The tune drives the text - Competing information channels of speech shape phonological systems, Language Dynamics and Change. Prosodic prominence — a cross-linguistic perspective, Special issue in Language and Speech. Grice, Martine invited Rethinking Autosegmental-Metrical Phonology. Intonational Primitives. Albert, A. Using periodic energy to enrich acoustic representations of pitch in speech: A demonstration.
Cangemi, K. Hermes, T. Roettger, J. Becker, H. Niemann, M. Opitz, T. Dembek, L. Timmermann, V. Visser-Vandewalle, G. Fink, M. Barbe PloS one 13 1 , e Torreira, F. Invited talk. Discreteness and continuity in intonational categories, in the symposium 'Language structure in acquisition and processing' in honour of Janet Fodor. Paris, October 16, Bruggeman, A. Barbe, M.
Hartinger, T. Dembek, J. Pochmann, J. Wirths, N. Allert, D. Hermes, I. Meister, V. Visser-Vandewalle, M. Timmermann Neuromodulation 20 3 : DOI: Wehrle, F. Cangemi, D.
Thies, T. Prosodic organisation. Invited commentary. El Zarka, S. Wehrle, S. Speaker-specific intonational marking of narrow focus in Egyptian Arabic. Speech Prosody 8 , Boston. Grice : Speech prosody and possible misunderstandings in intercultural talk - A study of listener behaviour in Vietnamese and German dialogues. Speech Prosody 8 , Boston, Grice : Inconspicuous coarticulation: a complex path to sound change in the tone system in Hanoi Vietnamese. Journal of Phonetics 59 : Cangemi, F.
The importance of a distributional approach to categoriality in autosegmental-metrical accounts of intonation. Vogeley Adults with Asperger syndrome are less sensitive to intonation than control persons when listening to speech". Culture and Brain 4 1 , Baumann Intonation in der Lautsprache: Tonale Analyse.
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In Domahs, U. Primus eds. DOI Chapter : Segment und Geste in der Lautsprache. Primus Eds. Becker, M. Dembek, M. Hartinger, I. Becker, J. Barbe, T. Hartinger, J. Pochmann, T. The effect of uni- and bilateral thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on speech in patients with Essential Tremor: production and perception. Hartinger, M. Scholz, M. Barbe, D. Dembek, I. Hermes, M.
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Roettger, H. Niemann, J. Visser-Vandewalle, L. Prosodische De- Kodierung des Informationsstatus im Deutschen. Ridouane Tonal association in Tashlhiyt Berber: Evidence from polar questions and contrastive statements. Listener-specific perception of speaker-specific productions in intonation. In Fuchs, S. Pape, C. Perrier eds. Roettger, T. Perception of peak placement in Tashlhiyt Berber.
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Fossard Managing referential chains using a picture-based storytelling task: A cross-linguistic approach. The role of high pitch in Tashlhiyt Berber: Evidence from production and perception. Galea, L. Cues to gemination in word-initial position in Maltese. Oral presentation. Word stress in Tashlhiyt - Post lexical prominence in disguise? The tune drives the text - Schwa in consonant-final loanwords in Italian.
Tonal coarticulation in L2 standard Chinese. The effect of verbs on the prosodic marking of information status: Production and perception in German. Wagner Prosodic and referential marking in oral narratives by Adults with High Functioning Autism. Rate-controlled syllable repetitions improve comparability of DBS-induced dysarthria between on- and off-state in patients with essential tremor.
Ritter, S. Language and Speech 58 1. Savino, M. Hermes Word-initial insertions in Maltese. Intonation and Asperger Syndrome. Rummer, R. Mood is linked to vowel type: The role of articulatory movements. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Assessing incomplete neutralization of final devoicing in German. Journal of Phonetics. Lexical and surface geminates in Maltese. Brunelle, M. Peak delay, misperception and the development of tone sandhi in Hanoi Vietnamese.
The effect of focus marking on supralaryngeal articulation — Is it mediated by accentuation? Cho More than a magic moment — Paving the way for dynamics of articulation and prosodic structure. Cho, T. Dynamics of Articulation and Prosodic Structure. Karia, M. Severity of DBS-induced dysarthria in patients with essential tremor is associated with bilateral stimulation and laterally located electrodes. The effect of thalamic deep brain stimulation on speech production in subjects with essential tremor.
Niemann, H. Segmental and positional effects in tonal alignment: An articulatory approach. Syllabification of word onsets in Italian. Savino M. Intonational cues to item position in lists: evidence from a serial recall task. Proceedings of Speech Prosody 7, May Ha, K. Brunelle Tonal allophony in Vietnamese: Evidence from task-oriented dialogues.
Mood induction as speech motor priming. Hermes, A. The intonation of repair initiations in Northern Vietnamese: Evidence from multi-word utterances. Intonation and positional effects in spoken serial recall. Cangemi Disentangling contrastiveness and givenness in informational prominence. Ritter Exemplar-based prosody and intonation transcription. Phonetic alignment and phonological association in Tashlhiyt Berber.
