Guide The World’s Greatest Civilizations: The History and Culture of the Celts

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More recent genetic evidence does not support the notion of a significant genetic link between these populations, beyond the fact that they are all West Eurasians. Before the 19th century, scholars [ who? This view was challenged by the 19th-century historian Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville [ citation needed ] who placed the land of origin of the Celts east of the Rhine. Jubainville based his arguments on a phrase of Herodotus' that placed the Celts at the source of the Danube, and argued that Herodotus had meant to place the Celtic homeland in southern Germany.

At the beginning of the 20th century the belief that these "Culture Groups" could be thought of in racial or ethnic terms was strongly held by Gordon Childe whose theory was influenced by the writings of Gustaf Kossinna. It is considered equally difficult to maintain that the origin of the Peninsular Celts can be linked to the preceding Urnfield culture. This has resulted in a more recent approach that introduces a 'proto-Celtic' substratum and a process of Celticisation, having its initial roots in the Bronze Age Bell Beaker culture. It developed out of the Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break, under the impetus of considerable Mediterranean influence from Greek , and later Etruscan civilisations.

A shift of settlement centres took place in the 4th century. Frey notes that in the 5th century, "burial customs in the Celtic world were not uniform; rather, localised groups had their own beliefs, which, in consequence, also gave rise to distinct artistic expressions". Polybius published a history of Rome about BC in which he describes the Gauls of Italy and their conflict with Rome. Pausanias in the 2nd century AD says that the Gauls "originally called Celts", "live on the remotest region of Europe on the coast of an enormous tidal sea".

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Posidonius described the southern Gauls about BC. Though his original work is lost it was used by later writers such as Strabo. Caesar wrote extensively about his Gallic Wars in 58—51 BC. Diodorus Siculus wrote about the Celts of Gaul and Britain in his 1st-century history. The Romans knew the Celts then living in what became present-day France as Gauls. The territory of these peoples probably included the Low Countries , the Alps and present-day northern Italy. In later Iron Age Gaul, the social organisation resembled that of the Romans, with large towns.

From the 3rd century BC the Gauls adopted coinage. Texts with Greek characters from southern Gaul have survived from the 2nd century BC. Greek traders founded Massalia about BC, with some objects mostly drinking ceramics being traded up the Rhone valley. But trade became disrupted soon after BC and re-oriented over the Alps to the Po valley in the Italian peninsula. Rome wanted land communications with its Iberian provinces and fought a major battle with the Saluvii at Entremont in — BC.

Gradually Roman control extended, and the Roman Province of Gallia Transalpina developed along the Mediterranean coast. He then became involved in fighting the various tribes in Gaul, and by 55 BC had overrun most of Gaul. In 52 BC Vercingetorix led a revolt against the Roman occupation but was defeated at the Siege of Alesia and surrendered. This territory of the Celtic tribes was bounded on the south by the Garonne and on the north by the Seine and the Marne. Place- and personal-name analysis and inscriptions suggest that the Gaulish Celtic language was spoken over most of what is now France.

However, since according to the definition of the Iron Age in the 19th century Celtic populations were supposedly rare in Iberia and did not provide a cultural scenario that could easily be linked to that of Central Europe, the presence of Celtic culture in that region was generally not fully recognised. Modern scholarship, however, has clearly proven that Celtic presence and influences were most substantial in what is today Spain and Portugal with perhaps the highest settlement saturation in Western Europe , particularly in the central, western and northern regions.

In addition to Gauls infiltrating from the north of the Pyrenees , the Roman and Greek sources mention Celtic populations in three parts of the Iberian Peninsula: the eastern part of the Meseta inhabited by the Celtiberians , the southwest Celtici , in modern-day Alentejo and the northwest Gallaecia and Asturias. The origins of the Celtiberians might provide a key to understanding the Celticisation process in the rest of the Peninsula. The process of Celticisation of the southwestern area of the peninsula by the Keltoi and of the northwestern area is, however, not a simple Celtiberian question.

Recent investigations about the Callaici [71] and Bracari [72] in northwestern Portugal are providing new approaches to understanding Celtic culture language, art and religion in western Iberia. John T. Koch of Aberystwyth University suggested that Tartessian inscriptions of the 8th century BC might be classified as Celtic. This would mean that Tartessian is the earliest attested trace of Celtic by a margin of more than a century. The Canegrate culture represented the first migratory wave of the proto-Celtic [75] [76] population from the northwest part of the Alps that, through the Alpine passes , had already penetrated and settled in the western Po valley between Lake Maggiore and Lake Como Scamozzina culture.

It has also been proposed that a more ancient proto-Celtic presence can be traced back to the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age , when North Westwern Italy appears closely linked regarding the production of bronze artefacts, including ornaments, to the western groups of the Tumulus culture. Italy is home to Lepontic , the oldest attested Celtic language from the 6th century BC. In BC, Celts "who had their homes beyond the Alps streamed through the passes in great strength and seized the territory that lay between the Apennine mountains and the Alps" according to Diodorus Siculus.

