. Two years hence, in the first of many strange relationships in the Frankenstein household, Alphonse decided to marry Caroline.

Indeed, a great deal of critical attention has been given to the strange formation of the Frankenstein household. With the subsequent birth of Victor and his other sons, Alphonse relinquished his life of public service so that he could devote his time to the education of his children. Though happily married, Caroline still longed to have a daughter and, by a strange quirk of fate, her wish was fulfilled. As to this last fact, we are told that Caroline and Alphonse were both determined from the outset that Victor marry Elizabeth as a means of solidifying the familial bond.

Victor portrays his childhood as one of perfect bliss, where peace and harmony prevail. In addition to Elizabeth, we are introduced to his cherished friend, Henry Clerval. Clerval is a sweet and creative boy, enamored of the tales of chivalry and romance from which he composes plays that he and Victor act out.

As to their education at home, we are told that they were never forced to follow a strict regimen but, rather, were shown a purpose to their studies that in turn became a source of inspiration. However, into his portrait of an idyllic childhood, a sinister note is introduced when Victor tells us of his obsession with the works of Cornelius Agrippa — , a reputed magician concerned with the occult and supernatural; Albertus Magnus — , a German philosopher; and 31 Paracelsus — , a Swiss physician who wrote works on alchemy,1 chemistry, and medicine.

Victor became enthralled with a passion for probing the secrets of nature. This new interest soon turned to disgust due to its new and incomprehensible vocabulary of chemical terms. The chapter concludes with Victor mentioning that he assumed responsibility for teaching his younger brother, Ernest, who had been ill since birth and thus lacked the stamina for rigorous study. He also makes a passing mention of his youngest brother, William, who at that time was an infant. Victor relates that upon turning seventeen, his parents expected him to study at the University of Ingolstadt 2 Chapter II.

However, his departure was delayed when Elizabeth fell ill with scarlet fever. Longing to see Elizabeth, Caroline attended her daughter and became fatally ill as a consequence, leaving Elizabeth in charge of the younger Frankenstein children. More significantly, Caroline once again reiterates her wish that Elizabeth and Victor marry one day and exacted this deathbed promise from them.

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (Bloom's Guides)

Victor describes how mourning for his mother turned to reflection on the evil reality of death, a thought that further provoked his overzealous pursuit to find a means to reverse human mortality. While the family coped with their loss, and Elizabeth attempted to revive the spirits of their aggrieved household, Victor prepared to leave for Ingolstadt, a departure marked by sadness. Accordingly, Victor arrived at Ingolstadt with a great deal of ambivalence.

Though he felt lonely leaving his friends behind, he immediately became immersed in his scientific 32 studies. At the university, he met Professor M. Krempe, whom he found rude, but knowledgeable. But Victor was alienated by M. When Victor subsequently visited Waldman following a lecture, he expressed interest in becoming one of his disciples. Indeed, two years passed in the laboratory as Victor abandoned all thought of his family and friends. He was now isolated in his relentless pursuit of the principle of life, and completely immersed in the study of physiology and the structure of the human frame.

When he finally began to think of his family back home, an incident took place that further distracted him from reestablishing human ties, namely, his ability to make improvements to some of the instruments in the laboratory, which in turn brought him prestige at the 33 university. Victor relates how he planned the next fateful step of fashioning an actual human being, someone about eight feet in height and proportionately large. In so doing, Victor became a supreme narcissist, poised to usurp divine authority and exhibiting all the false bravado that accompanies such claims to power.

In so doing, Victor condemned both the monster and himself to a tortured 34 existence that would become progressively worse with each passing day, a never-ending agony that would ultimately conclude in their mutual destruction. Though he ran away from the creature, Victor could find no reprieve from his guilt and anxiety.

In fact, on this very same night, he tells Walton, he had a terrible nightmare in which he saw Elizabeth walking the streets of Ingolstadt only to discover that she was a ghost, resembling his mother.


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Nevertheless, he managed to find some solace when his dear friend, Henry Clerval, arrived in Ingolstadt. Henry was finally able to convince his father to let him study at Ingolstadt, and had come to study foreign and ancient languages. For his part, Victor soon succumbed to a nervous fever that lasted for several months, most especially because he could not divulge the terrible secret of what he had done.