Journal of Acoustical Society of America. Rhythm, Speech Timing and Perceptual Processing. Laboratory Phonology. Intonation in Northern Vietnamese. The Linguistic Review. Interaktion zwischen Ton und Intonation. Sonority and syllable weight determine tonal association in Tashlhiyt Berber. Production and Perception of Focus Types in German. Niemann Articulatory coordination and the syllabification of word initial consonant clusters in Italian.
Hoole, M. Pouplier, L. Bombien, Ch. Consonant Clusters and Structural Complexity. Mouton de Gruyter. Where is the Early Peak in German. Poster presentation at Final symposium of the DFG Priority programme "Phonological and phonetic competence: between grammar, signal processing, and neural activity". Satellite workshop of LabPhon 13, July , Stuttgart. Dewald Oral presentation at Phonetik und Phonologie 8, 12 October , Jena.
Onglides von Nuklearakzenten: Brauchen wir Leading Tones? Meister, I. Klinische Neurophysiologie. Meister Masked auditory feedback affects speech motor learning of a plosive duration contrast. Motor Control. The perception of negative bias in Bari Italian questions. Frota, E. Prieto Eds. Prosodic categories: production perception and comprehension, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory Schweppe, J. Rummer What models of verbal working memory can learn from phonological theory: Decomposing the phonological similarity effect.
Journal of Memory and Language. Fougeron The association of tones in Tashlhiyt Berber. Kinematics of syllable structure in Tashlhiyt Berber: The case of vocalic and consonantal nuclei. Gestural coordination in Tashlhiyt syllables. Brengelmann, T. Prosody Transfer - German speakers acquiring Mandarin tones. Gestural coordination of word initial clusters in Italian and what it tells us about syllable structure. Gestural planning in Italian syllables. Goldstein What is a tone gesture and how is it coupled to oral constriction gestures?.
Dogil Tonal and articulatory marking of focus domains: What do listeners hear? Oral presentation at the 3rd annual meeting of the DFG-Priority Programme "Phonological and phonetic competence: between grammar, signal processing, and neural activity", March , Cologne, Germany. Keynote lecture. Articulation and Accentuation. Jagdfeld Tonal association and derived nuclear accents: the case of downstepping contours in German. Articulatory evidence for syllable onsets.
The fact that the effect is restricted to the overt presence of a prosodic cue is in accord with the Boundary Deletion Hypothesis Pauker et al. Moreover, prosodic phrasing is able to affect reanalysis cost for locally ambiguous structures. We found processing difficulties for the modifier reading in both prosodic variants, which can be accounted for by principles like Argument Preference or Parameterized Head Attachment.
However, the effect was much milder when prosodic phrasing was in accord with the dispreferred reading. References Augurzky, P. In: H. Yamashita, Y. Packard Eds. Bornkessel, I. The Extended Argument Dependency Model: A neurocognitive approach to sentence comprehension across languages. Psychological Review, , Clifton, C.
Parsing arguments: Phrase structure and argument structure as determinants of initial parsing decisions. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, Gollrad, A. Prosodic disambiguation of German case ambiguity. Konieczny, L. The role of lexical heads in parsing: evidence from German. Pauker, E. Effects of cooperating and conflicting prosody in spoken English garden path sentences: ERP evidence fort the boundary deletion hypothesis.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23 10 , Steinhauer, K. Brain potentials indicate immediate use of prosodic cues in natural speech. Nature Neuroscience, 2, Wiese , Smith Es wird weiterhin davon ausgegangen, dass das pWort durch Grenzmarkierungsmittel wie Aspiration am Ende der ersten Konstituente und Glottalverschluss am Beginn der zweiten Konstituente abgegrenzt wird. Ebenso ist durchaus zu hinterfragen, ob eine morphologische Konstituente immer den gleichen prosodischen Status innehaben muss.
Staffel und das DFG-Dialektintonationskorpus. Referenzen Bergmann ersch. In: Hoole, Phil et al. Berlin: de Gruyter. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag, Version 5. Bush, Nathan : Frequency effects and word-boundary palatalization in English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, Jurafsky, D. Phonetica 51, Phonetica 62, Papers from the Linguistics Laboratory. ZASPiL 52, Smith, George : Phonological words and derivation in German.
Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag. Turk, Alice : Does prosodic constituency signal relative predictability? A smooth signal redundancy hypothesis. Laboratory phonology 1 2 , Lohnstein anika. Crucially, verum focus is generally assumed to be non-contrastive cf. However, a recent approach has reanalyzed verum focus as a sub-type of contrastive focus Lohnstein The current study investigates the prosodic marking of these two types of focus with a view to shedding light on their relatedness or otherwise.