At the battle of Telamon in BC, a large Celtic army was trapped between two Roman forces and crushed. The defeat of the combined Samnite , Celtic and Etruscan alliance by the Romans in the Third Samnite War sounded the beginning of the end of the Celtic domination in mainland Europe, but it was not until BC that the Roman armies conquered the last remaining independent Celtic kingdoms in Italy.

The Celts also expanded down the Danube river and its tributaries. One of the most influential tribes, the Scordisci , had established their capital at Singidunum in the 3rd century BC, which is present-day Belgrade , Serbia. The concentration of hill-forts and cemeteries shows a density of population in the Tisza valley of modern-day Vojvodina , Serbia, Hungary and into Ukraine. Expansion into Romania was however blocked by the Dacians. The Serdi were a Celtic tribe [88] inhabiting Thrace.

They would have established themselves in this area during the Celtic migrations at the end of the 4th century BC, though there is no evidence for their existence before the 1st century BC. Serdi are among traditional tribal names reported into the Roman era. Further south, Celts settled in Thrace Bulgaria , which they ruled for over a century, and Anatolia , where they settled as the Galatians see also: Gallic Invasion of Greece.

Despite their geographical isolation from the rest of the Celtic world, the Galatians maintained their Celtic language for at least years. The Boii tribe gave their name to Bohemia , Bologna and possibly Bavaria , and Celtic artefacts and cemeteries have been discovered further east in what is now Poland and Slovakia. A Celtic coin Biatec from Bratislava 's mint was displayed on the old Slovak 5-crown coin.

As there is no archaeological evidence for large-scale invasions in some of the other areas, one current school of thought holds that Celtic language and culture spread to those areas by contact rather than invasion. There are records of Celtic mercenaries in Egypt serving the Ptolemies. Thousands were employed in — BC and they were also in service around BC. They attempted to overthrow Ptolemy II. Linguists have been arguing for many years whether a Celtic language came to Britain and Ireland and then split or whether there were two separate "invasions".

The older view of prehistorians was that the Celtic influence in the British Isles was the result of successive invasions from the European continent by diverse Celtic-speaking peoples over the course of several centuries, accounting for the P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic isogloss. This view has been challenged by the hypothesis that the Celtic languages of the British Isles form a phylogenetic Insular Celtic dialect group. In the 19th and 20th centuries, scholars commonly dated the "arrival" of Celtic culture in Britain via an invasion model to the 6th century BC, corresponding to archaeological evidence of Hallstatt influence and the appearance of chariot burials in what is now England.

Some Iron Age migration does seem to have occurred but the nature of the interactions with the indigenous populations of the isles is unknown. According to this model, by about the 6th century Sub-Roman Britain , most of the inhabitants of the Isles were speaking Celtic languages of either the Goidelic or the Brythonic branch.

Since the late 20th century, a new model has emerged championed by archaeologists such as Barry Cunliffe and Celtic historians such as John T. Koch which places the emergence of Celtic culture in Britain much earlier, in the Bronze Age, and credits its spread not to invasion, but due to a gradual emergence in situ out of Proto-Indo-European culture perhaps introduced to the region by the Bell Beaker People , and enabled by an extensive network of contacts that existed between the peoples of Britain and Ireland and those of the Atlantic seaboard.

Roman local government of these regions closely mirrored pre-Roman tribal boundaries, and archaeological finds suggest native involvement in local government. The native peoples under Roman rule became Romanised and keen to adopt Roman ways. Celtic art had already incorporated classical influences, and surviving Gallo-Roman pieces interpret classical subjects or keep faith with old traditions despite a Roman overlay.

In the case of the continental Celts, this eventually resulted in a language shift to Vulgar Latin , while the Insular Celts retained their language. There was also considerable cultural influence exerted by Gaul on Rome, particularly in military matters and horsemanship, as the Gauls often served in the Roman cavalry. The Romans adopted the Celtic cavalry sword, the spatha , and Epona , the Celtic horse goddess. To the extent that sources are available, they depict a pre-Christian Iron Age Celtic social structure based formally on class and kingship, although this may only have been a particular late phase of organization in Celtic societies.

Patron-client relationships similar to those of Roman society are also described by Caesar and others in the Gaul of the 1st century BC. In the main, the evidence is of tribes being led by kings, although some argue that there is also evidence of oligarchical republican forms of government eventually emerging in areas which had close contact with Rome.

Most descriptions of Celtic societies portray them as being divided into three groups: a warrior aristocracy; an intellectual class including professions such as druid , poet, and jurist; and everyone else. In historical times, the offices of high and low kings in Ireland and Scotland were filled by election under the system of tanistry , which eventually came into conflict with the feudal principle of primogeniture in which succession goes to the first-born son.

