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Chanson s : - Tari Tari - Dreamer Opening. Il sera vendu en 10 millions d'exemplaires. Son premier album de 13 pistes sort en Il s'intitule simplement Akeboshi Annabel Chanson s : - Another - anamnesis Ending. Chanson s : - Baka to Test to Shoukanjuu - Perfect-area complete! Chanson s : - Shugo Chara! Mou Sukoshi Chanson s : - Midori Days - Mou Sukoshi Ses fans la surnomment Sae-chan. Character Song. Chocolove from AKB Ils les vendront en 6 mois environ. Dev Parade Chanson s : - Naruto - Bacchikoi!!! Il n'apparait jamais sur les photos. Opening - Captain Tsubasa - Try!

OAV Insert Song. Bonus Ending.

Elle sort ensuite plusieurs albums, dont Vivant Il peut lui arriver aussi de travailler avec sa soeur, Mayumi Hashimoto. JUMP qui, lui, en compte dix. Elle prend aussi le nom de g. Gray-man - regret 7e Ending - Yakitate!! Japan - Merry Go Round 5e Ending. Chanson s : - Fairy Tail - Don't think. Sense Of Wonder 2e Opening. My Goddess - Negai 1e Ending - Ah! OAV Ending. Gray-man - Pride of Tomorrow 2e Ending. Tomoko Kawase, fan d'Ai Yazawa? Chanson s : - Bakuman. KERR Ally. Il signe ensuite en avec le groupe Lapis Lazuli et comme premier album, sort Knock Around Chanson s : - One Piece - We Are!

Mais ce n'est qu'en que sort son tout premier album "eighteen-". It is a member of the Japonic or Japanese- Ryukyuan language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean , is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu , Austroasiatic , and the now-discredited Altaic , but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century.

During the Heian period — , Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese. Late Middle Japanese — included changes in features that brought it closer to the modern language, and the first appearance of European loanwords ; the standard dialect moved from the Kansai region to the Edo modern Tokyo region in the Early Modern Japanese period early 17th century—midth century. Following the end in of Japan's self-imposed isolation , the flow of loanwords from European languages increased significantly.

English loanwords, in particular, have become frequent, and Japanese words from English roots have proliferated. Japanese is an agglutinative , mora -timed language with simple phonotactics , a pure vowel system, phonemic vowel and consonant length, and a lexically significant pitch-accent. Word order is normally subject—object—verb with particles marking the grammatical function of words, and sentence structure is topic—comment. Sentence-final particles are used to add emotional or emphatic impact, or make questions. Nouns have no grammatical number or gender, and there are no articles. Verbs are conjugated , primarily for tense and voice , but not person.

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Japanese equivalents of adjectives are also conjugated. Japanese has a complex system of honorifics with verb forms and vocabulary to indicate the relative status of the speaker, the listener, and persons mentioned. Latin script is used in a limited fashion, such as for imported acronyms, and the numeral system uses mostly Arabic numerals alongside traditional Chinese numerals. Very little is known about the Japanese of this period; because writing like the "Kanji" which later devolved into the writing systems "Hiragana" and "Katakana" [3] had yet to be introduced from China, there is no direct evidence, and anything that can be discerned about this period of Japanese must be based on the reconstructions of Old Japanese.

Old Japanese is the oldest attested stage of the Japanese language. Through the spread of Buddhism , the Chinese writing system was imported to Japan; the earliest texts found in Japan are written in Classical Chinese , but they may have been meant to be read as Japanese by the kanbun method.

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Some of these Chinese texts show the influences of Japanese grammar, such as the word order for example, placing the verb after the object. In these hybrid texts, Chinese characters are also occasionally used phonetically to represent Japanese particles ; the earliest text, the Kojiki , dates to the early 8th century, and was written entirely in Chinese characters.

The end of Old Japanese coincides with the end of the Nara period in The distinction between mo 1 and mo 2 apparently was lost immediately following its composition. This set of syllables shrank to 67 in Early Middle Japanese , though some were added through Chinese influence. Due to these extra syllables, it has been hypothesized that Old Japanese's vowel system was larger than that of Modern Japanese — it perhaps contained up to eight vowels. The vowel system would have to have shrunk some time between these texts and the invention of the kana hiragana and katakana in the early 9th century.