Turco et al. Our observations from a spontaneous corpus indicate that, although there is overlap in their realisation, there are different likelihoods of specific accent types on verum focus and lexical contrast. Evaluation involved rating on a 5-point Likert scale how well a particular contour matched a context evoking either verum focus or lexical contrast.
See example 1 below. Verum focus: b. B: Doch! B: Nein. Independent studies have found the rising onglide to be a perceptual cue to contrast Ritter et al. This cue has a gradual dimension, the larger the onglide, the more likely it is that contrast is perceived. This study reveals that both verum focus and lexical contrast can be produced with this gradual cue to contrast, indicating that the two types of focus could indeed be related.
Second, it points to a distinction between the two types of focus investigated here. Thus, although both show aspects of the intonation of contrast they can be realized by two distinct intonation patterns as well. References Alter, K. Mleinek, T. Rohe, A. Kontrastprosodie in Sprachproduktion und —perzeption. Umbach Eds. Leipzig: Linguistische Arbeitsberichte Grice, M.
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Jacobs Ed. Terminal intonation patterns in single-accent utterances of German: Phonetics, phonology, and semantics. What is emphasis and how is it coded? Lohnstein, H. Verumfokus — Satzmodus — Wahrheit. Hamburg: Buske Linguistische Berichte, Sonderheft Ritter, S. Onglides von Nuklearakzenten: Brauchen wir Leading Tones?
Steube, A. Correction by Contrastive Focus. Theoretical Linguistics, Turco, G. Intonational means to mark Verum Focus in German and French. Language and Speech. Die Entstimmung der hohen Vokale, die durch Reduktion entsteht, ist eine der phonetischen Besonderheiten der japanischen Sprache Han Zitrone, Zisterne, Atlantik, Lexikon.
Dabei zeigt sich auch, dass die Vokale unterschiedlichen Entstimmungsmustern unterliegen. Hier gibt es weiterhin erheblichen Forschungsbedarf. Referenzen Han, S. Mieko Unvoicing of vowels in Japanese. The Study of sounds, Vol, Gengobunkaronshu , Nagoya University , Vol, Hierbei muss beachtet werden, dass im Deutschen initial gesprochen eigentlich nur [z] und [ts] die Regel ist.
Als Probanden wurden insgesamt 16 Deutsch-Muttersprachler rekrutiert. Als Material wurden ein Text zum vorlesen, sowie Rechenaufgaben und Wortreihen konzipiert. Die Probanden bekamen den Text und die Aufgaben in einer Powerpointprasentation gezeigt, wobei sie sich selber durch die Prasentation navigieren sollten.
Bei der Bestimmung der Laute zahlte der akustische Eindruck. Multikulturelles Englisch Londons: Torgersen et al. In dieser Studie wird die Verwendung des Adverbs bzw. De mengtaal van jongeren in Amsterdam. Toegepaste Taalwetenschap in Artikelen 62;2, Auer, Peter. Pronunciation in Swedish multiethnolect. In Svendsen, B. Multilingual Matters. Reversing "drift": Innovation and diffusion in the London diphthong system. Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt Ethnicity in Youth culture.
Stockholms Universitet, pp. Cambridge University Press. Nortier, Jacomine Meeting at the Crossroads. Studies of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Oslo and Utrecht, Norvus Forlag. Ethnicity as a source of changes in the London vowel system. Hinskens ed. Language variation — European perspectives. Linguistics 49—5 , — Kachel, A. Pierrehumbert et al. Die Unterschiede sind damit nicht durch die sexuelle Orientierung an sich, sondern durch mit ihr assoziierte Variablen verursacht. Referenzen Camp, M.
University of Arizona. Kachel, S. Eine phonetisch-psychologische Untersuchung weiblicher Sprechweisen. Language and Speech, 50 1 , — Munson, B. American Speech, 86 1 , 14— Language and Linguistics Compass, 1 5 , — The influence of sexual orientation on vowel production L. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 4 , — Rendall, D. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37 1 , — Simpson, A. Phonetische Datenbanken des Deutschen in der empirischen Sprachforschung und der phonologischen Theoriebildung. In a large acoustic study of German vowels using data from the Kiel Corpus of Read and Spontaneous Speech IPDS , Simpson , a number of unexpected sex-specific differences in correlations between the first two vowel formants and vowel duration were identified.
In particular, several statistically significant correlations between acoustic vowel quality and duration present in male vowel categories were absent in their female congeners. The absence of a significant correlation between F1 or F2 and duration suggests that the acoustic target of a vowel has been attained within the range of durational variability. Two main explanations are possible for this. First, female speakers exhibit faster post- and pre-consonantal formant transitions allowing them to attain vocalic target positions earlier than male speakers.