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  4. True to his loving character, Henry ministered to Victor while the latter, having finally regained his composure, declared himself ready to communicate with his family. She relayed news of the rest of their family, describing how Ernest had grown up to be a healthy and active young man. Elizabeth also told him that Justine Moritz had returned to the Frankenstein household.

    Now that her own mother passed away, Justine returned to live with the Frankensteins. In response, Victor wrote back immediately to his family, but was easily fatigued from his long illness. Nevertheless, because his health was improving, he decided to show Henry around the university. However, Henry observed that the sight of laboratory instruments was loathsome for Victor, and quickly removed them.

    When the two young men next encountered M. Krempe, the experience was even more painful to Victor. Krempe was not equally docile; and in my condition at that time, of almost insupportable sensitiveness, his harsh blunt encomiums gave me even more pain Chapter VI begins with Victor describing the letter he received from his father informing him that his younger brother, William, has been murdered, and the details of that heinous crime.

    Apparently, Alphonse, Elizabeth, William, and Ernest had gone for a walk in Plainpalais, when William suddenly got lost. Furthermore, a crucial piece of circumstantial evidence was discovered, namely, that a miniature portrait of Caroline that William had been wearing around his neck was now missing. Along the way, he observed familiar scenes that now caused him unbearable pain, and experienced vague intimations of impending horrors. I dared not advance, dreading a thousand nameless evils that made me tremble, although I was unable to define them. It was now dark and the town gates of Geneva had been shut, causing him to spend the night in the village of Secheron, where he decided to visit the spot where William was murdered.

    However, in order to do so, he first had to cross a lake, during a storm, in order to get to Plainpalais, the scene of the crime.

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    Indeed, the weather seemed to be in sync with his inner torment. In this brief instant Victor was also reminded of his own evil nature. When he finally reached home, Ernest told him that Justine Moritz was believed to be the murderer, as the miniature was found in the pocket of her dress, linking her to an obvious motive.

    Victor was shocked and protested her innocence, because he alone knew with certainty that Justine had been framed. Tragically, in the interim, the incriminating circumstantial evidence continued to mount against her. In addition to her exhibiting very confused behavior following the murder, one of the servants had testified that she found Justine in possession of the miniature. Nevertheless, Victor refused to believe that Justine would be unjustly convicted of murder, and repeatedly assured the family that she would be acquitted. Moreover, when Justine returned home on the night of the murder, she became hysterical and confined herself to her bed upon seeing the corpse.

    It was then that the servant found the miniature in her dress. When Justine finally testified in her own defense, her simple and honest statements were unavailing. However, because the gates of the town had already been closed, she was forced to spend a sleepless night outside the 38 town, during which she resumed her search for William.

    Justine also stated truthfully that she had no idea why the miniature was found in her possession, her bewilderment only adding to her appearance of guilt. Though other witnesses knew her fine character, the hideous nature of the crime rendered them unable to speak on her behalf. When Elizabeth and Victor subsequently visited Justine in prison, she protested her innocence, explaining that if she had not confessed she would have faced excommunication. Justine ultimately dies a condemned murderer.

    In truth, as we will be continually reminded throughout his narrative, there is absolutely no means of escape from his predicament, only a few fleeting instances in which he is sufficiently distracted. As proof of his inescapability, Victor has by now begun to anticipate future destruction and mayhem from his creature and, consequently, acquires an obsessive desire and firm resolution to take revenge.

    With its sublime and other-earthly landscape of great snowy mountains and glaciers, Chamouni offers only a temporary reprieve as we are told in the beginning of Chapter II. The following morning, however, is rainy and foggy, obscuring the view of the Alps. It is now apparent that this is the most he can hope for.

    Instead Victor now calls his monster a devil while the monster, to its credit, appears eminently reasonable in response. In a calm manner, he asks Victor to simply honor the responsibility he has toward his creation and remains steadfast while pleading with Victor to fashion him a suitable female companion.

    I ought to be thy Adam, but I am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drivest from joy for no misdeed. While the monster narrates his tale, Victor is anxious to determine whether or not he killed William and then framed Justine. The monster has been and will forever remain a strange being who has been left completely to his own devices and, having been neither nurtured nor schooled, has been compelled to act as his own parent at the same time Chapter III.