According to this view, the eight-vowel system of ancient Japanese would resemble that of the Uralic and Altaic language families. A newer reconstruction of ancient Japanese shows strikingly similarities with Southeast-Asian languages, especially with Austronesian languages. Several fossilizations of Old Japanese grammatical elements remain in the modern language — the genitive particle tsu superseded by modern no is preserved in words such as matsuge "eyelash", lit.

Early Middle Japanese is the Japanese of the Heian period , from to Early Middle Japanese sees a significant amount of Chinese influence on the language's phonology — length distinctions become phonemic for both consonants and vowels, and series of both labialised e. Late Middle Japanese covers the years from to , and is normally divided into two sections, roughly equivalent to the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period , respectively; the later forms of Late Middle Japanese are the first to be described by non-native sources, in this case the Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries; and thus there is better documentation of Late Middle Japanese phonology than for previous forms for instance, the Arte da Lingoa de Iapam.

Some forms rather more familiar to Modern Japanese speakers begin to appear — the continuative ending - te begins to reduce onto the verb e. Late Middle Japanese has the first loanwords from European languages — now-common words borrowed into Japanese in this period include pan "bread" and tabako "tobacco", now "cigarette" , both from Portuguese. Early Modern Japanese, not to be confused with Modern Japanese, was the dialect used after the Meiji Restoration ; because the two languages are extremely similar, Early Modern Japanese is commonly referred to as Modern Japanese.

Early Modern Japanese gradually evolved into Modern Japanese during the 19th century. Only after , shortly after World War II, did Modern Japanese become the standard language, seeing use in most official communications. Modern Japanese is considered to begin with the Edo period , which lasted between and Since Old Japanese, the de facto standard Japanese had been the Kansai dialect , especially that of Kyoto. However, during the Edo period, Edo now Tokyo developed into the largest city in Japan, and the Edo-area dialect became standard Japanese.

Since the end of Japan's self-imposed isolation in , the flow of loanwords from European languages has increased significantly; the period since has seen a large number of words borrowed from other languages—such as German, Portuguese and English. Although Japanese is spoken almost exclusively in Japan, it has been spoken outside. Before and during World War II , through Japanese annexation of Taiwan and Korea , as well as partial occupation of China , the Philippines , and various Pacific islands, [14] locals in those countries learned Japanese as the language of the empire; as a result, many elderly people in these countries can still speak Japanese.

Japanese emigrant communities the largest of which are to be found in Brazil , [15] with 1. Japanese emigrants can also be found in Peru , Argentina , Australia especially in the eastern states , Canada especially in Vancouver where 1. Japanese has no official status , [23] but is the de facto national language of Japan.

The meanings of the two terms are almost the same. The two systems have different rules of grammar and some variance in vocabulary. Bungo still has some relevance for historians, literary scholars, and lawyers many Japanese laws that survived World War II are still written in bungo , although there are ongoing efforts to modernize their language. Dozens of dialects are spoken in Japan; the profusion is due to many factors, including the length of time the Japanese Archipelago has been inhabited, its mountainous island terrain, and Japan's long history of both external and internal isolation.

Dialects typically differ in terms of pitch accent , inflectional morphology , vocabulary , and particle usage; some even differ in vowel and consonant inventories, although this is uncommon. Within each type are several subdivisions. Kyoto-Osaka-type dialects are in the central region, roughly formed by Kansai , Shikoku , and western Hokuriku regions. Dialects of the Kansai region are spoken or known by many Japanese, and Osaka dialect in particular is associated with comedy see Kansai dialect.

According to Martine Irma Robbeets, Japanese has been subject to more attempts to show its relation to other languages than any other language in the world. At the fringe, some linguists have suggested a link to Indo-European languages , including Greek , and to Lepcha ; as it stands, only the link to Ryukyuan has wide support. Modern main theories tried to link Japanese on the one hand to northern Asian languages, like Korean or the bigger Altaic family also sometimes known as "Transeurasian" and on the other hand to various Southeast Asian language s, especially to Austronesian.

None of these proposals have gained wide acceptance and the Altaic language family itself is now considered controversial. Other theories view the Japanese language as an early creole language formed through inputs from at least two distinct language groups or as a distinct language of its own that has absorbed various aspects from neighbouring languages. For now, Japanese is classificated as member of the Japonic languages or as a language isolate with no known living relatives if Ryukyuan is counted as dialects. Japanese has five vowels, and vowel length is phonemic, with each having both a short and a long version.