The second possibility is that there is no difference in the dynamics of formal transitions, but female vowels are in general longer, hence increasing the chance that the vowel target will be attained by the temporal midpoint of the vowel. In contrast, a common stereotype is that females speak faster than males. A possible explanation for this mismatch might be the relation between perceived speech tempo and vowel space size which is larger in female speakers.
A listening experiment was conducted which set out to test whether differences in the size of speakers' acoustic vowel spaces correlates with perceived tempo. In other words, is a speaker traversing a large acoustic vowel space within the same time-frame as a speaker with a smaller acoustic vowel space perceived as speaking at a faster tempo? It has been found that a stimulus with a moving f0-contour is perceived as faster than the same stimulus with a monotonous contour Lehiste , Kohler, If a dynamic f0 contour triggers the perception of a faster speaking rate, then a larger acoustic vowel space might have the same effect.
Stimuli from 5 female German speakers with varying vowel space sizes served as input for the perception test. The stimuli were adjusted in mean f0 they were set to an average of Hz , in f0 — contour and in amplitude. In addition, the stimuli were normalized in speech tempo on a segmental level. The segments of the sentence were labeled for each speaker and the average time over the 5 speakers for each segment was calculated. The stimuli were then adjusted in their speech tempo resulting in three conditions: 1 normal: average time, 2 fast: the lengths of the averaged segments were decreased by the factor 0.
Furthermore, to test for an influence of mean f0, the stimulus of one speaker was also adjusted to an average f0 of Hz and Hz. For the perception test speaker pairs had to be rated by 28 male and female listeners regarding perceived speech rate. Additionally, reaction times were measured.
Oktober same speaker with average tempo was always played first and served as the reference speaker. The reference speaker was also average in terms of her vowel space size measured as the area of the polygon enclosed by F1 and F2 of all vowels of the sentence.
The other four speakers revealed either larger 2 speakers or smaller 2 speakers vowel space sizes. Three different tempo conditions had to be rated: 1 both speakers revealed the same tempo 2 the second speaker was faster factor 0. Results revealed both an effect of position and mean f0. It has been found before Lehiste that if two stimuli have the same length the second stimulus is perceived as shorter or faster than the first stimulus. Our results are in line with this finding; we found more correct rating scores for the second stimulus being faster than being slower.
If both stimuli had the same length, the second stimulus was more often rated to be faster than slower. Moreover, the reaction times were longer if both stimuli had the same length or the second stimulus was slower than when the second stimulus was faster. With respect to mean f0 it could be confirmed as shown elsewhere Kohler that a higher f0 of only 10 Hz difference triggers a higher perceived speech tempo. For the most interesting question of an influence of vowel space size on perceived tempo results were not as clear. The factor speaker had an effect, i. While the two speakers with larger vowel spaces than the reference speaker were rated faster as predicted, only one of the two speakers with a smaller vowel space was rated as being slower as expected.
An additional listening experiment with the same speakers but shorter stimuli consisting of only one word revealed the same results. Different factors might account for the ambiguous result regarding the impact of vowel space size on perceived tempo; among them are methodological issues regarding the pairings, the chosen speakers and, above all, the small amount of speakers. Therefore, a second perception test is currently being conducted with a greater number of speakers 20 and a concentration on only stimuli that are matched in tempo, mean f0 and f0-contour.
This time each speaker appears at first and second position and each pair is presented in both possible orders, thereby alleviating a number of the weaknesses identified in the previous series of experiments. References Byrd, D. Relations of sex and dialect to reduction. Speech Communication 15, 39— Parameters of speech rate perception in German words and sentences: duration, F0 movement, and F0 level. Language and Speech 29, Lehiste I. Influence of fundamental frequency pattern on the perception of duration.
Journal of Phonetics 4, Lindblom, B. Spectrographic study of vowel reduction. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 35, McCormack, P. Gender differences in the speech patterns of twoand-a- half-year-old children. Russell Eds. Sex-specific durational differences in English and Swedish. Barcelona, — Whiteside, S. Temporal-based acoustic-phonetic patterns in read speech: Some evidence for speaker sex differences.
Journal of the International Phonetic Association 26, 23— Bleiben dieselben Dauer- und Geschwindigkeitsunterschiede bestehen? Das zugrundeliegende Untersuchungsmaterial umfasst lesesprachliche Aufnahmen in normalem und schnellem Tempo von 40 Sprechern vorwiegend aus dem mitteldeutschen Raum. Die phonetische Annotation erfolgte auf Grundlage einer kanonischen Transkription. Otto, Christina : Sprechgeschwindigkeit und Geschlechterunterschiede. Preliminary Results. Lund University — Working Papers, 49, 34— Labov, William : The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change.
Language Variation and Change, 2 2 , Simpson, Adrian P. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 5 , — Whiteside, Sandra P. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 26 1 , 23— The existence of ejectives is not commonly attributed to Kurmanji. Thackston speaks of a threeway stop contrast as for the alveolar [d] vs. We will look here into some of the acoustic characteristics of the ejectives, which can be described as weakly ejective, with probably less burst intensity than in Georgian ejectives, sometimes creaky voice in the following vowel, and no aspiration, see Fig.
