They occur mostly in connexion with each other, in a kind of mixture. Under the subconscious, on the other hand Unterbewusstsein : the term comes from Dessoir , is to be understood a region taking in those psychic processes such as unrecalled, unintended, and unnoticed matters which lie between the fully conscious and the collective unconscious. The preconscious occupies the upper border zone of the personal unconscious in the direction of consciousness, the subconscious the lower in the direc- tion of the collective unconscious.
Sphere of Consciousness. Sphere of the Unconscious. Forgotten material. Irruptions from the deepest part of the unconscious. That part of the collective unconscious that can never be made conscious. The lowest circle in Diagram IX the innermost is the largest. On it rest the others, lying one upon the other and becoming ever narrower; finally comes the ego at the top. Diagram XI is a kind of psychic genealogical tree, corresponding phylogentically to the previous ontogenetic scheme. At the very bottom lies the unfathomable, the central force 1 out VThis expression should be understood in the sense of energy and as an heuristic concept cf.
This central force goes through all further differen- tiations and isolations, lives in them all, cuts through them to the individual psyche, as the only one that goes absolutely unchanged and undivided through all layers. The Ego. The Personal Unconscious. The Collective Unconscious. Every section stands for a further differentiation of the collective psyche, until, proceeding from human to national groups, from the tribe to the family, the height of the indi- vidual, unique psyche is reached.
Groups of People. Primitive Human Ancestors. Animal Ancestors. Central Force. Consciousness works in its adjustment to the environment finally, directedly, and purposively. Since the unconscious always orients itself compensatively to consciousness, it has likewise direction and purposeful meaning and consequently the task of effecting an adjustment, in this case an internal one. Thus a one-sided consciousness can be restored to balance and the individual can be brought as near as possible to psychic totality.
Of the unconscious, too, it was said that it includes different regions. The question now presents itself, whether one is justified in speaking of a structure or morphology of the unconscious and how it stands with our knowledge there. The answer is: Yes. The symptom can be defined as a phenomenon of the obstruction of the normal flow of energy and can manifest itself psychically or physically. There too the waves and atoms themselves are not perceived, but they are inferred from their observed effects, and hypotheses are sought that are able to explain as comprehensively as possible what has been observed and postulated.
Threshold of consciousness which is broken through at the dotted line, i. The path of the ascending complex. Sphere of consciousness. Sphere of the unconscious. Janet calls it, energy is withdrawn from consciousness. Baynes has described the manifestations and workings of this process during the past fifteen years in Germany in his interesting book: Germany Possessed London: It has its specific closed- ness, wholeness, and a relatively high degree of autonomy.
It generally gives the picture of a disordered psychic situa- tion, strongly toned emotionally and incompatible with the habitual conscious situation or attitude. One of its most frequent causes is, accordingly, moral conflict — by no means limited to the sexual. All sorts of everyday slips, as Freud in his Psychopathology of Everyday Life 8 has shown, testify to that unmistakably. Complexes are thus in this sense focal and nodal points of psychic life with which one would not wish to dispense, indeed which one could not do without, for else psychic activity would come to a standstill.
The actual significance of a complex can only be demon- strated and the freeing of the individual from its influence, in case this has a deleterious effect, can only be accomplished by practical psychotherapy. Its presence, its effective depth, and its emotional tone can nevertheless be determined with 1 Allgemeines zut Komplextheorie. Aarau: Sauerlander, Berlin: Kargcr, This method consists in presenting the subject serially with a hundred words, chosen according to certain considerations as stimulus words ; he must then reply to every stimulus word with a response word, viz.
The length of the reac- tion time has shown itself to be determined by the closeness of reference of the stimulus word in question to the complex, as is the missing or false reproduction. It has proved that the psychic mechanism here is able to point with clock-like exactness to complex-laden points of the psyche. Jung has worked out and refined the association method to the ut- most precision, in manifold detail, and from the most different points of view.
As a didactic and diagnostic method it has become an essential aid to all psychotherapy and belongs to-day to the standard equipment of psychiatric institutions, clinical psychological training, and vocational guidance of every kind, and even finds its use in the law courts. The concept of the complex comes from Jung. London: Heinemann, Jung describes their arrangement in the dream as standing outside of causality.
Likewise space and time do not hold for them. Their language is archaic, symbolic, prelogical — a picture language whose meaning can be discovered only through special methods of inter- pretation. Jung accords the dream extraordinary impor- tance, regarding it not only as the way to the unconscious but as a function through which in great part the unconscious exhibits its regulative activity.