Some Japanese consonants have several allophones , which may give the impression of a larger inventory of sounds. However, some of these allophones have since become phonemic. This type of cluster only occurs in onsets. However, consonant clusters across syllables are allowed as long as the two consonants are a nasal followed by a homorganic consonant. Consonant length gemination is also phonemic. The phonology of Japanese also includes a pitch accent system , which is a system that helps differentiate words with identical Hiragana spelling or words in different Japanese dialects.

The stresses differentiate the words. Japanese word order is classified as subject—object—verb. Unlike many Indo-European languages , the only strict rule of word order is that the verb must be placed at the end of a sentence possibly followed by sentence-end particles ; this is because Japanese sentence elements are marked with particles that identify their grammatical functions. The basic sentence structure is topic—comment. The verb de aru desu is a contraction of its polite form de arimasu is a copula , commonly translated as "to be" or "it is" though there are other verbs that can be translated as "to be" , though technically it holds no meaning and is used to give a sentence 'politeness'; as a phrase, Tanaka-san desu is the comment.

This sentence literally translates to "As for this person, it is Mr. In Japanese, the subject or object of a sentence need not be stated if it is obvious from context; as a result of this grammatical permissiveness, there is a tendency to gravitate towards brevity; Japanese speakers tend to omit pronouns on the theory they are inferred from the previous sentence, and are therefore understood. In the context of the above example, hana-ga nagai would mean "[their] noses are long," while nagai by itself would mean "[they] are long.

In addition, since adjectives can form the predicate in a Japanese sentence below , a single adjective can be a complete sentence: Urayamashii! While the language has some words that are typically translated as pronouns, these are not used as frequently as pronouns in some Indo-European languages, and function differently. In some cases Japanese relies on special verb forms and auxiliary verbs to indicate the direction of benefit of an action: "down" to indicate the out-group gives a benefit to the in-group; and "up" to indicate the in-group gives a benefit to the out-group.

Here, the in-group includes the speaker and the out-group does not, and their boundary depends on context. Such beneficiary auxiliary verbs thus serve a function comparable to that of pronouns and prepositions in Indo-European languages to indicate the actor and the recipient of an action. Japanese "pronouns" also function differently from most modern Indo-European pronouns and more like nouns in that they can take modifiers as any other noun may. For instance, one does not say in English:.

This is why some linguists do not classify Japanese "pronouns" as pronouns, but rather as referential nouns, much like Spanish usted contracted from vuestra merced , "your [ flattering majestic plural ] grace" or Portuguese o senhor. Japanese personal pronouns are generally used only in situations requiring special emphasis as to who is doing what to whom.

When used in different social relationships, the same word may have positive intimate or respectful or negative distant or disrespectful connotations. Japanese often use titles of the person referred to where pronouns would be used in English. This is because anata is used to refer to people of equal or lower status, and one's teacher has higher status. Where number is important, it can be indicated by providing a quantity often with a counter word or rarely by adding a suffix, or sometimes by duplication e.

Words for people are usually understood as singular, thus Tanaka-san usually means Mr. Words that refer to people and animals can be made to indicate a group of individuals through the addition of a collective suffix a noun suffix that indicates a group , such as -tachi , but this is not a true plural: the meaning is closer to the English phrase "and company".

Verbs are conjugated to show tenses, of which there are two: past and present or non-past which is used for the present and the future. For verbs that represent an ongoing process, the -te iru form indicates a continuous or progressive aspect , similar to the suffix ing in English.

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For others that represent a change of state, the -te iru form indicates a perfect aspect. For example, kite iru means "He has come and is still here ", but tabete iru means "He is eating". In the formal register, the question particle -ka is added. Some simple queries are formed simply by mentioning the topic with an interrogative intonation to call for the hearer's attention: Kore wa? Negatives are formed by inflecting the verb. Plain negative forms are actually i -adjectives see below and inflect as such, e.

The so-called -te verb form is used for a variety of purposes: either progressive or perfect aspect see above ; combining verbs in a temporal sequence Asagohan o tabete sugu dekakeru "I'll eat breakfast and leave at once" , simple commands, conditional statements and permissions Dekakete-mo ii? The word da plain , desu polite is the copula verb, it corresponds approximately to the English be , but often takes on other roles, including a marker for tense, when the verb is conjugated into its past form datta plain , deshita polite.

This comes into use because only i -adjectives and verbs can carry tense in Japanese. Ebooks and Manuals

Two additional common verbs are used to indicate existence "there is" or, in some contexts, property: aru negative nai and iru negative inai , for inanimate and animate things, respectively. For example, Neko ga iru "There's a cat", Ii kangae-ga nai "[I] haven't got a good idea". Japanese also has a huge number of compound verbs to express concepts that are described in English using a verb and an adverbial particle e. There are three types of adjectives see Japanese adjectives :.