Interestingly, Kahn mentions p. We would like to discuss our preliminary findings and present the application of some of the methods summarised in Grawunder, Simpson, Khalilov Phonetic characteristics of ejectives — samples from Caucasian languages. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 3, pp.
Kahn, Margaret. Borrowing and variation in a phonological description of Kurdish. Michigan Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian. Blackwell: Oxford; Cambridge, Ma. Thackston, W. Oktober Fig. Ein Beispiel ist, dass im Ungarischen in der Silbenkoda im Allgemeinen nur ein einzelner Konsonant erlaubt ist 1. Damit kann dieser Konsonant aber nicht gleichzeitig als Teil dieser Struktur angesprochen werden. Stattdessen soll hier nur der Silbengewichtsaspekt des letzten Konsonanten, d. Schritt 2: Die erste Mora ist Kopf der Silbe, eine zweite kann von dieser lokal regiert werden.
Referenzen Pierrehumbert, J. Japanese Tone Structure. Piggott, G. At the right edge of words. The Linguistic Review, 16, — The Phonology of Hungarian. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Krech a. Reim b. Reim c. Reim d. Die artikulatorischen Bewegungen sollten entsprechend die durch die Merkmale in 2d vorgegebene Hebung der Vorderzunge sowie eine Entrundung zeigen. Teil 2. Becker ff. Es werden auch ungespannte Vokale als Zweitglieder angenommen Hall Jauche, jauchzen, Kabeljau.
Frankfurt a. Hall, T. Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Krech, E. Mangold Duden. Muthmann, G. Rues, B. Redecker, E. Koch, U. Wallraff, A. Gunter Narr Verlag. Siebs, T. Much of this speaker individuality has to do with how our vocal apparatus is shaped i. Speaker idiosyncrasy has primarily been examined in terms of spectral features. Frequency, however, is only one dimension in speech that exhibits speaker-individuality.
A further dimension may also be found in the temporal structuring of speech. Research on temporal features in other domains already shows that human motion is highly individual: in walking, for example, our body movements show a high degree of idiosyncrasy. We argue that we also find this idiosyncrasy in articulation, which is also a form of human motion. These highly similar physical dimensions allow for a controlled study of organic causes of speaker variation.
That is, if we find phonetic differences between identical twins, they can fairly certainly be attributed to learned behavior, i. If we do not find phonetic differences between identical twins, it seems that speaker anatomy occupies a critical role. Research in this area is relevant because it is not currently known how much of talker variability, in our case temporal variability, can be attributed to anatomical factors and how much to behavioral factors.
Przybyla et al. Much research has also been devoted to formant frequencies Nolan and Oh , Loakes Loakes , for instance, claims that depending on the twin pair, F2, F3, or F4 — or a combination thereof — is the discriminating feature. Twins show similar behavior in some formant frequencies but not in others. Studies on voice quality characteristics, however, show that voice source characteristics are influenced more strongly by biology than filter characteristics, such as formant frequencies — which is why in voice quality, MZ twins are significantly more similar than non-related persons of a homogeneous subject group Lierde et al.
The subjects were asked to read 74 sentences in a sound-treated booth. The present study shows first results stemming from 7 non-related persons of the control group and one MZ twin pair; results are based on 30 sentences only. The data was labeled in Praat followed by a merging of consecutive vowels and consonants segments. A number of rhythm metrics were calculated.
Oktober will be examined further. The blue lines in Figures 1 and 2 connect the means. Based on these tentative findings, we can deduce the tendency that anatomy seems to occupy a critical role in the generation of speech temporal features. The findings are tentative for two reasons: 1. Only one MZ pair has been analyzed until today and 2. Once the experiments are finished i. Upcoming results will shed light on the question of how much speech temporal variability can be attributed to anatomical factors and how much to behavioral factors.
References Debruyne, F. Speaking fundamental frequency in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Journal of Voice 16 4 , Fuchs, M. HNO, Genetics of vocal quality characteristics in monozygotic twins: A multiparameter approach. Journal of Voice 19 4 , Loakes, D. A forensic phonetic investigation into the speech patterns of identical and non- identicaltwins.
PhD thesis. University of Melbourne, School of Languages. Nolan, F. Identical twins, different voices. Forensic Linguistics 3, Vocal fundamental frequency in a twin sample: Looking for a genetic effect. Journal of Voice 6 3 , Excitation quality as an additional possible correlate Marasek has rarely been considered. Of the traditional parameters, duration and f0 have been shown experimentally for English to be more important in perceived prominence than intensity and degree of spectral reduction Fry , In agreement with received wisdom, the simple dB measure of syllable strength did not prove important, but more refined measures of signal energy suggest a revision of earlier assumptions.