Unswayable by our consciousness, or at least relatively less subject to its critical and orderly influence, it is a pure manifestation of the unconscious, of that uninfluenced primal nature that Jung on this account calls the objective psychic. Consciousness aims always at the adjustment of the individual to the external world. Compensation must be distinguished sharply from complementation.
Complementation is a too limited and limiting concept, insufficient to explain the dream function suitably, as it designates, so to speak, an inevitable filling up. The contents of the unconscious are always manifold in meaning, and their significance depends equally upon the context in which they occur and upon the specific external and internal situation of the dreamer.
Many dreams even go beyond the personal problems of the individual dreamer and are the expression of problems that occur over and over again in human history and concern the whole human collective. They often have prophetic character and are therefore regarded even to-day among primitives as the concern of the entire tribe and are publicly interpreted with great ceremony. They are related to dreams and occur in states of diminished consciousness. They exhibit a manifest and a latent content, are derived from the personal or collective unconscious, and furnish thus material equivalent to that of the dream for psychological interpretation.
From the ordinary wish-dream to the ecstatic vision, pregnant with meaning, their varia- bility is unlimited. How far not only the personal unconscious but also contents of the collective unconscious are involved can easily be read from the material of the dreams, fantasies, and visions. Themes of a mythological nature, whose symbolism illustrates universal human history, and reactions of a particularly intensive kind, allow one to surmise the involvement of the deepest layers.
These motives and 1 For a detailed account of the theory and interpretation of dreams see p. Scott as well as from the treatise of Dionysius Areo- pagita De divinis nomimbus cap. Augustine that led him to choose the word, as they comprise its meaning and content in an impressive formulation. In his treatise Liber de divers, quaest. XLVI, 2, Augustine says:. Et cum ipsae neque mtereant; secundum eas tamen, formari dicitur omne quod oriri et interne potest, et omne quod oritur et interit. Anima vero negatur eas intueri posse, nisi rationalis. Originally published as Einfuhrung in das Wesen der Mythologie.
Amsterdam, Pantheon Ver- lagsanstalt, Quoted in the following only by the title of the essay. The picture alters at once when it is regarded from within, i. Here the archetype proves to be numinous, i. When the archetype clothes itself in corresponding symbols, which is not always the case, then it puts the subject into a state of profound emotion, whose consequences may be unpredictable.
The surface of consciousness. The way taken by the contents when they sink into the unconscious. The archetypes and their fields of attraction, which often distract the contents from their paths and draw them to themselves. The conscious region is full of the most heterogeneous elements; the archetypal symbols therein are often obscured by other contents or their connexions are interrupted. It is this absolute inner order of the unconscious that forms our refuge and help in the accidents and commotions of life, If we only understand how to c get in touch 5 with it.
This existence first manifests itself in the way the ions and then the mole- cules arrange themselves. The axial system determines, accordingly, merely the stereometric structure, not, however, the concrete form of the individual crystal. The solution in which the precipitate is formed, the experience of all humanity, creates the images that crystallize on this axial system and that fill themselves out in the womb of the unconscious to figures ever more distinct and rich in content.
This pro- cess of illumination has not merely an individual, it has a general human significance. Killian, Der Kristall, In the sense of modern research in heredity, which in a measure takes its orientation from Gestalt theory, one could say that the structural and dynamic determinants of the Gestalten are what is inherited, both in a literal sense and in the sense of a decidedly totalistic psychology. One could describe the archetypes as 'self-portraits of the instincts 5 in the psyche, as psychological processes trans- formed into pictures as primal patterns of human behaviour.
The Aristotelian would say: The archetypes are conceptions derived from experience of the real father and mother. The Platonist would say: Father and mother have sprung from the archetypes, for these are the primordial images , the patterns of the phenomena.
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Quoted from the Psy- chology of the Unconscious , p. Translated by S. The more a problem is contem- poraneously and personally determined, the more compli- cated, detailed, and sharply defined the archetypes will be through which it is expressed; the more impersonal and general the material that it has to represent concretely, the vaguer and more elementary will be its language — for the cosmos itself is based on only a few simple principles.
And just as these do, so does such an archetype in its poverty and simplicity nevertheless contain potentially all the manifoldness and richness of the living universe. The so-called mother-complex, of the investi- gation of which we are still in the beginnings, is for the man a gravely problematic affair, for the woman relatively uncomplicated.
With the father-complex the converse would probably be true in most cases. In the beginning both were one, and one can never be without the other, as light in a world where it was uncontrasted with darkness would lose its meaning. If it speaks of the sun and identifies with it the lion, the king, the hoard of gold guarded by the dragon, or the force that makes for the life and health of man, it is neither the one thing nor the other, but the unknown third thing that finds more or less adequate expression in all these similes, yet — to the perpetual vexation of the intellect — remains unknown and not to be fitted into a formula.