For example,. Both inflect, though they do not show the full range of conjugation found in true verbs; the rentaishi in Modern Japanese are few in number, and unlike the other words, are limited to directly modifying nouns. They never predicate sentences. Examples include ookina "big", kono "this", iwayuru "so-called" and taishita "amazing".

The grammatical function of nouns is indicated by postpositions , also called particles ; these include for example:. It is also used for the lative case, indicating a motion to a location.

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Note: The subtle difference between wa and ga in Japanese cannot be derived from the English language as such, because the distinction between sentence topic and subject is not made there. While wa indicates the topic, which the rest of the sentence describes or acts upon, it carries the implication that the subject indicated by wa is not unique, or may be part of a larger group. Absence of wa often means the subject is the focus of the sentence.

Japanese has an extensive grammatical system to express politeness and formality; this reflects the hierarchical nature of Japanese society. The Japanese language can express differing levels in social status; the differences in social position are determined by a variety of factors including job, age, experience, or even psychological state e. The person in the lower position is expected to use a polite form of speech, whereas the other person might use a plainer form.

Strangers will also speak to each other politely. Japanese children rarely use polite speech until they are teens, at which point they are expected to begin speaking in a more adult manner. See uchi-soto. The difference between honorific and humble speech is particularly pronounced in the Japanese language. Humble language is used to talk about oneself or one's own group company, family whilst honorific language is mostly used when describing the interlocutor and their group. For example, the -san suffix "Mr" "Mrs. It is not used to talk about oneself or when talking about someone from one's company to an external person, since the company is the speaker's in-group; when speaking directly to one's superior in one's company or when speaking with other employees within one's company about a superior, a Japanese person will use vocabulary and inflections of the honorific register to refer to the in-group superior and their speech and actions.

When speaking to a person from another company i. In short, the register used in Japanese to refer to the person, speech, or actions of any particular individual varies depending on the relationship either in-group or out-group between the speaker and listener, as well as depending on the relative status of the speaker, listener, and third-person referents. Most nouns in the Japanese language may be made polite by the addition of o- or go- as a prefix.

In some cases, the prefix has become a fixed part of the word, and is included even in regular speech, such as gohan 'cooked rice; meal. For example, the word tomodachi 'friend,' would become o-tomodachi when referring to the friend of someone of higher status though mothers often use this form to refer to their children's friends. On the other hand, a polite speaker may sometimes refer to mizu 'water' as o-mizu in order to show politeness. Most Japanese people employ politeness to indicate a lack of familiarity; that is, they use polite forms for new acquaintances, but if a relationship becomes more intimate, they no longer use them.

This occurs regardless of age, social class, or gender. There are also a great number of words of mimetic origin in Japanese, with Japanese having a rich collection of sound symbolism , both onomatopoeia for physical sounds, and more abstract words. A small number of words have come into Japanese from the Ainu language. Tonakai reindeer , rakko sea otter and shishamo smelt , a type of fish are well-known examples of words of Ainu origin.

Words of different origins occupy different registers in Japanese. Like Latin-derived words in English, kango words are typically perceived as somewhat formal or academic compared to equivalent Yamato words. Incorporating vocabulary from European languages , gairaigo , began with borrowings from Portuguese in the 16th century, followed by words from Dutch during Japan's long isolation of the Edo period.

With the Meiji Restoration and the reopening of Japan in the 19th century, borrowing occurred from German , French , and English. Today most borrowings are from English. In the Meiji era, the Japanese also coined many neologisms using Chinese roots and morphology to translate European concepts; [ citation needed ] these are known as wasei kango Japanese-made Chinese words.

Many of these were then imported into Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese via their kanji in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the past few decades, wasei-eigo "made-in-Japan English" has become a prominent phenomenon. See list of English words of Japanese origin for more. Literacy was introduced to Japan in the form of the Chinese writing system , by way of Baekje before the 5th century. At first, the Japanese wrote in Classical Chinese , with Japanese names represented by characters used for their meanings and not their sounds.