Little is known of family structure among the Celts. Patterns of settlement varied from decentralised to urban. Slavery , as practised by the Celts, was very likely similar to the better documented practice in ancient Greece and Rome. The Old Irish and Welsh words for 'slave', cacht and caeth respectively, are cognate with Latin captus 'captive' suggesting that the slave trade was an early means of contact between Latin and Celtic societies. Archaeological evidence suggests that the pre-Roman Celtic societies were linked to the network of overland trade routes that spanned Eurasia.

Archaeologists have discovered large prehistoric trackways crossing bogs in Ireland and Germany. Due to their substantial nature, these are believed to have been created for wheeled transport as part of an extensive roadway system that facilitated trade. The myth that the Celtic monetary system consisted of wholly barter is a common one, but is in part false. The monetary system was complex and is still not understood much like the late Roman coinages , and due to the absence of large numbers of coin items, it is assumed that "proto-money" was used.

Due to the large number of these present in some burials, it is thought they had a relatively high monetary value , and could be used for "day to day" purchases. Low-value coinages of potin , a bronze alloy with high tin content, were minted in most Celtic areas of the continent and in South-East Britain prior to the Roman conquest of these lands. Higher-value coinages, suitable for use in trade, were minted in gold, silver, and high-quality bronze. Gold coinage was much more common than silver coinage , despite being worth substantially more, as while there were around mines in Southern Britain and Central France, silver was more rarely mined.

This was due partly to the relative sparsity of mines and the amount of effort needed for extraction compared to the profit gained. As the Roman civilisation grew in importance and expanded its trade with the Celtic world, silver and bronze coinage became more common. This coincided with a major increase in gold production in Celtic areas to meet the Roman demand, due to the high value Romans put on the metal.

The large number of gold mines in France is thought to be a major reason why Caesar invaded. There are only very limited records from pre-Christian times written in Celtic languages. These are mostly inscriptions in the Roman and sometimes Greek alphabets. The Ogham script, an Early Medieval alphabet , was mostly used in early Christian times in Ireland and Scotland but also in Wales and England , and was only used for ceremonial purposes such as inscriptions on gravestones. The available evidence is of a strong oral tradition, such as that preserved by bards in Ireland, and eventually recorded by monasteries.

Celtic art also produced a great deal of intricate and beautiful metalwork, examples of which have been preserved by their distinctive burial rites. In some regards the Atlantic Celts were conservative: for example, they still used chariots in combat long after they had been reduced to ceremonial roles by the Greeks and Romans. However, despite being outdated, Celtic chariot tactics were able to repel the invasion of Britain attempted by Julius Caesar.

The Gauls are tall of body with rippling muscles and white of skin and their hair is blond, and not only naturally so for they also make it their practice by artificial means to increase the distinguishing colour which nature has given it. For they are always washing their hair in limewater and they pull it back from the forehead to the nape of the neck, with the result that their appearance is like that of Satyrs and Pans since the treatment of their hair makes it so heavy and coarse that it differs in no respect from the mane of horses.

Some of them shave the beard but others let it grow a little; and the nobles shave their cheeks but they let the moustache grow until it covers the mouth. During the later Iron Age the Gauls generally wore long-sleeved shirts or tunics and long trousers called braccae by the Romans. Cloaks were worn in the winter. Brooches and armlets were used, but the most famous item of jewellery was the torc , a neck collar of metal, sometimes gold. The horned Waterloo Helmet in the British Museum , which long set the standard for modern images of Celtic warriors, is in fact a unique survival, and may have been a piece for ceremonial rather than military wear.

Very few reliable sources exist regarding Celtic views on gender divisions and societal status, though some archaeological evidence does suggest that their views of gender roles may differ from contemporary and less egalitarian classical counterparts of the Roman era. However, the evidence is far from conclusive.

However, it has been suggested that "the weapons may indicate rank instead of masculinity". Among the insular Celts, there is a greater amount of historic documentation to suggest warrior roles for women. In addition to commentary by Tacitus about Boudica , there are indications from later period histories that also suggest a more substantial role for "women as warriors", in symbolic if not actual roles.

Posidonius and Strabo described an island of women where men could not venture for fear of death, and where the women ripped each other apart. Under Brehon Law , which was written down in early Medieval Ireland after conversion to Christianity , a woman had the right to divorce her husband and gain his property if he was unable to perform his marital duties due to impotence, obesity, homosexual inclination or preference for other women. Classical literature records the views of the Celts' neighbours, though historians are not sure how much relation to reality these had. According to Aristotle , most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, but the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers Politics II b.

Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that "Athenaeus echoes this comment a and so does Ammianus It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity. Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Posidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording male "bonding rituals". The sexual freedom of women in Britain was noted by Cassius Dio :.

When the empress was jesting with her, after the treaty, about the free intercourse of her sex with men in Britain, she replied: "We fulfill the demands of nature in a much better way than do you Roman women; for we consort openly with the best men, whereas you let yourselves be debauched in secret by the vilest. There are instances recorded where women participated both in warfare and in kingship, although they were in the minority in these areas.

Plutarch reports that Celtic women acted as ambassadors to avoid a war among Celts chiefdoms in the Po valley during the 4th century BC. Both styles absorbed considerable influences from non-Celtic sources, but retained a preference for geometrical decoration over figurative subjects, which are often extremely stylised when they do appear; narrative scenes only appear under outside influence.

Energetic circular forms, triskeles and spirals are characteristic. Much of the surviving material is in precious metal, which no doubt gives a very unrepresentative picture, but apart from Pictish stones and the Insular high crosses , large monumental sculpture , even with decorative carving, is very rare; possibly it was originally common in wood.

Celts were also able to create developed musical instruments such as the carnyces, these famous war trumpets used before the battle to frighten the enemy, as the best preserved found in Tintignac Gaul in and which were decorated with a boar head or a snake head. The interlace patterns that are often regarded as typical of "Celtic art" were characteristic of the whole of the British Isles, a style referred to as Insular art , or Hiberno-Saxon art. The style was taken up with great skill and enthusiasm by Celtic artists in metalwork and illuminated manuscripts.

Equally, the forms used for the finest Insular art were all adopted from the Roman world: Gospel books like the Book of Kells and Book of Lindisfarne , chalices like the Ardagh Chalice and Derrynaflan Chalice , and penannular brooches like the Tara Brooch. These works are from the period of peak achievement of Insular art, which lasted from the 7th to the 9th centuries, before the Viking attacks sharply set back cultural life. In contrast the less well known but often spectacular art of the richest earlier Continental Celts, before they were conquered by the Romans, often adopted elements of Roman, Greek and other "foreign" styles and possibly used imported craftsmen to decorate objects that were distinctively Celtic.

After the Roman conquests, some Celtic elements remained in popular art, especially Ancient Roman pottery , of which Gaul was actually the largest producer, mostly in Italian styles, but also producing work in local taste, including figurines of deities and wares painted with animals and other subjects in highly formalised styles. Rising nationalism brought Celtic revivals from the 19th century.

Tribal warfare appears to have been a regular feature of Celtic societies. While epic literature depicts this as more of a sport focused on raids and hunting rather than organised territorial conquest, the historical record is more of tribes using warfare to exert political control and harass rivals, for economic advantage , and in some instances to conquer territory.

The Celts were described by classical writers such as Strabo , Livy , Pausanias , and Florus as fighting like "wild beasts", and as hordes. Dionysius said that their.

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Thus, at one moment they would raise their swords aloft and smite after the manner of wild boars , throwing the whole weight of their bodies into the blow like hewers of wood or men digging with mattocks, and again they would deliver crosswise blows aimed at no target, as if they intended to cut to pieces the entire bodies of their adversaries, protective armour and all". Such descriptions have been challenged by contemporary historians. Polybius 2. The uprising was crushed, and some 70, to 80, rebels were killed in the ensuing battle and its aftermath.

It is believed although no means of confirmation exists that Boudicca died by her own hand sometime shortly after the battle, the most common theory being that she consumed poison to avoid capture.


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Eternal glory and praise for you, fierce and vengeful Warrior Queen! In a time dominated by men, you not only secured your throne and sovereign rule, but also successfully defied the power of the Roman Empire. After suffering terrible punishment and humiliation at the hand of the Roman invaders, you rallied your people in a bloody and terrifying revolt. Legions fell under your chariot wheels and the city of London burned. While in the end the Romans retained ownership of the isles, you alone made Nero consider withdrawing all troops and leaving Briton forever. Oh sleeping lioness, your people desire that you rise and lead them again in the calling that is your namesake.

Will you meet their challenge on the open field and lead the Celts to everlasting victory? Will you restore your lands and build an empire to stand the test of time? Introduction : I am Boudicca, Queen of the Celts and nobody better try rushing me! Defeat : Evil King! You realized that you "won" this war in name only? Ti yr wyddost mewn enw yn unig yr 'enillaist' y rhyfel hon?

Foreign peoples have come to our lands bearing precious stones and coin. The Pushtan belongs to a haplo group that migrated from India…. India was historically known as Bharat and was never unified, it was divided in s of kingdoms. Pakistan is proven to have ancient history. Indus Valley Civilisation originated around river Indus in present day Pakistan. Proud moment for us Pakistanis. Or did we foregt to mention to you that in Hinduism our actual holy book never talk about one God over head, and the other gods of hinduism are merely representstion of nature, we still belive in one God.