Even the best attempts at explanation are only more or less successful translations into another meta- phorical language. The themes of the archetypal images are the same in all cultures, corresponding to the phylogenetically determined portion of the human constitution. We find them repeated in all mythologies, fairy tales, religious traditions, and mysteries. Prometheus, the stealer of fire, Hercules, the slayer of dragons, the numerous myths of creation, the fall from Paradise, the sacrificial mysteries, the virgin birth, the treacherous betrayal of the hero, the dismembering of Osiris, and many other myths and tales portray psychic processes in symbolic-imaginary form.
Likewise the forms of the snake, the fish, the sphinx, the helpful animals, the World Tree, the Great Mother, and no otherwise the enchanted prince, the puer aetemns, the Mage, the Wise Man, Paradise, etc. When Freud sees the basis and beginning of every happening in sexuality, Adler in will to power, then these, too, are ideas expressing an archetype, just as we find them in turn in the ancient philosophers or in the gnostic and alchemic conceptions.
The number four can often be observed in the arrangement of dream contents as well. Probably the universal distribution and magical significance of the cross or the circle divided into four can be explained through the archetypal quality of the quaternity. Integration of the Personality , p. The four comprehends besides the male spirit, which as father principle represents only one half of the world, the female bodily aspect as its complement which completes it.
Thus too in the symbolisms of most cultures uneven numbers are looked upon as mas- culine, even as feminine symbols. The sum of the archetypes signifies thus for Jung the sum of ail the latent potentialities of the human psyche — an enormous, inex- haustible store of ancient knowledge concerning the most profound relations between God, man, and the cosmos.
To open this store to one 9 s own psyche, to wake it to new life and to integrate it with consciousness, means therefore something to do with the fact that the number of chromosomes in the male of almost every biological species including man is uneven, in the female even, a fact to which Dr. Bash has called my attention. By virtue of this fundamental innovation alone and of the consequences following from it, Jungian psychology can take its place beside the other sciences that are about to alter basically our picture of the world as it was up to now and to form the coming picture according to new common principles.
It becomes a teaching and a way. The archetype as precipitate of all human experience lies in the unconscious, whence it powerfully influences our life. To release its projections, to raise its contents into consciousness, becomes a task and a duty. Moreover they are the infallible causes of neurotic and even psychotic disorders, behaving exactly like neglected or maltreated physical organs or organic functional systems. And, although they have often been incorporated dogmatically and have been stripped of their original form, they still work to-day in the psyche, especially where religious faith is still a living thing, with the whole elementary power of their content, pregnant with significance, whether it be the image of the dying and resurrected god, the mystery of the virgin birth in Christianity, the veil of Maya among the Hindus, or the prayer towards the east among the Mohammedans.
Only where faith and dogma have hardened into empty forms — and this is indeed for the most part the case in our highly civilized, technicized, rational-minded Western world — have they lost their magical force and left man helpless and alone, abandoned to iniquity from without and within. To remove this isolation and confusion of modem man, to make it possible for him to find his place in the great stream of life, to assist him to a wholeness that knowingly and deliberately binds his light, conscious side to the dark 1 Essays on a Science of Mythology, p.
This psychic energy he calls libido. The concept of energy is not metaphysical, being only a mark or counter for our understanding, which orders its experience with its help; and the same holds for the concept of energy in Jungian psychology. Psychical force and psychical energy must be distinguished from each other at all accounts. When actualized, psychic energy always makes its appearance in the specific phenomena of the psyche such as drive, wish, will, affect, performance, and the like.
If, though, it is only potentially present, then it manifests itself in specific acquisitions, possibilities, readinesses, attitudes, etc. As the building up and tearing down of cells keeps the physical organism in equilibrium, so — as a rough comparison — the distribution of psychic energy determines the relations between the various psychic data, and all disturbances therein lead to pathological phenomena.
It is characteristic of his theory of dynamics, however, and is contained in its funda- mental principle, the law of inevitable complementariness, according to which all psychological happenings must occur. He called this enantiodromia, by which he meant that everything is turned into its opposite at one time or another.
The necessity presents itself of appreciating the worth of the contrary to our former ideals, of perceiving the error in our earlier con- victions. But it is naturally a complete mistake to suppose that, when we see the worthlessness in a value or the falseness in a truth, the value or the truth is therewith cancelled. It has only become relative. Everything human is relative, for everything rests upon inner antithesis, it all being a dynamic phenomenon.
Energy presupposes necessarily, however, pre-existent antithesis, without which there can be no energy at all. Ever must high and low, hot and cold, etc. All that lives is energy and is therefore based upon anti- thesis. Not a conversion into the contrary but a conservation of the former values together with a recognition of their contrary 8 is the goal to be sought. Jj All that has yet been said concerning the structure of the psyche — concerning functions, attitudes, relation of con- sciousness to the unconscious, of the dream to the waking state, etc. But this law holds too in each of the partial systems, and the complements alternate continuously.
So, for example, in the unconscious, when it is allowed wholly to take its natural course, positive contents succeed the negative and conversely. If a fantasy-image representing the bright principle comes upon the scene, a symbolization of the dark principle follows immediately thereafter. In consciousness, e. To regulate these relations among themselves, to keep them in continuous vital tension, is the role and task of psychic energy.
For all these pairs of opposites are conceived not only according to their content as opposites but also in reference to their dynamic efficacy. One could best make clear the distribution of their energy charges by the picture of communicating vessels. Only one must imagine this picture, transposed to the psychic system, to be very com- plicated, since one has to do here with an interconnected, , closed system including in its turn many sub-systems of such communicating vessels. In this total system the quantity of energy is constant and only its distribution is variable.
This conclusion demands proof that such a primal image really has existed in mental history and has been effective throughout the millennia. As proof let the fact serve that the primitive religions in the different regions of the earth are all based upon this image. These are the so-called dynamistic religions, whose single and essential idea is that there is a widespread magic force that directs all things decisively.
According to the ancient notion the soul itself is this force; its conservation is implied by the idea of its immortality, and in the Buddhistic and the primitive 1 Modern Man in Search of a Soul, p. This means, for example, that the energy charge of the unconscious rises in the same measure as consciousness loses energy. It follows further that the energy is capable of being transformed, of being changed by a directed act of the will from one of the opposites into the other.
Displacement of energy occurs only when a fall, a potential difference — psychologically expressed through the pairs of opposites — is present. Thereby is the phenomenon of obstruction as cause of neurotic symptoms and complexes explained, and likewise, when the one side is completely emptied, the dis- integration of the pairs of opposites — a phenomenon that can manifest itself in all sorts of psychic disturbances, from the lightest up to the complete dissociation or splitting of the individual.
For, according to the law of the conservation of energy, when consciousness loses energy it goes over into the unconscious, activates its contents — archetypes, com- plexes, etc. But, like this extremely one-sided distribution, a com- pletely uniform one is also dangerous. Here the law of entropy works in the same way as in physics. The physical law of entropy, briefly and simply expressed, asserts that in the performance of work heat is lost, i. Since movement depends upon the fall of energy, through which, though, ever more potential is lost, the flow of energy inevitably tends toward equalization, which as 1 Two Essays on Analytical Psychology , p.
The same idea is contained in every magic and dynamistic view of the world. But the more firmly the psychic partial systems are separated from each other, the more extremely the poles are reft asunder and held under tension, the more easily is the phenomenon of entropy manifested in con- sequence cf. We see this law repeatedly at work in the psyche in a relative form. The gravest conflicts, when overcome, leave behind a sureness and calm scarcely more to be troubled or else a break scarcely more to be healed, and conversely it requires a flaming up of the sharpest contrasts in opposition to call forth valuable and lasting success.
In the psychic system it is the conscious that is able through its relative freedom of intervention to effect this reversal. Tt pertains to the crea- tiveness of the psyche that interference in the mere natural order constitutes its very being. The dynamic movement is directed , and we distinguish accordingly a progressive and a regressive movement, 1 In physics the temporal direction and the irreversibility of the process are determined by this law.
We cannot here go into the possible implications, pointing in another direction, which follow from the law of probability. Wolff, Einfuhrung in die Grundlagen der komplexen Psychologies p. The regressive movement occurs when through failure of the conscious adjustment and the resulting intensification of the uncon- scious or through repression, etc. This can, in case of a partial regression, if con- sciousness does not interfere at the proper time, throw the individual back upon an earlier stage in development, form neuroses, or, if a total reversal takes place and the un- conscious floods consciousness, lead to a psychosis.
We find here the concepts of progression and regression — as usually happens— apparently supplied with a positive or negative sign, since in an ideal, normal psyche the process would have to be thought of as progressive only. The specific form of manifestation of energy in the psyche is the image, brought up by the creative power of the imagination the creative fantasy, out of the material of the unconscious, the objective-psychic. This active, creative work of the psyche commutes 1 the chaos of the unconscious contents into pictorialized mani- festations, 2 as they present themselves in dreams, in fantasies, in visions and, analogously to these, in every act of creative art.