Later, during the 7th century AD, the Chinese-sounding phoneme principle was used to write pure Japanese poetry and prose, but some Japanese words were still written with characters for their meaning and not the original Chinese sound; this is when the history of Japanese as a written language begins in its own right. By this time, the Japanese language was already very distinct from the Ryukyuan languages. An example of this mixed style is the Kojiki , which was written in AD They [ who? Over time, a writing system evolved. Chinese characters kanji were used to write either words borrowed from Chinese, or Japanese words with the same or similar meanings.

Chinese characters were also used to write grammatical elements, were simplified, and eventually became two syllabic scripts: hiragana and katakana which were developed based on Manyogana from Baekje; [41] however this hypothesis "Manyogana from Baekje" is denied by other scholars. Hiragana and Katakana were first simplified from Kanji, and Hiragana, emerging somewhere around the 9th century, [44] was mainly used by women. Hiragana was seen as an informal language, whereas Katakana and Kanji were considered more formal and was typically used by men and in official settings.

However, because of hiragana's easy of use, more and more people began using it. Eventually, by the 10th century, hiragana was used by everyone. Modern Japanese is written in a mixture of three main systems: kanji , characters of Chinese origin used to represent both Chinese loanwords into Japanese and a number of native Japanese morphemes ; and two syllabaries : hiragana and katakana ; the Latin script or romaji in Japanese is used to a certain extent, such as for imported acronyms and to transcribe Japanese names and in other instances where non-Japanese speakers need to know how to pronounce a word such as "ramen" at a restaurant.

Historically, attempts to limit the number of kanji in use commenced in the midth century, but did not become a matter of government intervention until after Japan's defeat in the Second World War. During the period of post-war occupation and influenced by the views of some U. Japanese students begin to learn kanji from their first year at elementary school.

As for kanji for personal names, the circumstances are somewhat complicated. Names containing unapproved characters are denied registration. Furthermore, families whose names are not on these lists were permitted to continue using the older forms. Hiragana are used for words without kanji representation, for words no longer written in kanji, and also following kanji to show conjugational endings; because of the way verbs and adjectives in Japanese are conjugated , kanji alone cannot fully convey Japanese tense and mood, as kanji cannot be subject to variation when written without losing its meaning.

For this reason, hiragana are suffixed to the ends of kanji to show verb and adjective conjugations. Hiragana used in this way are called okurigana. Hiragana can also be written in a superscript called furigana above or beside a kanji to show the proper reading; this is done to facilitate learning, as well as to clarify particularly old or obscure or sometimes invented readings. Katakana , like hiragana, are a syllabary ; katakana are primarily used to write foreign words, plant and animal names, and for emphasis.

Many major universities throughout the world provide Japanese language courses, and a number of secondary and even primary schools worldwide offer courses in the language; this is much changed from before World War II ; in , only 65 Americans not of Japanese descent were able to read, write and understand the language. International interest in the Japanese language dates from the 19th century but has become more prevalent following Japan's economic bubble of the s and the global popularity of Japanese popular culture such as anime and video games since the s; as of , more than 3.

As of , more than , foreign students study at Japanese universities and Japanese language schools , including , Chinese, 61, Vietnamese and 21, Nepalese. In Ireland , Japanese is offered as a language in the Leaving Certificate in some schools. The Japanese government provides standardized tests to measure spoken and written comprehension of Japanese for second language learners; the most prominent is the Japanese Language Proficiency Test JLPT , which features five levels of exams changed from four levels in , ranging from elementary N5 to advanced N1 ; the JLPT is offered twice a year.

However, it has since issued a statement to the effect that the test will continue to be available as a result of support from the Japanese government. Japan Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean , it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the " Land of the Rising Sun ". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6, islands; the four largest are Honshu , Hokkaido and Shikoku , which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands.

The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of million is the world's tenth largest. About The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions China , followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe , has characterized Japan's history.

Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, , during the occupation led by SCAP , the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.

Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles.

Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index , its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang.

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At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. How are you". These Early Portuguese traders brought the word. Writing system A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script.

Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting ; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries , or logographies.

Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora. Ebooks and Manuals

In a logography , each character represents morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant—vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of to symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have to, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves.

Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.

A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing , which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable.

Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.

Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements.

Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand , are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow.

Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts. Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script.

In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte. It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate , which ruled Japan from to During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world".

From the establishment of the Tokugawa bakufu headquarters at Edo, the town became the de facto capital and center of political power, although Kyoto remained the formal capital of the country. Edo grew from what had been a small, little-known fishing village in into the largest metropolis in the world with an estimated population of 1,, by Edo was devastated by fires, with the Great Fire of Meireki in being the most disastrous.