    After several days of alternating sun and darkness, the monster began to commune with nature, enjoying many new and pleasant sounds when, fortuitously, he discovered a warm fire and the materials by which it can be made. However, food was becoming scarce as his supply of berries and nuts was dwindling and the monster had to endure hunger. Through a chink in a boarded-up window, the monster became intent on observing this family, both the young people and the old man and, in so doing, reveals himself to be a creature of keen sensitivity to the feelings of others.

    I since found that he read aloud, but at that time I knew nothing of the science of words or letters. In yet another demonstration of loving kindness, the monster states that although he was previously wont to steal food from them at night, his newfound awareness of their own privation moved him to forage for food of his own and to collect wood at night for the benefit of the De Lacey family. This was indeed a godlike science, and I ardently desired to become acquainted with it. The monster spends the winter in this manner, sympathizing alike with the De Laceys in their joys and sorrows, and developing a profound appreciation for their ability to find happiness in the simplest of things, despite their poverty.

    As he further relates to Victor, the monster also began to learn the fundamentals of reading by listening as Felix read to his father and sister. As he tells Victor, he saw 43 his own reflection in a pool, yet despite his feelings of selfrevulsion, his desire for a family was stronger. Furthermore, the advent of spring and the cheerful aspect of nature providing further inducements, the monster then resolved that he would eventually introduce himself to the De Laceys. The inaugural event was the arrival of a visitor on horseback, a strange lady with raven black hair and angelic features, who came to see Felix.

    The mysterious lady is Safie, a beautiful Arabian woman, with whom Felix appeared to be in love as his face lit up upon seeing her. The monster also observes that the young woman speaks a different language than the De Laceys and that she was endeavoring to learn their language by repeating various sounds, concluding that he too can learn by her example. Furthermore, the monster was also learning to read what Safie was being taught. This newly acquired knowledge then led to further depressing thoughts as the monster began to ponder his own displaced status. No father had watched my infant days, no mother had blessed me with smiles and caresses.

    Apparently, the old man, referred to as simply De Lacey, came from a prominent family in France, participating in all matters of culture and intellect. His son, Felix, was raised to serve his country, while his daughter, Agatha, acquired the status of a well-bred lady. They had previously lived a luxurious life in Paris, and were immersed in all matters of culture and intellect. For some unexplained reason, her father had offended the authorities and was eventually condemned to death.

    However, it was generally believed that he was the victim of religious and economic prejudice, having been a wealthy foreigner. Though her father offered Felix wealth and reward in exchange for his help, this offer is later revealed to be a ruse. Perceiving that Felix had fallen in love with Safie, her father promises her hand in marriage.

    True to his character, Felix, who was too sensitive to accept the offer, nevertheless was hopeful that, in time, he would in fact be with Safie. On the day preceding the planned execution, however, Felix helped the condemned man to escape to some undisclosed place in Paris and even obtained passports for himself, Agatha, and their father, giving them safe passage through to Leghorn, where her father intended to find a way back to Turkey.

    Felix 45 was simply a means to flee France. The entire plot being soon discovered, Agatha and her father, De Lacey, were imprisoned, since Felix was living with Safie and her father. When Felix heard about what happened to his family, he resolved to deliver himself to the law in exchange for their release but, alas, they remained imprisoned for five months prior to their trial and, as a result of that trial, lost their fortune and were exiled from France.

    Agatha and De Lacey eventually took up residence in a cottage in Germany, which is where the monster discovered them. In the meantime, Felix soon discovers the duplicity of the Turkish merchant who, upon learning of the suffering that the De Laceys now endured, made a very offensive gesture by offering a paltry sum of money, at the same time that he kept his daughter with him.

    During the journey the attendant became very sick and consequently died, but not before instructing their hostess regarding their final destination. Thus, Safie was on her own when she arrived safely at the De Lacey cottage. Nevertheless, the story of deception and unfaithfulness notwithstanding, the monster is still in the process of learning his true standing in the human community and reiterates his desire to become a viable member of society Chapter VII. Sickened by what he read, the monster accuses Victor of consigning his creature to a life of despondency and solitude.

    He further states to Victor that he considers himself to be another manifestation of Victor Frankenstein. Nevertheless, the monster had not yet tested his ability to find friendship and compassion in other human beings and, thus, was still hopeful despite his newly acquired knowledge of his creator. Lonely and desperate, the monster observed the joy that Safie infused into the De Lacey household and, thus, decided to seek their protection. His plan was to begin by approaching the old man when the others were out.

    During this time, the monster tells of his experiencing the change of seasons from spring into fall and the accompanying decay of nature, stating that he is constitutionally suited to the ensuing cold, though his true source of delight is with the warmth and colors of summer. It was autumn when the monster finally mustered the courage to speak to the blind old man, introducing himself as a weary traveler in need of rest.

    At the very moment of this startling revelation, Felix, Safie, and Agatha entered the cottage and were astounded at the sight of the monster. Chapter VIII begins with the monster cursing his plight after this latest cruelty at the hands of people he had learned to love. Leaving his cottage at night, he began to wander, railing against his mean existence. During this interval, he had a chance to reflect on the events of the prior day and decided that his plan failed because it was imprudent to reveal himself to the children where he should have taken the old man into his confidence first.

    As the monster approaches the De Lacey residence, he hears Felix speaking with his landlord and learns that the family is leaving because they fear for the life of the father. I bent my mind towards injury and death. During his nighttime travels, the monster endured cold once 48 again, all the while feelings of revenge were welling up inside him.

    When he finally reached Switzerland, he found the sun to be warmer and he used the daylight hours to rest, finding some measure of gentleness and tranquillity. While enjoying these feelings of restoration, he came across a young girl who slipped and fell into a rapid stream, and succeeded in saving her life. But, alas, her guardian, terrified to see her with this hideous creature, shot and wounded the monster.

    Upon reaching Geneva, the monster relates how he met a beautiful and innocent child whom he wanted to educate and keep as his own. The monster is clearly determined to visit the same injustice to which he has been condemned upon Victor and all those he loves. Following his spate of murder and pillage, the monster is now firmly resolved that Victor must create another creature with the very same defects, a female, to keep him company. In Chapter IX, the monster completes his tale and demands that Victor comply with his request for a companion.

    But this promise takes its toll on Victor, leaving him with a heavy heart. When he gets back to Chamouni the following day, his family is alarmed to see him so distressed and they immediately return to their home in Geneva while Victor seemingly regains some composure as he falls into the routine of everyday life. They are enslaved by each other. Unable to fashion a suitable female companion for fear of creating another being capable of wreaking further chaos, Victor reneges on his commitment.

    Chapter I begins with Victor describing his ambivalence. While he was afraid of disappointing the monster, he was deeply concerned about unleashing a second creature.

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    His father, noticing his erratic emotions, reminded him of yet another commitment, namely, that he was expected to marry Elizabeth as a way of assuring domestic harmony in the Frankenstein family. Victor assured his father that this would come to pass, but expressed a wish to tour the continent for the next two years with his dear 50 friend, Henry Clerval, before settling down. For that matter, neither did Henry Clerval. As it was August and the time of vintage, Victor and Clerval enjoyed the magnificent scenery as they traveled along the Rhine.

    They left on March 27th and spent a few days at Windsor, followed by a visit to Oxford where they delighted in a countryside that was associated with so much of English history. Further on, their travels took them to Cumberland and Westmoreland, where they made some pleasant acquaintances, and then to the romantic town of Edinburgh. But these temporary diversions notwithstanding, Victor had become increasingly disturbed as he was reminded of his sinister mission.

    Victor rented it immediately to use as his laboratory and living quarters. The hut, consisting of two rooms, was in miserable condition, but after making some repairs and buying some furniture, Victor fell into a routine of working during the day and walking along the stony beach at night. Ever mindful that the monster was watching and could appear at any moment, Victor was also plagued with serious misgivings about bringing his anticipated creature into being.

    Nevertheless, Chapter II concludes with Victor having made considerable progress. Chapter III continues on a late evening while Victor, working in his laboratory, was thinking of the consequences of his current employment and the time that had elapsed since he created his first monster. At this very moment, the monster appeared with an extremely menacing expression, while Victor, in a panic, destroyed his nearly completed creation. Though Victor ordered him 52 to leave, he commanded in vain. In response, the monster stated very clearly that despite the reasonableness of his entreaties, Victor had recoiled from his ethical responsibility and, in that abnegation of that obligation, had indeed allowed the monster to gain ascendancy and moral authority over him.