It determines ultimately the significance, corresponding to the Value intensity 5 , with which the images are laden, this significance, i. By constellation is understood here the setting of an image in a context according to which its value is deter- mined. For in a 4ream, for example, there are always a number of elements whose significance varies according to their positional value. Ibid p. Direction and intensity of the psychic dynamism corre- late; they determine each other reciprocally; for the potential difference that is the primary condition of the process and direction of dynamic movement arises precisely from the difference in the energy charge, in the meaning present in the psychic contents.
This concept serves for the correct description of the actual processes in the psyche and of their relations. It has nothing to do with the question of whether or not there exists a specific psychic energy. It has all the instruments for removing the most trifling psychic distur- bances, the starting-point of a neurosis, and likewise for combating successfully the most complicated and threatening developments of mental disease. This way is, from its very nature, beyond all abstract exposition. For this way too is, like all psychic life, a very personal experience.
Precisely its subjectivity is its most effective truth. Both ways can but do not have to be followed at once. The method applied and its intensity vary according to the circumstances of the individual case, to the psychic disposition and charac- teristics of the patient.
Jung recognizes the decisive role that sexuality and will to power play among men. Con- sequently there are numerous cases in which the illness is referable to disturbances in one of these driving factors and which therefore must be approached from a Freudian or an' Adlerian point of view. But while with Freud mainly the pleasure principle, with Adler the will to power acts as explanatory principle, Jung regards other equally essential factors besides these as motivating elements of the psyche and therefore rejects decisively the postulate that the predomi- nant role in all psychic disorders belongs to one driving factor alone.
Besides these two assuredly significant ones there are for him still other highly important drives, before and above all that which belongs to man alone — the spiritual and religious need inborn in the psyche. It is no deriva- tive of another drive but a principle sui generis, namely, the indispensable formative power in the world of drives. This pair cf opposites is not merely the external expression but perhaps also the very basis of that tension which we call psychic energy. This evaluation or interpretation depends entirely on the stand- point or condition of consciousness.
Psychic processes therefore function as a scale along which consciousness glides. Now it finds itself in the vicinity of the instinctual processes and falls under their influence; now it approaches the other end, where the spirit predominates and even assimilates the instinctual phenomena opposed to it. Matter as well as spirit appear in the mental sphere as characteristic properties of conscious contents. Both are transcendental in their ultimate nature, i.
The science of the psyche must, nevertheless, set down the facts as it finds them. And thus this search for truth is at once cognition and envisioning. This dualism calls itself to our attention repeatedly in the formation of modern physical concepts, as when, for example, one must work with contradictory hypotheses concerning the nature of light corpuscle or wave , or when all attempts to reconcile the field theory of relativity with the quantum theory in a logically irreproachable way fail. Yet no one would there- fore reproach the modern physicists with a lack of logical skill and precision because the apparently illogical nature of the physical facts leads to a recognition of the irreconcilable, even of the paradoxical — naturally not without the hope and endeavour one day to win unity, even if not to force it.
The difficulty for psychology lies in the fact that, proceeding from and never leaving an empirical basis, it penetrates into a realm in which the expressions of language, derived from experience, are perforce inadequate and must remain a mere approximation. But here too, as in the modern natural sciences, experience leads us to a boundary where our empirical knowledge ceases and metaphysics begins. The writings of Planck, Hartmann, von Uexkull, Edding- ton, etc. The domain of experience that he has opened up and systematically investigated according to certain viewpoints in a scientific manner cannot by its very nature, however, be explored by the customary methods of the natural sciences, which postulate a purely conceptual treatment of their subject matter.
Only the conceptually furthest advanced, because relatively simplest natural science, physics, has the possibility of clothing its bold hypotheses, unverifiable by any material constructions, in the pure, association-free language of mathematics. Ultimately all modern psychology wears a Janus-head, a double face, one aspect of which is turned towards living experience, the other towards abstract cog- nition. Not by chance did precisely some of the greatest, most honest thinkers who lived in the conceptual and linguistic world of Europe — be it Pascal, Kierkegaard, or Jung — have to arrive, necessarily and fruitfully, at para- doxes when they occupied themselves with questions con- cerning no unambiguous matters but the ambiguous, two- faced nature of the psyche.