Problem is thay you people can never accept that some other civilization already had been doing something great before you started thumping your chest. Indian civilization statrted roughly around 5k, Yrs i am talking of the modern one, which you still see in India we were protected from Invaders by our position, desert on one side, Himalayas on one side and Ocean on anothers, so we had time to settle down and think about science and since we never followed one book or one concept of a God, this was a society of seekers and not believers thats why we reached that height, oh but wait you never read this did you?

May be you need to read the writings of Atheist historians of the west who were not weighed down by Bible. Something is unclear. We are still moving and I m damn sure after thousand years if we will exist than no land gonna this present shape which we all see in maps. We can discuss only upto now but I am waiting for new discoveries which will be never gonna end. We can discuss only upto now but I am waiting for new discoveries which will never come to halt.

I find this all very interesting. I was wondering at what time man began his struggle to control his world and those around him. Religion has certainly been used to control, and is now the major tool being fought over. Western civilization is certainly in control now and trying to hold on to that control.

It manipulates the world and the people in ways seen and unseen. Have they killed and conquered to push their views? Do they suppress and reject other views? Right now we Westerners to create wars to create power and control. Before we wanted to control the region to control the oil…how radical were they? All I know is that humans are lost. The places we look are often places others invent, or tell us to look. Love and respect seem to me two very good universal concepts. Being controlled by those hungry to retain power…and to increase power…to keep truth hidden.

Great people have come into this world and spoke of Peace…and have been killed for it. Peace is an idea…but you need a map to get there. We are all connected and part of something…and we can create so many wonderful things…but look what we do with them…sell them…use them wrongfully… Sad is all… We are capable of so much more…. It all hinges on your definition of civilization. There may have been many cultures, but no civilization yet.

By this definition, probably the Sumerian or Akkadian civilizations were the first, coming into being around B. Early pyramids called ziggurats were recently unearthed in Egypt. These date back to 7, B. A bone flute was recently found in China that dates to about the same time, 7, B. Dear Adikari, Its interesting. If possible come down to Sri Lanka. Its a country with large number of historical monuments that speaks of very advanced ancient civilization. I was in the process of writing a paper on ancient irrigation systems of Sri Lanka and accidentally came across your work.

According to information gathered by me so far, the aborigines who lived here have moved onto agriculture as far back as years. The excavations done by the sri lankan archaeological department in the ancient city Anuradhapura has found ruins of a small city dating back to the period as far as to BC. It was opiniond that international trading had been taking place there.

The man made water reservoirs net work that covered up the part of the island was a first in the world. It might definitly help you. Asoka Dias Weerasingha. Even we Indians respect Ravana of Sri Lanka to be a great philosopher and consider him to be one of Brahma, creator. No use of fighting ourshelves on proving which and whoose civilization is oldest or true ir great whatever.

But we all know fact can never be hide. All we know today about civilization is from scientific proof ,excavation , and scripture and fossils else. Hi Mukesh chauhan, You are right to a fault. Yes, there is more than modern science and it has been proven by the translations of the Sumerian Clay Tablets, written in Cuneiform Language.

A great man, Zecharia Sitchin decesed , started publishing these translation in with very controversial claims. Our Astrologer until than had claimed them to be rocky, or gaseous. How did Sitchin know this? Our Astrologers downgraded Pluto from its title as a planet recently! The Sumerians claim that there is a 12th planet called Nibiru, a Red Dwarf sun with its own planets, circling our Sun every years.

Yesterday I heard the Canadian CBC News reporting that Astrologers had found that there must be another, they claim 9th planet out there, 10 times the size of Earth and circling our sun every 10 to 20 years. The size might be right but the timespan is wrong. If you look throughout History, mankind has had immense technical advances every years. Thus, what you call God is really gods from outer space. We always venerate beings who help us and dominate us, the gods from Outer Space.

The real God who created all of us and our surroundings is within you only. The only evidence us humans have of him is ourselves and our surroundings. It has been arranged so that we, everyone of us, is responsible for what happens and what we do. The so called God is not going to help us unless we help ourselves. Does that make sense to you?

We have been mislead Millennia ago to believe that these creatures, called Anunnaki, are gods but they where our creators and deceived us into believing them. Read the Books of Zecharia Sitchin and Michael Tellinger, they will open your eyes wider than you ever immagined. All that religious hocus pocus has been designed to suppress your mind and keep you being a slave!

Since god does not want you to, think out of the box and get a mind of your own. It just might surprise you! Absolute lies!! Before a list like this is published, they should note the criteria in which they are defining a Civilization. I would like to know what or whom is the oldest civilization ever discovered. Through my research it seems to be Dwarka. Can someone give me information to the contrary? I know there have been possible farming communities that have dated some 60 to 70 thousand years. I would appreciate any help in this area. You better about Jiroft civilization of ancient cities and civilizations Iran Gilan research thanks.