Kochanski et al. In contrast, Streefkerk et al. We have to note discrepant results between the studies, but cannot say whether they stem from differences in material fullband vs. English , or different approaches to the analysis auditory judged prominence vs. Indications of the contribution of energy, or effort and corresponding acoustic measures to perceived prominence were again found.
Vocal effort as measured by sub-glottal pressure covaried strongly with spectral tilt. Eriksson et al. Comparing Swedish listeners and English listeners judging Swedish Eriksson et al. English listeners had higher correlations between prominence and acoustic parameters i. However, beside the difference in the level of top-down effects, there were also clear indications of different parameter weightings underlying the prominence judgements: Swedish listeners attached more importance to effort, whereas the English listeners attached roughly equal weight to effort, pitch and duration.
Recent production studies have shown significant differences between languages in the degree to which the four basic properties duration, f0, intensity and spectral properties are exploited to signal phrasal prominence Koreman et al. Oktober functionally relevant differences between Swiss German, Swiss French and Standard French were found in the perceptual weighting of f0 and duration signaling syntactic juncture in a digit and letter grouping task.
The discrepancy between the perceptual studies may result from the task difference, but it may stem from the use of unmanipulated stimuli in the former study, in which the properties varied in a correlated way, while the latter used resynthesized stimuli with independently modified parameters. This experiment therefore modifies the acoustic properties duration, intensity and f0 independently of one another to provide a more differentiated array of stimuli to tease out a functionally relevant effect of differences in perceptual sensitivity in the information- structural task.
A Bulgarian and a German sentence were presented to Bulgarian and German listeners together with a question which either expected an early narrow focus or a late narrow focus. The answering sentences were manipulated so that the word in the late-focused position ranged from completely de-accented to strongly accented. The early focused position was neutral, allowing late-focus perception with late strong accentuation and early focus with de-accentuation of the late-focus position.
Accentuation strength of the late position was varied by changing the duration, intensity and f0 values individually between accented and low de-accented. Subjects were asked to judge the suitability of the answers to the question. Results show the relative contribution of the three parameters to the acceptability of the word in the late focus position as focally accented or de-accented.
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Differences between Bulgarian and German in the relative weighting of the parameters are revealed. References Marasek, K. Electroglottographic Description of Voice Quality. Fry, D. Experiments in the perception of stress. The dependence of stress judgments on vowel formant structure. Kuijk, D. Acoustic characteristics of lexical stress in continuous telephone speech, Speech Communication 27, Kochanski, G. Loudness predicts prominence: Fundamental frequency lends little, J.
Acoustical Soc. America , Sluijter, A. Spectreal balance as an acoustic correlate of linguistic stress", J. America , , Stevens, S. America 51, Fant, G. Prominence and accentuation. Acoustical correlates", P. Prominence correlates in Swedish prosody", Proc. Eriksson, A. Syllable prominence: a matter of vocal effort, phonetic distinctness and top-down processing, Proc.
Eurospeech , Perception of syllable prominenceby listeners with and without competence in the tested language, Proc. Speech Prosody , Koreman, J. Accentuation cues in French and German, In: P. Barbosa, S. Reis eds. Barry, W. Is it important for communication which parameters signal accentuation? Cumming, Ruth E. Speech Rhythm. The language specific integration of pitch and duration. Dissertation, University of Cambridge, UK. Grice et al. This study aims at providing phonetically based evidence in order to argue for one of the two phonological approaches of representing nuclear falling accents in German.
We run a production study recording eight native speakers of standard German spoken in the Berlin- Brandenbourg region. Speakers were asked questions that were auditorily and visually presented. The task was to reply to the presented context questions with appropriate answers visually given on a computer screen. The context questions elicited either wide focus sentences 1a and 2a or sentences containing a contrastive focus 1b and 2b. The experimental sentences were subjected to phonetic analysis, measuring the pitch peak of the target words in Hertz Hz , a low turning point in pitch prior to the peak and the corresponding time of the peak and low point.
In addition we measured the beginning and end of the accented syllable. We further calculated the excursion between the low pitch point and the peak, the velocity of the pitch rise, and the alignment of the two measurements in relation to the accented syllable. The results of the phonetic analysis revealed that accents realized under contrastive focus have a significantly lower f0 turning point and a later as well as higher f0 peak. In order to identify which of the two possible phonetic correlates i.
For the first perception experiment we manipulated the low tuning point in steps of 10 Hz ranging from Hz equals the distance of two standard variations in both directions , such that for each original sentence 5 stimuli of varying values for the low turning point were created 16 sentences x 5 manipulations, total of 80 stimuli.
Results show that, independently of the prosodic manipulation, congruent context-target dialogs were rated better than incongruent dialogs. Second, the results of the low turning point manipulation suggest that the low turning point before the high peak does not constitute to the perceptive impression of a contrastive accent and thus does not change the phonological category as such.