Jung had already remarked some twenty-five years earlier that m psychology one could not get along with the concept of causality as generally applied in natural science. In his foreword to the Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology 2nd ed. The creative element in our psyche and its manifestations can neither be demonstrated nor explained causally. It has in common with the latter, it is true, the method of observing and determining empirical facts. It lacks though the Archimedean point outside, and thus the possibility of objective measure- ment.
The psyche is the object of psychology, and — fatally enough — its subject at the same time, and there is no getting away from this fact. Psychology and Religion , p. More on this subject and on the viewpoints that have led to these considerations, together with a bibliography on this theme up to , is to be found in C. We call attention also especially to N. Naturwissenschaften 16, , , and 17, , Since then the physicist P. Jordan Rostock above all has referred in his publications to certain parallels between the results of research in modern physics on the one hand and in biology and psychology on the other.
Jordan: Die Physik des Jahrhun - derts. Braunschweig, Idem: Anschauliche Quantentheorie. Berlin, , p. Idem: Die Physik und das Geheimnis des organischen Lebens. Braunschweig, , p. In that borderland between cognizing and experiencing in which every depth-psychology must neces- sarily move and which naturally presents difficulties, some- times insurmountable ones, for verbal concepts, Jung strives with all the creative power of his expression to find the necessary and legitimate distinction between those realms, even though the difficulties of the subject may sometimes prevent his efforts from being entirely successful.
Alfred Adler cons i ders and treats the initial situation with regard to a causa finalis. We must admit there is, however, no scientific justification for such a procedure, because our present-day science is based as a whole upon causality. But causality is only one principle, and psychology essentially cannot be exhausted by causal methods only, because the mind lives by aims as well.
Besides this disputable philosophical argument, we have another of much greater value in favour of our hypothesis, namely, that of vital necessity. It is impossible to live according to the intimations of childish hedonism, or according to a childish desire for power. If these are to be retained they must be taken symbolically. Out of the symbolic application of infantile trends an attitude evolves which may be termed philosophic or religious, and these terms characterize sufficiently the lines of further development of the individual.
The individual is not only an established and unchangeable complex of psychic facts, but also an extremely changeable entity. By exclusive reduction to causes, the primitive trends of a personality are reinforced; this is helpful only when at the same time these primitive tendencies are balanced by recognition of their symbolic value.
Analysis and reduction lead to causal truth; this by itself does not help living, but brings about resig- nation and hopelessness. On the other hand, the recognition of the intrinsic value of a symbol leads to constructive truth and helps us to live. It induces hopefulness and furthers the possibility of future develop- ment. London, And in his book On Psychic Energy Jung says p. With finality I wish to designate only the immanent psychological goal tendency.
It is also in itself dialectic, as a process which, by confronting the contents of consciousness with those of the unconscious, i. It is accordingly, too, from the therapeutic standpoint a preliminary condition that the psychologist accept this dialectic principle equally as binding.
Jung even regards it under certain conditions, especially when it takes on ex- cessive forms, as a hindrance to effective progress of the treat- ment. In the field of dialectic procedure the physician must step out of his anonymity and give an account of himself, exactly as he demands of his patient. In this manner of working on the psyche, which, influencing living processes as it does through just as lively reactions, lends an extraordinary impulse to their transformation, it is at once apparent that the personality of the physician, its strength and worth, its ethical value is of the highest importance.
It plays a much more important and active role in Jungian analysis than in the methods of other depth psychologies. Even more than elsewhere the sentence holds good here: the psychotherapist can bring those whom he leads only so far as he himself has come. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, The first and simplest method is the association method. Its principle is the finding out of the main complexes through irregularities in responding to selected stimulus words. As an introduction to mental analysis, and to the knowledge of the symptomatology of complexes, the method is to be recommended for a beginner.
The second method of symptom analysis has a merely historical value By means of hypnotic suggestion the attempt was made to get the patient to reproduce the memories underlying certain pathological symptoms. The method works quite well in all those cases where a shock, a psychic wound or trauma, is the chief cause of the neurosis. It was on this method that Freud founded his earlier trauma-theory of hysteria. The third method of anamnestic analysis is of greater importance, both as a method of investigation and of therapeutics. It practically consists in a careful anamnesis, or reconstruction of the historical development of a neurosis.
Often such a procedure alone can be of great practical value, as it enables the patient to understand the main features of his neurosis, and thus prepares him for an even- tual decisive change of attitude. It is, of course, unavoidable as well as indispensable that the analyst does not only question, but that he gives certain hints and explanations in order to point out the important connexions of which the patient is - obviously unconscious.
