Tenho dezessete anos. I am have seventeen years old. The Imperative Mood The imperative mood is used to issue commands, make requests, and give instructions. This only applies to negative tu commands Eu. Indirect address is very common in languages such as Japanese and Korean, although for slightly different reasons. This might occur in situations such as in a waiter talking to a client. Look at the example. A senhora gostaria de mais vinho? Would you like some more wine? People might indirectly refer to an important client, business partner, or official indirectly simply as a matter of formality.
Conjugate the given verb in all the present indicative forms and the imperative forms. Make a diagram of the human body, and label all the body parts in Portuguese. Translate the following sentences into Portuguese. You all are right. You all are lazy. See the table below. Articulated Prepositions In the vocabulary list, you learned several important prepositions, some of which can combine with the definite articles to make articulated prepositions, or contractions. The plurals have been excluded, but you can contract them, in same manner as above.
You can also contract the third person pronouns with em and de. The contractions for em are: nele, nela, neles, and nelas. For de, they are: dele, dela, deles, and delas. The last set is used to distinguish the gender of the possessor when describing the possession of a noun. Eu vou para sua casa. VS Eu vou para casa dele. Technically, both of these sentences could mean the same thing, but in Brazilian Portuguese, and even in European Portuguese, the first sentence is a bit ambiguous.
In Portugal, however, it is deemed acceptable to leave them in their contracted forms in formal writing, and in some places, it is acceptable to use the contracted forms in formal speech. Translate the given phrase into Portuguese, using the correct demonstrative pronouns. These blue books 2. Those happy girls 3. This orange sunset 4. That sad man 5. This tired woman 6. These talented children 7. Those six people 8. This old man 9. These gray clouds These marvelous people B. Rewrite the following nouns to include the prepositions a, em, de, por and para using the contractions.
Translate the following sentences into Portuguese, making correct use of ser, estar, and ficar. I am a woman. How are you informal? We get tired at night. The young children are at school. Are you formal the teacher female? Who is that? He stays at home all day. You all get sad. Saber is used for factual information and demonstrating that you have certain skills.
I know where the church is. I know that church. Do you know how to dance the samba? Do you know the samba? This is a slightly different question; It asks whether you know what the samba is, not whether you know how to do it Negative VS Affirmative Expressions In Portuguese, like Spanish, double negatives are acceptable and are actually quite common.
Even triple negatives can appear.
Meaning of "grilo" in the Portuguese dictionary
Eu como muitas frutas. I eat many fruits. Are there any exits here? Verbs in English that use a direct object with respect to the recipient often use an indirect object instead. So verbs like pedir, solicitar, perguntar, dar, and oferecer use an indirect object, not a direct object. It should also be noted that para can be switched out for a, as that would mean the same thing. I give him John three fruits.
Now, there is another way to phrase this sentence. The second version of the sentence is the European Portuguese version. Typically, you put the pronoun after the verb in European Portuguese, attached by a hyphen. In Brazilian Portuguese, it is preferred to put the pronoun before the verb, which avoids most complications. However, when it comes to European Portuguese, there are several exceptions in which you place the pronoun before the verb. When the verb comes after an adverb 2. In a negative statement 3. In a question does not apply to the little future 4.
When the verb comes before a relative pronoun words you would normally use to ask questions, but which you can use in statements as well. I know that you write to her. However, once you learn the real future tense, you should know that this version implies more immediate action, at least in Portugal. In Brazil, this version of the future is the most common, and the simple future is largely a literary form.
In Portugal, you are more likely to hear the actual future tense, as well as this compound version. Vou comprar umas passagens. Vou para casa. Notice that in the last sentence, it does not say vou ir. In Portugal, and many parts of Brazil, this sort of construction is considered incorrect, and is said to indicate a lack of education.
Though not as much as in other languages, the present tense of verbs in Portuguese can indicate an immediate future action. However, in some regions of Brazil and Portugal, people will say vou ir, and although it is technically incorrect, it is accepted as a regional construct. When attaching indirect object pronouns to the little future, attach the pronoun with a hyphen to the infinitive, but when the phrase is negative, put it in front of the conjugated verb. The Present Progressive The present progressive is a present tense that expresses an action in progress.
It is important to remember that the present progressive only tells you that the action is in progress, not whether it is habitual or general. There are two ways to express this tense: using the gerund and using the infinitive. Both forms require a conjugated form of estar. To form the gerund, use the endings below. Estou jogando. Estamos partindo. I am playing. You are running. We are leaving. Estou a jogar. Estamos partir. The difference between these forms is that Brazilian Portuguese uses the actual gerund, whereas European Portuguese uses the second form. Notice that the verb estar is conjugated in the present indicative, which should lead you to believe that you can conjugate it in other tenses, to make other progressive tenses.
If you use the verb in reference to a plural noun, you have make the conjugation plural. They speak Spanish in Spain. Better said as: One speaks Spanish in Spain. They speak many languages in the United States. This is actually better said as is. Translate the following sentences into Portuguese, giving both the Brazilian and European versions, if they are different.