    His sole remaining fear was for those family members whom the monster had not yet destroyed. He could either remain in this barren terrain or return to his family and await the further sacrifice of his loved ones. While here, however, he fell asleep in the grass and, in a pattern familiar to both him and his monster, he awakened the next morning refreshed and happier despite the tormented feelings and violent happenings he experienced just a few hours earlier. A letter from Henry Clerval asking him to join him in Perth served to reinforce those feelings of well-being.

    Once again, he was compelled to return to his laboratory and relive the horror he so desperately wanted to escape. When he wakened the next morning in his skiff, he found that he had been driven off course and was now totally lost. Hungry and fatigued, he found himself in a civilized yet hapless Irish town, which mirrored the experience of his monster who, coming in peace and friendship, instead became a pariah. Though at first Victor was relieved to find that the inhabitants spoke English, his hopes were quickly dashed when he was greeted rudely and told to appear before the magistrate, Mr.

    Victor then learned that a dead body had been found under suspicious circumstances and that he was expected to offer an explanation. As he listened to the details, Victor was suddenly seized with a familiar dread. The body they recovered was that of a handsome young man who showed signs of being strangled, bearing marks similar to the ones found on his brother William.

    The Life of Mary Shelley

    The main witness gave further incriminating evidence, stating that he saw a single man out in a boat that night, while other village residents offered similar descriptions. Following this damning testimony, Victor was asked to view the dead body so that the magistrate could observe his reaction. The sight of the corpse filled Victor with horror when he recognized the corpse to be that of Henry Clerval. Filled with an inconsolable remorse, Victor had convulsions and was bedridden for over two months, during which time he raved that he was the murderer.

    When he awoke, Victor found himself in prison. Though he started 54 to recover, it was only to be painfully aware of his wretched circumstances and, once again, he reflected that only death could release him from his predicament. Kirwin, however, proved himself a sympathetic magistrate, providing Victor with the best possible prison accommodations as well as a physician and a nurse to look after him. The benevolent Mr. Chapter V begins with Victor describing how he and his father went to Havre, so as to avoid London and the memories of happier times that he and Henry Clerval shared.

    He wrote her a loving and reassuring letter, stating that he intended to explain all of his problems on the day they are married. When Victor returned home, he courted Elizabeth for a while, though his torment persisted. His father, however, was pressuring Victor to get married soon so that their loving circle would be complete, and Victor relented because he could not bear the thought of losing Elizabeth.

    As the time for the wedding drew near, Victor became extremely paranoid and, consequently, armed himself with many weapons. Nevertheless, despite this happy occasion, Elizabeth had a vague premonition of impending evil, though she resisted giving in to it, but not so for Victor whose heart was heavy. He and Elizabeth had walked along the shore for a while and then returned to the inn due to an impending storm. Why did I not then expire. After several hours they returned unsuccessful, whereupon they set out to search the forest, this time without Victor.

    In the meantime, Victor, now alone in his room, began to think about the devastating effect this latest tragedy would have on his father and realized that his father and Ernest could become the next victims. The death of William, the execution of Justine, the murder of Clerval, and lastly my wife: even at that moment I knew not that my only remaining friends were safe from the malignity of the fiend.

    However, since there were no horses for hire, he had no alternative but to return by the lake—the same lake into which the fiend had previously escaped—during the early morning hours with an unfavorable wind and a torrent of rain hailing down. Though he had looked forward to physical exertion as a way to channel his mental torment, Victor found that his agitation had become so overwhelming as to render him powerless.

    Furthermore, the surrounding landscape underscored his pain by reminding him of happier days when Elizabeth was alive. Cursed, cursed be the fiend that brought misery on his grey hairs, and doomed him to waste in wretchedness. Though we are not given the precise details of the story he told to the judge, it is significant that Victor was finally able to articulate his strange tale, indicating that he believed there was nothing more for him to lose and, further, that he knew he would ultimately be destroyed by his monster.