This is the best practical method for the treatment of neurotic children. With children you cannot very well get into the unconscious through dream analysis. In most cases you simply have to remove certain obstacles, which can be done without much technical analysis. The fourth method is the analysis of the unconscious. The analysis of the unconscious begins only when the re- producible materials are exhausted. The personal rapport is of absolute prime importance: it forms the only basis from which it is safe to tackle the unconscious. It is by no means simple to establish such a rapport, and you cannot achieve it except by a careful, comparison of your conscious standards.
From now on we are concerned immediately with a new sphere, with the living psychic process, namely, with dreams. The patient alone, however, determines the interpretation to. Only his individuality is decisive here; for he must have a vital feeling of assent, not a rational consent but a true experience. The objective-psychic, the unconscious is, as experience proves, in the highest degree independent.
If this were not so it could not at all exercise its characteristic function, the compensation of consciousness. Consciousness can be trained like a parrot, but not the unconscious. If, therefore, in what follows we speak only of the dream for the sake of simplicity, fantasies and visions are thereby also understood. The fundamental difference between the Jungian and the other analytical methods consists in the fact that Jung sees in these phenomena — namely dreams, etc.
The theory and method of Jungian dream analysis can be sketched here only briefly. It is a determinate functioning, independent of will and wish, of intention and conscious choice of goal. It is an unintentional happening, as everything in nature happens. It is on the whole probable that we continually dream, but consciousness makes while waking such a noise that we do not hear it. It has its own language and its own laws, which one cannot approach with the psychology of consciousness — as subject, so to speak. The roots of the dream, as far as we can tell, lie partly in the conscious contents — impressions of the day before, remnants from the current day — , partly in the constellated contents of the unconscious, which in turn can come from conscious contents or from spontaneous unconscious pro- cesses.
These latter processes, betraying no reference to consciousness, can be derived from anywhere. Their origins can be somatic, physical and psychological events in the environment, or events in the past and future; in the latter instance we may think, e. There are dreams that originally had a reference to consciousness but have lost it, as if it had never existed, and now produce completely incoherent, incomprehensible fragments, then again such as represent unconscious psychic contents of the individual without being recognized as such.
As already said in the first part of this treatise, Jung describes the arrangement of the dream images as standing outside the categories of time and space and subject to no causality. While in the first case the fall of potential led from the stronger, conscious part to the unconscious, in the second case equilibrium exists between the two.
When, however, the contrary position, that the uncon- scious occupies, is stronger than the conscious position, then a fall of potential comes into being that leads from the unconscious to consciousness. Then come those significant dreams that on occasion can completely alter or even reverse a conscious attitude.
The last type, in which the whole activity and all the weight of significance lies in the unconscious, and which furnishes the most peculiar dreams, most difficult to interpret but most important in content, represents unconscious processes that no longer allow one to recognize any relation whatever to consciousness.
The dreamer does not understand them and as a rule wonders greatly why he dreams thus, for not even a conditional relation is to be perceived. But just these dreams often have an overpowering character; often, too, they are oracular. Such dreams likewise appear in many cases before the outbreak of mental illnesses and severe neuroses, when a content suddenly bursts to the fore that deeply impresses the dreamer, even though he does not understand it. In distinguishing between these different types of dreams the weight lies upon the relation in which the reactions of the unconscious stand to the conscious situation.
For the most manifold transitions can be found, from a reaction of the unconscious bound to the contents of consciousness up to spontaneous manifestation of the unconscious. Seldom is an isolated, un- transparent dream to be interpreted even with approximate certainty. The interpretation first reaches a relative cer- tainty in a series of dreams, in which the subsequent dreams correct the errors in the interpretation of the preceding ones. Jung was the first to investigate whole dream series.
Thus it does not uncondi- tionally correspond to a sequence in which dream B would follow from dream A and dream C from dream B. Dreams can radiate from a centre, thus: where dream G can occur before A and dream B just as well after F as before. If this central point is revealed and elevated into consciousness it ceases to work and the dreams arise from a new centre, and so on. Only after this is the interpretation to be worked up and assimilated consciously by the patient.
It requires psychological empathy, ability to make combinations, intuition, familiarity with men and things, and above all a specific knowledge that depends just as much upon extensive systematic mental education as upon a certain intelligence du cceur? In order to interpret a content correctly and effec- tively, one must go at it both with a full knowledge of the life situation and the manifest, conscious psychology of the dreamer and also with an exact reconstruction of the dream context, which is precisely the task of the analysis with its instruments of association and amplification.