Oktober the prenuclear accent was calculated. By adding 50 Hz and by subtracting 30 Hz from the calculated f0 max of the prenuclear subject, we defined the manipulation range separately for each sentence. Stimulus presentation, task and number of participants were identical to the previous perception study.
Hat Martin den Frosch gesehen? Hast du Susanne gesehen? German Intonational Patterns. Pitch accent scaling on given, new and focused constituents in German. Journal of Phonetics 36, Grabe, E. Comparative Intonational Phonology. English and German. PhD thesis, Nijmegen University. German Intonation in Autosegmental- Metrical Phonology. In: Jun, S. Oxford University Press. Bei der Subjektlinksdislokation left dislocation, LD erscheint das Subjekt in der linken Satzperipherie und wird im Inneren des Matrixsatzes durch ein koreferentes klitisches Pronomen CL wieder aufgegriffen.
Prosodisch sollten die drei Formen jedoch zu unterscheiden sein. In der Forschungsliteratur wird Dislokationsstrukturen meist eine sogenannte comma intonation zugeschrieben. Damit wird der auditive Eindruck einer Pause umschrieben, der u. French dislocation: interpretation, syntax, acquisition. Oxford [u. Kaiser, Georg Stark, R. Stoll Eds. Lambrecht, Knut Rossi, Mario Paris: Ophrys.
Sankoff, Gilian Schlieben-Lange Eds. Introduction: The study shows that in German, syntactic constituents such as PPs behave prosodically different dependent on whether they act as arguments and are thus obligatory or as optional adjuncts. PPs acting as arguments of the verb carry sentential stress more often than PPs with adjunct status. Furthermore, it is shown that differences in argument-adjunct status have an effect on the sensitivity to contextual givenness of the noun.
PPs with argument status are more sensitive to contextual givenness than PPs acting as adjuncts. PPs containing given material are reduced in prosodic prominence more often if they are arguments than if they are adjuncts. Background: In the vast body of literature on sentential stress there are conflicting statements and contradicting predictions.
Kratzer and Selkirk look at constructions where a PP intervenes between the direct object and the verb, as in 1 and 2. As the acute accent indicates, Kratzer and Selkirk predict sentential stress on the direct object in both cases. The locative PP im Supermarkt in 1 has to be considered an adjunct, an optional element.
The directional PP an einen Freund in 2 , however, has to be seen as an argument subcategorized by the verb schicken. In contrast to Kratzer and Selkirk, other researchers do differentiate between the two kinds of PPs. Yet the question whether the argument-adjunct status of an element has an influence on its sensitivity to givenness has, to my knowledge, not been addressed by researchers. Experiment: The experiment was designed in order to provide empirical quantitative evidence suitable to contribute to the answering of the following three questions.
Question 3: Are the effects of givenness the same for argument- and for adjunct-PPs? The experiment consisted of a reading task. Three male and three female speakers were recorded while reading aloud the stimuli sentences, randomly mixed with distractors. Eight transitive and eight ditransitive verbs provided the basis for sixteen stimuli sentences. All target sentences were subordinated in a matrix sentence and of the same surface structure subject, direct object, PP, verb. Each target sentence was preceded by a context sentence which contained a none of the nouns used in the target sentence, b only the direct object, c only the PP, d both the direct object and the PP.
It is supposed to evoke givenness for both the direct object and the PP. The context is all-new. One the one hand, the position of sentential stress of each sentence was identified by ear. Results: A total of out of recorded sentences could be evaluated; 13 sentences have been excluded, because the position of sentential stress could not be determined certainly. The effect of the argument-adjunct status of the PP turned out to be highly significant. Contextual givenness of an argument-PP has a strong influence on the position of sentential stress, while the givenness of an adjunct-PP does not.
See Table 1. Table 1:Observations of sentential stress, dependent on argument-adjunct status and givenness of the PP The f0 data corresponds partly to the results of frequency of occurrence: The mean f0 on the verb is higher if the PP has adjunct status corresponding to a prominence shift from the PP towards the verb and lower if it is an argument. The interactions between argument-adjunct status and givenness, however, could not be confirmed by the f0 data.
The three central questions could be answered: Answer 1: VP-internal PPs do not necessarily lack stress in presence of a direct object. Answer 2: PPs acting as arguments carry sentential stress more often than PPs acting as adjuncts. If an argument-PP is given, it receives sentential stress less often than if it is new. Adjunct-PPs show no significant effect on contextual givenness.
Selected References: Boersma, P. Praat: doing phonetics by computer [computer program]. German sentence accents and embedded prosodic phrases. Lingua, Vol: 13 , — Kratzer, A. Phase theory and prosodic spellout: The case of verbs. The Linguistic Review, Vol: 24 1 , 93— Schwarzschild, R. Givenness, AvoidF and other constraints on the placement of accent.