I give you three sparrows. She asks me a question. I will not buy him dinner. Will you informal send her the ticket? My father writes visas for people. He often buys her a drink.
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The police worked for the embassy. Does Spain rarely give Italy anything? I want to write you informal a letter. Write sentences in Portuguese using the given subjects and verbs, using the present progressive, writing both the Brazilian and European versions. Laura; comer 3. O professor; ensinar 5. Maria; tocar o clarinete 6. Eu; danzar For -ar verbs: Drop the final -r and put an acute accent on the a.
For -er verbs: Drop the final -r and put a circumflex on the e. For -ir verbs: Drop the final -r. Preciso de levar os meninos para casa. Vais oferecer as frutas? Levam os meninos para casa. Os pais proibiram a festa. Before we proceed, remember that when using European Portuguese, an object pronoun this means both IOPs and DOPs is always attached with a hyphen, which may be a change if you already know Spanish. When attaching pronouns to conjugated verbs, there are some other rules that need to be observed before you simply attach them.
For verbs that have monosyllabic conjugated forms, verbs such as fazer, dizer, or trazer, add an accent on final vowel after dropping the s or z. Tu comes os bolos. The Preterite Tense The preterite is often called the simple past, and expresses actions that were started and completed in the past. You add the adjective shared between the two nouns, and then put quanto or como. Quanto is used in Brazilian Portuguese, whereas como is used in European Portuguese.
It might be a little easier to use como, if you already know Spanish. There are as many reals as euros in my wallet. Things are more or less the same for the comparison of verbs with respect to an adjective or noun. Christian works as hard as Robert does. Mary has as much money as Alexandra does.
Comparisons of Inequality In Portuguese, there is a phrase used to compare the qualities of nouns in an unequal sense. The do is omitted often in colloquial speech, both in Portugal and Brazil. The general rule for making adverbs from adjectives is that you take the feminine singular form of the word and attach -mente. Ana is so very tall! There are several words that have irregular comparatives and superlatives. Note that when the table says something is abstract, that means that the adjective refers to a quality that is not physical in nature, or at least not directly so.
Words like older, younger, higher, or lower are words like this. Painting is a good pastime. Essentially, just add on o before the infinitive to make a verbal noun. Rewrite the given sentence using a direct object. Quem faz o bolo? Rewrite the given sentence with the preterite. Mariana quer tocar o seu violino hoje Hint: change hoje to ontem. Translate the given sentence into Portuguese, making correct use of comparative clauses and superlatives. I am more intelligent than you informal. Are you formal male as talented in music as Alexander Aleixo?
He likes fruits more than vegetables. They play more sports than they play music. Joaquin eats as much as his father. He thinks that chocolate cake is the worst dessert. Anna and Mary wanted to go to Lisbon Lisboa more than Madeira. This room is smaller than mine. Do you formal and George Jorge like meat more than pasta? Note: In Brazil, louro is a parrot. So, the stem of pentear would be pentei-. Note that the infinitive does not change as a result of attaching the reflexive pronoun. I comb myself every day. The table below lists the reflexive pronouns.
Also, you can use the imperfect if you know when an event started or ended, but not both. Eu trabalhava num ristorante.
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I worked in a restaurant. Note how the example does not specify the time period over which the action took place, or whether the action was finished and completed. Some key words for using the imperfect are listed below. Also, in written texts, you sometimes see the description of a scene, and then suddenly, something unexpected happens. This sequence, Portuguese and other Romance languages, requires the use of both imperfect and preterite in the same sentence.
My father was reading when my mother came home. The imperfect past of poder can be used to make polite requests. Could you bring some plates? Today, the verb is only used to mean the latter, in an impersonal sense. The verb ter is used in Brazil instead, depending on the person. Naturally, any rules involving tense, such as Preterite VS Imperfect, apply. The following list contains all the forms you need to know. Translate the given sentence into Portuguese, making correct use of the imperfect and preterite.
I wrote essays for school when I was seventeen. My sister was a professional dancer when I was a child. Our grandparents went to the park today. While I studied, my grandmother cooked dinner for us. The Costa boys brought home the groceries os mantimentos this afternoon. When my brother came home, my sister and I were watching television. Your formal brother and I used to take music lessons at Mrs.
Da Silva house. Were you informal and Christine at school today? Leonard and Alexandra got married in Translate the given sentence into Portuguese, and making correct use of reflexive pronouns. Mary wants to marry Bernard in January. The two lovers os namorados kissed at the wedding. When the brother and sister met, they hugged. You informal and the child behave badly.
Assemble a genealogical table of all your relatives, and try to sort them into a family tree, labeling them with terms from the vocabulary list. The table below details the combinations of the pronouns. We give you a parrot. You may need to clarify the recipient of the action at times, because the combined forms for lhe and lhes are the same. He gave some apples to his parents. Note: See how the phrase, aos seus pais, is not ambiguous here. It is preferred to attach the pronoun to the end of the infinitive verb, though some people may attach it to the conjugated form of ir.