Who said the results in Mesopotamia to be part of Persian civilization, I doubt the opposite is true. Thanks to the honest researchers and historians as Iraq now is very weak and can speak and show their bright ancient picture. It is part of the culture of Iraq where Mesopotamia, and all the great architecture of the sumerians exist.

My sisters and brothers! My dear nerdy friends. Everything is a lie!

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Enjoy your journey , become a living God. Love is universal law, but to grasp it , become free first, I mean really free of everything , starting with stripping yourself off your national pride, lol, you understand it constitutes your absence, my best regards , love you all. I really worried that we all fighting with each others like who is superior among us. Whatever might be the arguments regarding oldest civilisations, race, religion or any sort of divisions that we have with in us. Throw out all these complexities and just think a while that we all are same humans.

We all are the sons and daughters of this mother Earth. Only we created borders and territories between nations and not God nor our mother Earth. Whether it is Africa or Europe or Asia or North America or South America or Australia, all these continents are been seen as diversity of land masses but in reality all comprises within this globe. If there is a quarrel between siblings in a home they will fight with each other, but assume if there is a quarrel between their neighbours do we think that these two will keep fighting each other?

Absolutely no, they will become allies and now the fight will starts between their house and neighbouring house. The same concept will apply for street, area, province or state, then nation. Beyond to this point with whom do we fight yet? If we get a life threat from aliens, do we still continue to fight among each other or else will take a remedial action to save our entire man kind along with other living creatures?

Life is very beautiful to love and live it but we all losing the same. I believe whatever might be the number of religions that exist but all the religions preach us to live a harmonious life and to keep peace within us. Last but not the least, just imagine what we all can able to do if a huge meteor strikes our mother Earth and costs all the lives. Who else will be left out to make quarrels? If still there is a one or more been hurt, for them here is my sincere apologies. Tamil, I like and appreciate what you have to say.

I carry the same ideals. If you truly speak from the heart, no one has any right to judge. This is all interesting; some of it funny, and some of it insulting. Anyway, here goes a curve ball to you all: The Mayan calendar the long-count calendar — there are other shorter ones covers a period of about 1, years of the modern, Gregorian calendar. In of these counts ended and a new one started. I have to check my records, but I believe this is the 3rd or 4th cycle that is being kept track of.

How old is that??? Yet archeologists and historians only place the Mayan civilization about BC; this has been changing over the years, one of the latest ones says about BC. Anyway, how long does it take for an educated person to realize that the phases of the moon repeat monthly? Does it take one month? Of course not, it takes quite a few months. Now, how long does it take to figure out the phases of the moon and the sun? Does it take one year? Of course not! Now, how long does it take to be aware and figure out a period of 1, years???

The oldest we know for now is Vinca culture and Starcevo… Old Arian European civilization that you hide from the all charts of this kind…. Great written shortened history thesis. Thank you for your trouble in doing so. I printed it out, so I can keep it in my bookshelf. This is a summary of very much studying and research. Well done. As for the fools looking at the comments who does not understand the word civilization in the context you try to depict it, I feel sorry.

All other civilizations have come from any of these, Greece is a copy of the Phoenician, which is Canaan successor, in a correct list without white chauvinism she was not even in the top What about the Armenian Civilization? Pay attention that first leather shoes y. Still claiming that Mesopotamia was the first? Not to mention how preposterous it is to claim understanding of Egyptian history; since no one truly does.

We should call it how it really is: Guess Work; instead of pretending that we know everything about everything definitively. Shame shame shame.. They should not start the article saying that we are not. Its an insult. And the most important actually. Because even words all around the world vocabulary are based in greek. What about the kushite civilization in Africa, particularly Sudan? I am proud because I of the oldest civilizations of the world Iraq..

We invented wars and agriculture laws, human rights and animal invention of writing.. Come to Iraq is not afraid of the security situation is bad.. Old and great, Iran is. Some of the arguments made here are needless and based on need for pride. Civilization is born when it takes over living, evolving culture.

It becomes monolithic, bureaucratic in one way or the other, and static in its arts. I like all old cultures, the stirrings of tribal cultures, which probably were the very first and most important way of survival. Who knows definitively the first civilization? For sure, there were many great cultures, and in many ways they are more interesting. To me, it is important that people belong to a culture, a language, a nation, and before that, a tribe, clan and family. There are many unknown things. All reminders of progenitors, or very early ancestors are moving, as are remnants of their culture or civilization.

We are all related to some extent, all people, and as people, as carriers of life, with all other living things. Some things may have developed earlier, but as in all endeavours, be it philosophy, science, art, mathematics, everything is built on the shoulders of those who came before. So we should not think that we are so much more intelligent than people at other times or consider ourselves so much more advanced.

In many ways we may lag behind earlier peoples or ways of apprehending the world. Vying for credit as to who started this or that first in a way is pointless, unless it is a historical record. We can say the first organic elements, or the single-celled organism started first. What is very interesting how many elements of stories of origins, or sacred stories, circulate among peoples in one way or another. Did God write sacred books? Some people takes certain sacred books as written by God himself. I say that people, inspired, and with sudden insight, wrote under that apprehension which must have been almost like something had taken hold of them and dictated what they were writing.

In this way, it is spiritual, and if God, whatever the form or type of being, can be said to be anything beyond all powerful and of infinite existence, then surely God is a spiritual being. I am not a scholar, but have always been interested in the intersections between so called pagan religions, myths, and more formalized religions. Usually, there are seeds of truth to myths, and in total, everything is a way of reaching for that one undefined power and source of creativity. This is written as I have read a few pages here and there, and there is no thought out theory or program in my words.

The oldest civilization in the world founded in Iran , kerman province , jiroft city. The jiroft civilization belongs to B. The first and the mother of all is much more oldest then BC! Mesopotamia is active in persian land and it has not related Arabic culture specially in that time. Zagrose is name of mountain in iran. And you can feel it and that is el odio. What your text shows is your lack of information about Iranian history. So that civilization in every corner of this vast land is older than the other. Do it about The city is burned, do you know anything?

In my opinion, when one can only understand the civilization of Iran, As much as understanding the entire civilizations you named.

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The positive impact of any Iranian ruling dynasty on Iran Human progress has not been found in any civilization. There is something in the other civilizations of some kind of selfishness. Summerian writings, their own records say they migrated from Africa…. Egyptian records say they migrated from more interior of Africa…. And white supremacy will do anything, still to this day, to try to cover up that confession…..

Africans travelled the world while most other nations were just jumping off the front porch! The olmecs were the first advanced civilizations in the americas and they have African origins! The phonecians Canaanite Babylonian assyriasns all descend from Ham! They were Africans! Look into these things for yourself and you will see that I do not exaggerate not one time. The entire continent of Africa sits on the African plate and Arabia, sits on its own plate called the Arabian plate.

Arabia is geographically Asia. I do not believe that the Turkish are older than the ancient Greeks, that is what i have been told. Thank you for giving me a lesson about the oldest civilizations ever existed. Now, looking at this burial apparently they had hierarchy, as this seems to be the grave of some ruler or a noble. Also ,considering that the gold was made around years ago, the city they populated and buried this person into is even older…It actually predates the Mesopotamian civilization with at least a thousand years.

More archaeologists from all over the world need to get that one solved.. The problem is that such things take lots of funding, and unless Turkey allows it to become a tourist attraction the worst of bad ideas the site itself only takes money without giving back, at least right away.. The Indus Valley civilizations are not the oldest….

India was populated through the Aryan migration! Human civilization should not be classified as we have done in our attempt to know different ancient tribes who lived in a compact area. We have mismanaged the ancient world in such a gigantic way that scholars not in a position to reshape their attitude. It is our ignorance only that shapes our ideas on ancient civilization, on origin of life and on alll aspects of human knowledge. That will give us some idea on our foolishness. There are 4 known Civilization of the world.

This dates back to stone and bronze age. My passion to know from everything from the Day earth and sun rose up mountains got settle down, sea cover up the face of earth till Day of Judgement arrives. Till now Billion of lives came and departed and more to come and depart. Take care You all wonderful people around.

Kudos to the author of the blog in sharing his enthusiasm on human history. Interesting comments too lol Fact is there is only one civilization, the Human Civilization. While it is human nature to believe only what can be seen — evidence? Evidence shows humans or human-like creatures existed before written history. What i can conclude from written history is just one thing man trying to outwit one another by all means. Time to write our history for the future generation — how to live in harmony with one another and mother nature.

One of the major problems of defining our true origins is the separation we have thrust upon ourselves. We have an abundance of creation stories from all corners of the earth. I personally feel that a creator exists but I do not adhere or following a religion as I feel that man has created that and not the creator. So if we put our heads together by removing barriers and actually working as the one race that we are.

Life,as we were taught in school, originated in oceans and other large water bodies and after several billions of years later the current species of humans the Homo-erectus evolved. Being an Indian, I may take pride in claiming that ours is the oldest known civilization but alas that could be further away from the truth! I shall not make this foolish statement. There must be other civilizations unbeknownst to the historians of the yore which may have not been discovered hitherto. The civilizations listed by this author are the ones that have recorded evidences based on current day Carbon dating technology.

There may be many more civilizations that may be lying buried under several layers under the surface of the earth. What about the scarcely inhabitable places like the Urals, Mainland Australia etc? We are Humans Being and have for well over , cycles full story is was and always will BE if you choose to read. Wow, the article was interesting but the banter was more so.