Natural Language Semantics, Vol:7, — Truckenbrodt, H. Phrasal stress. Brown Ed. Oxford : Elsevier. Zubizarreta, M. The long-lasting contact between both languages has led to linguistic interference at all levels, giving rise to specific southern varieties of French SF as opposed to close-to-standard northern varieties NF. Looking for differences and similarities that could indicate possible areas of interference, we investigate how syntax, semantics and pragmatics interact with the prosodic organization of yes-no questions in all three varieties.
These included mere information-seeking questions as well as confirmation-seeking, imperative and offering types. As for syntax, subject inversion is restricted in both languages.
Occitan is a pro-drop language and surface word order in yes-no questions is generally the same as in statements 1a. In French, which has developed obligatory subject clitics, the traditional norm prescribes inversion between subject pronoun and verb 2. In colloquial French, however, yes-no questions with a statement-like syntax are widespread 1b. Thus, three syntactic types of yes-no questions can be distinguished in French 1, 2, 3 , two in Occitan 1, 3. F Vous avez des mandarines?
F Est-ce que vous avez des mandarines? Do you have tangerines? As for prosody, rising contours are universally the most frequent in yes-no questions, but they are not exclusive: falling configurations are also attested Bolinger , Gussenhoven Beyssade et al. In addition to investigating the interaction between prosody and syntax in interrogatives, our study aims to determine the extent to which semantic-pragmatic nuances are encoded in the prosodic realization.
Our data from the three varieties examined show that these semantic- pragmatic categories are less distinguished by the use of different contour types — which are mainly rising, showing however different degrees of downstep — than by other prosodic means. Offering questions, for instance, often show a higher pitch register, whereas imperative ones tend to display a creaky voice quality, higher intensity, faster speech rate and narrower pitch span. The lack of distinctive intonational contours to ex-press semantic-pragmatic bias distinguishes the Gallo-Romance varieties under study from their Ibero- and Italo-Romance neighbors Prieto ; Prieto and Roseano ; Grice and Savino So, syntactic marking enables less prosodic marking of interrogativity; semantics and pragmatics do not seem to have much impact on the pitch accents and boundary tones of Occitan and French yes-no questions, which are by default rising.
References Beyssade, C. The prosody of interrogatives in French. Bolinger, D. Intonation across languages. Greenberg Ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Gilles and J. Peters Eds. Gussenhoven, C. The Phonology of Tone and Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hualde, J-I. Remarks on the diachronic reconstruction of intonational patterns in Romance with special attention to Occitan as a bridge language.
Catalan Journal of Linguistics, 2, — Kasper, G. Research methods in interlanguage pragmatics. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, — Prieto, P. Transcription of Intonation of the Spanish Language. Prieto and P. Roseano Eds. We apply a text generation system extended with the ability to provide IS-attributes Stede The translation of the IS-attributes into appropriate intonation patterns is conducted by the synthesizer which is upgraded with additional phonetic realizations of pitch accent assignments.
Nowadays, the usage of automatic speech synthesis is increasing, e. For these purposes, text-to-speech systems TTS are able to produce acceptable intonation. But in more complex applications as product comparisons or recommendations, additional contextual and pragmatic factors are required for appropriate intonation featuring for example contrast or givenness of certain entities.
This is due to information structure IS which arranges the information in an utterance depending on the discourse. For German, some TTS systems regarding information structure have already been built, e. Constituents are analyzed as given or new of which those marked as new receive a pitch accent. In order to signalize focus- background, the system by Endriss und Klabunde used the syntactic structure of the realized sentences for the prenuclear and nuclear pitch accent assignments. These systems provide just a minimal informational structure analysis and thus a less acceptable prosodic realization.
To evaluate the sensitivity of listeners towards the presence or absence of IS in speech synthesis, we run two perception experiments with listeners judging the quality of two types of synthesis: i the original default synthesis by MARY and ii a manipulated synthesis with prosodic parameters adjusted according to the information structure of the corresponding constituents.
As a starting point of the project, we concentrate on corrective focus in different sentence positions. The experiments differ according to how the IS-enriched synthesis target stimuli was built. The first perception experiment used manually manipulated stimuli, while the second used stimuli that were synthesized by the prosody module of MARY. In both experiments, a forced-choice semantic congruency task was used. For this, short dialogs of question-answer pairs were presented. The listeners had to judge whether the target sentence matches the context or not.
An example of a corrective focus in sentence final position is shown in 1.
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The context question in this experiment corresponds to the user-model input of the product recommender system. The syntactic structure of the target sentences was S Aux O V in order to vary the position of the contrast focus between the subject, object and verb. Oktober arguments or the verb; hence, in contexts of contrast the corrected constituent represents new information while the other constituents represent given information. Did Martin buy a Samsung Wave?
Answer: Martin hat sich ein iPhone gekauft.