    We are told that the judge was at first incredulous, concluding that the creature would be invulnerable to any use of force. He reports that his state of mind was one of extreme agitation and that he was propelled into action out of pure revenge. But revenge kept me alive. Overcome with inconsolable grief, he knelt down to kiss the hallowed ground, vowing to avenge their unnatural and untimely deaths, and summoning the help of the spirits that appeared to be flitting around. At that very moment, his prayers were answered by a fiendish laugh. Though Victor attempted to grasp him, the monster left with a supernatural swiftness.

    Though at times being fed by the local peasants, Victor endured the same cold, fatigue, and tortured mind that his creature previously experienced. Victor reports that his resolve was so fierce that he willingly accepted all manner of hardships. Sleep was his only sustenance as he dreamt of his loved ones. During the day I was sustained by and inspirited by the hope of night: for in sleep I saw my friends, my wife, and my beloved country. Follow me; I seek the everlasting ices of the north, where you will feel the misery of cold and frost, to which I am impassive.

    His resolve was unshakable and his preparedness complete, having already procured a sleigh and dogs to cross the snow. Indeed, the wondrous speed at which he was able to traverse the ice allowed him to gain valuable ground he had previously lost. They reported that the monster, threatening the residents with a gun and many pistols, caused the residents to flee while he stole their winter food supply and drove off on his sled with the aid of a pack of trained dogs.

    The villagers believed the monster to be dead by now since he drove off into a frozen wasteland. Indeed, this latest venture into a land of immense and rugged mountains of ice had been so arduous that one of the animals that transported him died of fatigue. Unfortunately, Victor lost track of the monster once again, with the sea itself separating him from his enemy.

    His soul is as hellish as his form, full of treachery and fiend-like malice. However, though he has inquired as to the secret of his creation, Victor categorically refused to divulge it, with the caveat that revealing the secret would only bring Walton to harm. Robert finds much to admire in his guest and reports that the two had conversations about a wide range of literary matters in which Victor acquitted himself 60 eloquently and movingly.

    In his second letter, dated September 2nd, Walton describes his enthusiasm for his own voyage, despite the treacherous conditions and a crew that has grown disheartened and frightened. Though encased in ice at that time, they told Walton that if these conditions were to change, they wanted him to turn south. In his final moments, Victor was sorely disappointed to learn that Walton planned to end the voyage, imploring him to pursue the monster and destroy it. Though the monster headed for the window upon seeing Walton, the latter called him back, at which time the monster confessed the pity he felt for Victor, though the desire for revenge always took precedence.

    My heart was fashioned to be susceptible of love and sympathy. Alchemy, the origin of modern chemistry, was introduced to medieval Europe through translations of Arabic writings, where it became associated with heresy and witchcraft. Because of the fear they engendered and the consequent threats against their lives, the practitioners of alchemical arts were forced to pursue their work in secret, disguising their knowledge in obscure languages and symbols.

    Interest in alchemy would fade during the Enlightenment, and be revived by the Romantic imagination, which sought the union of self and Nature and argued for a vital wholeness in their poetry. Founded in by Duke Ludwig the Wealthy of Bavaria-Landshut, with a papal concession, the university was profoundly influenced by its Jesuit professors until they were suppressed in During the eighteenth century, however, the spirit of the Enlightenment brought an intellectual fervor to the university, most especially in the empirical sciences. This new spirit included the formation of a secret society known as the Illuminati whose goal was to study the means for bringing about a revolutionary reconstruction of European society.

    The members of the society promoted a belief in deism and a doctrine of spiritual perfection. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Illuminati had essentially disbanded. Though they had little effect, the Illuminati remained a target for reactionary elements who blamed them for the French Revolution. For purposes of this discussion, the sublime is here understood as those aspects of Nature and Art that affect the mind with a sense of overwhelming grandeur or irresistible power and that are calculated to inspire awe, deep reverence, or lofty emotion, by reason of beauty and grandeur.

    In the realm of ideas, it refers to the highest regions of thought, reality, or human activity. But in this judgment, which requires a very nice discrimination, we may be mistaken; for it is conducted throughout with a firm and steady hand. The interest gradually, accumulates and advances towards the conclusion with the accelerated rapidity of a rock rolled down a mountain. We are led breathless with suspense and sympathy, and the heaping up of incident on incident, and the working of passion out of passion.

    Pelion is heaped on Ossa, and Ossa on Olympus. We climb Alp after Alp, until the horizon is seen blank, vacant, and limitless; and the head turns giddy, and the ground seems to fail under our feet. This novel rests its claim on being a source of powerful and profound emotion. The elementary feelings of the human mind are exposed to view; and those who are accustomed to reason deeply on their origin and tendency will, perhaps, be the only persons who can sympathize, to the full extent, in the interest of the actions which are their result. But, founded on nature as they are, there is perhaps no reader who can endure anything beside a new love story, who will not feel a responsive string touched in his inmost soul.

    Nor are the crimes and malevolence of the single Being, though indeed withering and tremendous, the offspring of any unaccountable propensity to evil, but flow irresistibly from certain causes fully adequate to their production. They are the children, as it were, of Necessity and Human Nature. In this the direct moral of the book consists; and it is perhaps the most important, and of the most universal application, of any moral that can be enforced by example. Treat a person ill, and he will become wicked. Requite affection with scorn;—let one being be selected, for whatever cause, as the refuse of his kind—divide him, a social being, from society, and you impose upon him the irresistible obligations—malevolence and selfishness.

    It is thus that, too often in society, those who are best qualified to be its benefactors and its ornaments, are branded by some accident with scorn, and changed, by neglect and solitude of heart, into a scourge and a curse. It was impossible that he should not have received among men that treatment which led to the consequences of his being a social nature. He was an abortion and an anomaly; and though his mind was such as its first impressions framed it, affectionate and full of moral sensibility, yet the circumstances of his existence are so monstrous and uncommon, that, when the consequences of them became developed in action, his original goodness was gradually turned into inextinguishable misanthropy and revenge.

    The scene between the Being and the blind De Lacey in the cottage, is one of the most profound and extraordinary instances of pathos that we ever recollect. It reminds us, indeed, somewhat of the style and character of that 65 admirable writer, to whom the author has dedicated his work, and whose productions he seems to have studied. The general character of the tale, indeed, resembles nothing that ever preceded it. After the death of Elizabeth, the story, like a stream which grows at once more rapid and profound as it proceeds, assumes an irresistible solemnity, and the magnificent energy and swiftness of a tempest.

    The churchyard scene, in which Frankenstein visits the tombs of his family, his quitting Geneva, and his journey through Tartary to the shores of the Frozen Ocean, resemble at once the terrible reanimation of a corpse and the supernatural career of a spirit. Note 1. Natural history, concerned with the classification of plants, of animals, of human beings, of stars, revealed the systematic arrangements within Nature.

    Mary Shelley (Bloom's Modern Critical Views) by Harold Bloom | LibraryThing

    In fact, Nature consisted of many economies or systems—the solar system, for example, or the plant economy. All of these natural economies, characterized by orderly arrangements and governed by immutable laws, acted in harmony with one another. By the late eighteenth century, these various economies of Nature shared a common characteristic. The important feature was that in such systems slight disturbances would be compensated and adjusted in such a way that the equilibrium or average position was restored. Such natural systems could thus form a model for the reform of 67 other systems that showed anything but perfection, especially human institutions and societies.

    The notion of a balanced economy of nature, however, carried with it something more than benevolent harmony: Nemesis, the goddess of retribution. Traditional views persisted in the work of, for instance, the celebrated eighteenthcentury botanist-classifier Carl Linnaeus — The clergyman Thomas Robert Malthus — offered a similar perspective around The sexual appetites of living creatures led to a tendency towards ever-expanding populations according to a geometrical increase.

    But the arithmetical increase in food supply provided a natural check on any given population, such that a balance was always maintained with respect to a given species. The benefits to the whole economy of nature were obvious: no single species could overrun the world. But the price paid in terms of suffering, starvation and death by individuals especially human individuals by allowing 68 free reign to their populating urges could be very high indeed.

    This kind of nemesis derived principally from God through the system established by Him for ordering Nature and society. AbeBooks Bookseller Since: May 31, Stock Image. Published by Chelsea House Publications, Used Condition: Used: Good. Save for Later. About this title Synopsis: Perhaps best recognized for the horror films it has spawned, Frankenstein, written by year-old Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, was first published in I always strive to achieve best customer satisfaction and have always described book accurately.

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