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We've combined the most accurate English to Spanish translations, dictionary, verb conjugations, and Spanish to English translators into one very powerful search box. Try Fluencia, the new Spanish learning program from SpanishDict. The page is The adjective "jet-black" , meaning as dark a black as possible, derives from this material. Jet is a product of high-pressure decomposition of wood from millions of years ago, commonly the wood of trees of the family Araucariaceae.
Jet is found in two forms, hard and soft. Hard jet is the result of carbon compression and salt water ; soft jet is the result of carbon compression and fresh water. The jet found at Whitby , in England, is of early Jurassic Toarcian age, approximately million years old. Jet is also found in Poland and Santiago de Compostela in northern Spain  and near Erzurum in Turkey, where it is used to make prayer beads.
Native American Navajo and Pueblo tribes of New Mexico were using regionally mined jet for jewellery and the ornamentation of weapons when early Spanish explorers reached the area in the s.
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The end of Roman Britain marked the end of jet's ancient popularity,  despite sporadic use in the Anglo-Saxon and Viking periods and the later Medieval period. Jet regained popularity with a massive resurgence during the Victorian era. Whitby jet was a popular material for jewellery in Roman Britain from the 3rd century onward.
It was used in rings, hair pins, beads, bracelets, bangles, necklaces, and pendants,  many of which are visible in the Yorkshire Museum.
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There is no evidence for Roman jet working in Whitby itself,  rather it was transferred to Eboracum modern York where considerable evidence for jet production has been found. In the Roman period it saw use as a magical material, frequently used in amulets and pendants because of its supposed protective qualities and ability to deflect the gaze of the evil eye. Its fumes detect attempts to simulate a disabling illness or a state of virginity.
Jet objects were exported from Eboracum all over Roman Britain and into Europe. Around the Rhine some jet bracelets from the period have been found that feature grooves with gold inserts. Jet as a gemstone was fashionable during the reign of Queen Victoria , during which the Queen wore Whitby jet as part of her mourning dress , mourning the death of Prince Albert. In some jewellery designs of the period jet was combined with cut steel. In the United States, long necklaces of jet beads were popular during the Roaring Twenties , when women and young flappers would wear multiple strands of jet beads stretching from the neckline to the waistline.
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In these necklaces, the jet was strung using heavy cotton thread; small knots were made on either side of each bead to keep the beads spaced evenly, much in the same way that fine pearl necklaces are made. Jet has also been known as black amber , as it may induce an electric charge like that of amber when rubbed. Jet is very easy to carve, but it is difficult to create fine details without breaking so it takes an experienced lapidary to execute more elaborate carvings. Jet has a Mohs hardness ranging between 2. The refractive index of jet is approximately 1.
The touch of a red-hot needle should cause jet to emit an odour similar to coal.