Theoretically one can never know this in advance and each of its parts must be postulated as unknown. A result can be reached only when the meaning determined upon the basis of the context has been correlated with the text of the dream itself and in the degree to which the meaning-reaction thus confirmed has been found to make sense. One may not, however, under any circumstances assume that the meaning thus found corresponds to a subjective expectation, for it is often something surprisingly different from what would be ex- pected subjectively.
On the contrary, a correspondence with this expectation would give every ground for mistrust. Parallel dreams whose meaning coincides with the conscious attitude are extremely rare. Only by observing, following, and interpreting a relatively long series can one gain a full picture of the cause and course of the disorder. The series replaces as it were that context which Freudian analysis seeks to disclose by means of free association.
In general the standpoint of the unconscious is complementary or compensatory to consciousness. There exists between consciousness and the dream a very finely balanced relationship. In this sense one can declare the prin- ciple of compensation to be a fundamental rule of psychic activity in general. This year there are no leaves and blossoms upon it.
Thereby the dream means to say: Do you not see yourself in this tree? You are like this! Even though you do not want to be aware of it! The nature in you is dried up, no green grows in you, etc. These dreams are examples for persons whose consciousness has grown auto- nomous through over-differentiation, has gained too great an overweight.
Careless scoundrels often have, e. Both forms can conduce to healing. The prospective function of the dream must be distinguished from its compensatory one. The latter means in the first place that the unconscious, regarded as relative to consciousness, integrates into the conscious situation all the elements that are repressed or disregarded and are lacking to its completeness.
The prospective function on the other hand is an anticipation of future conscious performances that mani- fests itself in the unconscious, like a preliminary exercise or a plan sketched in advance. These anticipating dreams often give unmistakable information about the analytical situation, the correct understanding of which is of the greatest therapeutic import. Hbid p. Naturally these intruders are highly unwelcome to con- sciousness, which therefore represses them. This repression merely increases the separation from the source and intensi- fies the want of instinct to the point of sterile rationalism.
Consciousness therefore either is overwhelmed with infan- tility or must constantly defend itself against it in vain. The one-sidedly rational attitude of consciousness must, in spite of its undeniable successes, be regarded as unadapted and contrary to the demands of life. Life is dried up and longs to return to its source. Not only he is childish, though, who remains a child too long but also he who parts himself from his childhood and supposes it has therewith ceased to exist. For he does not know that everything pertaining to the psyche has a double face.
The one looks forward, the other back. It is ambiguous and therefore symbolic, like all living reality. In con- sciousness we stand upon a peak and childishly imagine that the road leads on to greater heights beyond the peak. That is the chimerical rainbow-bridge. Therefore the approach to the uncon- scious is for civilized man, primarily because of its threaten- ing likeness to mental disorder, usually associated with panic terror.
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He prefers simply not to realize the existence of this problem. The experience of the unconscious is, namely, a personal secret, communicable only with difficulty and only to the very few. Taking the way to the collective unconscious must be preceded , with Jung as with Freud, by making conscious and integrating the infantile contents of the personal unconscious, although Jung draws different deductions: The personal 1 Integration of the Personality, p.
For example, if a child is too closely attached to one parent or feels itself oppressed by the superior strength and prowess of an older brother, these conflicts must first be resolved before the patient proceeds to grapple with the broader problems of human existence. The technique of resolution of a dream can thus — to recapitulate once again — be divided into the following stages: description of the present conscious situation, description of the preced- ing events, determination of the subjective context, in case of archaic motives comparison with mythological parallels, and finally, in complicated situations, correlation with objective information from third persons.
A dream can be divided into parts in this way as follows: i Time, place , dramatis personae, that is, the beginning of the dream which frequently indicates the place where the action of the dream occurs, and the persons acting therein; 2 Exposition , i. This rough scheme, according to which most dreams are built up, forms a suitable basis for the process of inter- pretation. But these are quite specific dreams, and they must not be confused with those which the dreamer recalls only fragmentarily or reproduces only incompletely and which therefore end without a lysis.
For naturally every phase of a dream can seldom be deci- phered at once. It often requires a careful search before its structure is wholly revealed. I climbed up it till I came into the sky. From there I called down to my friend Marietta to come up too. She fussed so long that the rainbow dissolved and she fell down.
The peripety or turn of events occurs when she calls to her friend to come up too. The latter hesitates to come, though, and the lysis follows: the rainbow dissolves and she falls down to earth. The same problem, the same cause may have, according to the total context, a correspondingly different significance; from the viewpoint of conditionalism they can have many mean- ings, not just always the same one without regard to the situation and the variability of their forms of appearance. From this follows: 1. The same states or processes are always the expression of the same conditions; different conditions are expressed in different states and processes.
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