This is not a Brazil vs Portugal difference. Anna is going to lie down. Robert and I are going to translate it for you. You have to resort to using a simple tense, such as replacing the present perfect with the preterite, which is convenient, because the preterite can sometimes overlap in meaning. The Present Perfect and Overlap with the Preterite In Portuguese, the present perfect is a little bit different from its equivalents in Spanish, Italian, and other Romance languages. Of course, these things apply within certain contexts, and usually, its pretty unambiguous as to what you mean in each one.
Another difference to note between the Spanish present perfect and its Portuguese counterpart, if you know Spanish, is that Portuguese does not use the equivalent of the Spanish haber, which is haver in Portuguese. Haver appears mostly in 17th literary texts, including the Bible and masterpieces of the Medieval Age. You can apply this strategy to most verb conjugations, as most verbs that have an irregular verb contained in them will most likely incorporate that verbs irregular conjugations.
Notice that accents are added to maintain the location of the stress. It is difficult for me to understand. Fui para casa sem os meus amigos saberem. I went home without my friends knowing. While the verb entender has not changed, the verb saber has changed. If you ignore the grammatical person aspect of the personal infinitive, the concept is much easier to understand, because the infinitive can also be translated as a present participle verbs ending in -ing.
The following table details the changes to the verb falar, as the changes are the same for every verb.
In the first example, the personal infinitive is being used with an impersonal expression, as a general statement, one that may not necessarily be satisfied. In the impersonal expression, the way the personal infinitive is used is relatively straightforward, as when it is translated to English, you get the infinitive as you would expect it to be. It is important for you to drink more water. The second example uses the preposition sem. Fui para casa sem eles saberem.
I went home without them knowing. Rewrite the given sentence using double objects. Quero pegar umas barras de chocolate para a minha namorada. Dou mensagens ao Primeiro-Ministro. Rewrite the following sentences using the present perfect. Maria e eu vemos o filme. Muitos estudantes tocam o piano aqui. Ele e ela querem mais oportunidades opportunities.
Jogamos muitos jogos. Translate the following sentences into Portuguese, making correct use of the personal infinitive. Did you informal eat before they arrived? Introduce yourself informal without being rude. It is necessary that you formal eat vegetables every day. After leaving the house, they forgot to close the door. A general thing you can say about por and para is that por is vague, whereas para is more specific.
Employment I work for my uncle A consideration For such a young girl, she plays the clarinet very well. The boys made that sculpture. Os meninos fizeram essa escultura. The active voice is used here, which emphasizes who did the action, the subject. Now look at the next example, that uses the passive voice. Essa escultura foi feita pelos meninos. That sculpture was made by the boys. As you can see, the passive voice emphasizes the object over the subject, which can come in handy.
However, there are verbs for which there is a special, irregular form of the past participle used only for the passive voice. Quero che Desejo che I desire that Me alegro que Espero que Odio que For whatever reason, that second clause is not something that is likely to happen. Now, given that there are certain phrases that suggest something is unlikely to occur, there are also phrases that indicate is very or absolutely likely to happen. This also applies to personal opinions, such as acho que, and thus are never followed by the subjunctive.
It is impossible that you do your homework so quickly. You should be aware that the present subjunctive can be used interchangeably with the personal infinitive in some cases. Also, there are two ways to issue commands in a polite form using the subjunctive. Que ela venda tudas as frutas! Let him sell all the fruits! The word talvez, which means maybe or perhaps, is always followed by the subjunctive, in any tense.
Comprei umas pastelarias. I bought some pastries. Perhaps my sister wants to eat one? Generally speaking, to construct the conjugations in the present subjunctive, the process is to drop the terminal -o from the eu form of the verb, and then add the -er verb endings to -ar verbs, and the -ar verb endings to -er and -ir verbs. Now, Portuguese, as in most Romance languages, requires that when you have a sentence with two clauses, they have to agree in tense.
Note that as you learn more tenses, you will be able to construct the perfect version of that tense. However, you should know ahead of time that the preterite perfect, which would be conjugated form of ter in the preterite , is an outdated form, even in literature. The distinction between the preterite and the imperfect as perfect tenses was lost long ago, because the preterite only describes a very specific moment that was soon overtaken by the pluperfect.
Translate the given sentence into Portuguese, and rewrite it using the passive voice. I have put the bowl of salad on the table. Have you informal buy J. He has told his friend female that he was going on vacation. My father and grandfather have put the duck o pato in the oven o forno. He has written classical music. Bali Bancoc: 1. Bangkok Barba Azul: 1. Bluebeard Barcelona: 1. Barnabas Bartolomeu: 1. Batavia Baviera: 1. Bavaria 2. Baffin Bay 2. Baffin Bay Beirute: 1. Beyrouth Belgrado: 1.
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