What came across was the strike-in-your-face jingoism about how my civilization is greater than yours. My language is the oldest and the greatest and so on. It is nice to know of history but in no way is the former glory going to rub off on its present crusaders. Let us learn and rejoice from what we learn about each civilization. And let us remember to cast away any emotion when it comes to language. Language, old or new is but a tool for communication.

The oldest surviving language is not the oldest language. Many have perished because of lack of speakers. On an idealistic note, I hope the present world can become as border-less as it was during the ancient civilizations. Why do we need to know that? Somewhere the civilization started in this part of world and spread across and came to this day.

We all die..

About the Author

The rulers, kings and legends were dead as so as we… Actual truth is no one knows.. And one more actual truth is i wasted time to reply this, so as to teach some sense.. Many Vedic Knowledge coinsides with the natural scientific discoveries or redivories of modern time. PS: Im not an Indian nationality, Im south east asian. As i learned some languages, i now understand more about where we came from and some other interesting things.

Western culture

So its anciant book which some people stil can read in nowday language. We speek advansed sanskrit as we changed alfabet around years a go, we evolved. We can understand easy old sanskrit, its like removing some nowday gramer from my mother language. But who speek sanskrit- cant understand much from our nowday language, as we set up much rools for corecting gramer.


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I am not from India, and i came from near Baltic Sea. Ever interesting, You have tried to covered number of arrears But how can we believe this some are very complicated and different from the others which I have red and heard. Not some human like tribes that existed. The oldest ever existed crafted gold was made by them too, which was found in Varna, Bulgaria Europe , and which is that old. The civilization is much much older.

By that time none of those you mentioned existed. Egypt was under the rule Kingdom of kush for over a years. All evidences proofed that pharaohs are black Nubian including the dna which means the giant pyramids of Egypt you can see today were built by Nubian. Egypt history is twisted after the collapse of the kush Kingdom.

In addition, Mesopotamia is not considered a single civilization. It refers to the area where some of the first civilizations arose, and is usually associated with the Sumer, Assyrians, and Babylonians. I think I have some information that all posters will agree on. The Shulaveri-Shomu culture is the first civilization of importance. Specifically, the most recent evidence comes from Gadachrili gora, near the village of Imiri in the same region; carbon-dating points to the date of about BC.

This is the civilization that is credited as the first wine makers. The most significant contribution to human kind. Hey great list, but people in the comments are incredibly biased or misunderstood. Just feel the need to say to address common points. Firstly, it does not matter where the original cradle of civilization is. Truth is we do not actually know. The dates are just estimates, and tools like carbon dating are very inconsistent. Aboriginals area very old, recently shown to be 80, years plus. I have studied the culture in Sydney extensively.

They are the oldest surviving culture, relatively unchanged up until couple hundred years ago. But there are many indigenous tribes in Africa and throughout the world just as old. Examples of civilizations most people giving are of that, including toys, buildings, utilities, idols but do not have the consistency as the top three in this list. There is no point using religion in your argument, especially to contradict a scientific claim.

Yes, Indus valley is probably most unknown out of the top three but does not mean it is the oldest. Tectonic plates movement is irrelevant here, Pangea existed million years ago. Middle-eastern, Mesoamerican and Chinese languages were constructed independently. Ancient Egypt was not all black, as would Afrocentrist would say. Geneticists found gene variation from mummies to modern day Egyptian remained relatively unchanged despite Arab, Levant, European migration. North Africans Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt etc.

Hieroglyphics do show individuals of black skin colour but was differentiated as Nubian, whilst they showed themselves copper-skinned, and Nubians only part of Egypt under Ramses to a more multicultural society. Yes Egypt is in Africa, but the majority of black skinned people remained largely sub-Saharan — to the south and west. They had found that deviation from African genes were around 80, or older, a similar time to out of Africa migration.

It is thought they migrated through Horn of Africa and Yemen. None were smarter than the other and these are all circumstantial. Northern Eurasia was still within the recent Ice-age, so even having a prominent culture with languages and religion, they were not as comparable to most in the above list.

I would expect the aboriginals had no need to rage war due to the untouched abundance of resources of Australia, shortage of no space nor food. War is a common catalyst in the advancement of technology. I thought it was interesting someone had mentioned Gobekli Tepe, as it is in a similar location to the Indo-Eurasian mother language. The very information I put could be outdated or invalidated in the near future. I am confused about why people keep talking so much about archeology as proof. It seems to me that DNA and genetics would be better proof because it is more easily dateable and easier to find old examples.

In the Americas, an international team of scientists was given permission to do genome-wide analyses on 49 ancient people whose remains were unearthed in the following Central and South American countries: Belize, Brazil, Peru, Chile, and Argentina. Can anyone speak to these?