An estimated , people died in the fire. During the Edo period , there were about fires begun by accident and quickly escalating and spreading through neighborhoods of wooden machiya which were heated with charcoal fires. In , when the shogunate came to an end, the city was renamed Tokyo. Meiji 2: On the 23rd day of the 10th month, the emperor went to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. Ishimaru Sadatsuga was the magistrate of Edo in During the Edo period, Roju were senior officials.

Kyoto's character was defined by the Imperial Court, the court nobles, its Buddhist temples and its history. The Sumida River called the Great River, ran along the eastern edge of the city; the shogunate's official rice-storage warehouses, other official buildings and some of the city's best-known restaurants were located here. The "Japan Bridge" marked the center of the city's commercial center, an area known as Kuramae. Fishermen and other producers and retailers operated here. Beyond this were the districts of the eta or outcasts, who performed "unclean" work and were separated from the main parts of the city.

A path and a canal, a short distance north of the eta districts, extended west from the riverbank leading along the northern edge of the city to the Yoshiwara pleasure districts. Located near Ningyocho, the districts were rebuilt in this more-remote location after the Great Fire of Meireki in , as the city expanded.

See Tokyo for photographs of the modern city. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Kyoto : the Old Capital, — Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. Sansom, George.. A History of Japan: — Stanford: Stanford University Press. Akira Naito, Kazuo Hozumi. Kodansha International, Tokyo. Old Japanese Old Japanese is the oldest attested stage of the Japanese language. It is attested in documents from the Nara period , it evolved into Early Middle Japanese in the succeeding Heian period , although the precise separation of these two languages is controversial.

Old Japanese was an early member of the Japonic family. For a Japonic language and for a step in the evolutionary line of modern Japanese, Old Japanese was a agglutinative language with subject—object—verb word ordering. However, the language was marked by a few phonemic differences from forms of Japanese, such as a simpler syllable structure and distinctions between several pairs of syllables pronounced identically in Early Middle Japanese and later; the phonetic realization of this differentiation is uncertain.

Linguistic changes are gradual, the periodization of Japanese is "both delicate and controversial", with multiple competing methods and criteria for division. For both practical and conventional reasons, these divisions correlate to political events shifts in power or changes of capital. Shorter samples are the 21 poems of the Bussokuseki-kahi ; the latter has the virtue of being an original inscription, whereas for all the other texts the oldest surviving manuscripts are the results of centuries of copying, with the attendant risk of scribal errors.

A limited number of Japanese words personal names and place names, are recorded phonetically in ancient Chinese texts such as the "Wei Zhi" portion of the Records of the Three Kingdoms , but the transcriptions by Chinese scholars are unreliable. The oldest surviving native inscriptions, dating from the 5th or early 6th centuries, include those on the Suda Hachiman Shrine Mirror , the Inariyama Sword and the Eta Funayama Sword.

These inscriptions are written in Classical Chinese , but contain several Japanese names transcribed phonetically using Chinese characters; such inscriptions become more common from the Suiko period. These fragments are considered a form of Old Japanese. Artifacts inscribed with Chinese characters dated as early as the 1st century AD have been found in Japan , but it appears that detailed knowledge of the script did not arrive in the islands until the early 5th century. According to the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, it was brought by scholars from Baekje ; the earliest texts found in Japan are written in Classical Chinese by immigrant scribes.

Chinese and Koreans had long used Chinese characters to write non-Chinese terms and proper names phonetically, by selecting characters for Chinese words that sounded like each syllable. Koreans used the characters phonetically to write Korean particles and inflections added to Chinese texts as an aid to reading. Although any one of several characters could be used for a given syllable, a careful analysis revealed that 88 syllables were distinguished in the Kojiki: The system has the same gaps of yi and wu found in forms of Japanese.

However, many syllables that have a modern i, e or o occurred in two forms, termed types A and B, denoted by subscripts 1 and 2 in the above table. All of these pairs had merged by the Early Middle Japanese of the Heian period. One difficulty is that the Middle Chinese pronunciations of the characters used are disputed, since their reconstruction is based on Sino-Japanese pronunciations, there is a danger of circular reasoning.

Additional evidence has been drawn from phonological typology, subsequent developments in the Japanese pronunciation, comparative study of the Ryukyuan languages. Old Japanese had open syllables, of the form V, subject to additional restrictions: Words do not begin with r or the voiced plosives b, d, z and g, with the exception of a few loanwords. International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators.

The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet , may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics.

Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription.