Petrosino took full advantage of the opportunity. He relished detective work. He wore an array of disguises to infiltrate criminal enterprises. His success at busting rackets and bringing criminals to justice made him famous. After the turn of the century, Petrosino spent more time pursuing Black Hand extortionists than any other type of criminals. The Black Hand was a secret society of Italians who threatened to kidnap children, blow up homes or kill their fellow Italians if they did not pay a prescribed ransom by a certain time.
Black Hand letters typically were illustrated with images of daggers and black crosses. The extortionists were successful because they often did exactly what they threatened to those who refused to pay. Black Handers were not limited to New York.
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They were operating all over the country in the early part of the 20th century. Some Black Handers fell under the control of Mafia bosses, while others operated independently. Finally, in , the department agreed to create an Italian Squad — but with five men, not the 20 Petrosino had requested. The Italian Squad initially was not given an office out of which to operate. As Italian immigration to the United States soared, and Black Handers along with it, the Italian Squad worked day and night to try to get a handle on the epidemic.
It was an uphill battle, to say the least. But Petrosino and his men arrested hundreds of Black Handers. Petrosino had 40 men by Still, even with more men, Petrosino was not able to eliminate the Black Hand. Police Commissioner Theodore Bingham had an idea. They would report directly to him. And Petrosino would lead them.
The new squad nonetheless came into being in early , thanks to private donations. But getting the prison records was difficult, because the Italian government was not particularly forthcoming. Bingham asked Petrosino to travel to Italy and secure the judicial records. It was a dangerous — perhaps foolhardy — endeavor. Petrosino was well known in Italy, even if he had not been there in decades. It would be difficult for him to operate without his enemies knowing who he was and what he was doing.
It appears that Petrosino fully recognized the risks. Before he left, he signed over power of attorney to his wife, Adelina, so that if he died, she could collect his salary. However, his trip was hardly a secret. Later court testimony makes clear that the Mafia in New York were aware of his departure. In his first days in Italy, Petrosino was recognized by several people. And then Commissioner Bingham, for some inexplicable reason, publicly announced it. In hindsight, it seems almost inevitable that he would die on this mission.
Questions remain unanswered to this day: Why did Petrosino travel to Italy rather than a more anonymous detective? And why did he refuse offers of bodyguards from Italian officials? Politicians and newspaper editorial writers called for harsher tactics to take down the Black Hand once and for all. She was described as inconsolable. Milne , and P. Wodehouse have all written Sherlock Holmes pastiches. Some authors have written tales centred on characters from the canon other than Holmes. Trow has written a series of seventeen books using Inspector Lestrade as the central character, beginning with The Adventures of Inspector Lestrade in Holmes retelling that story from Adler's point of view.
Martin Davies has written three novels where Baker Street housekeeper Mrs. Hudson is the protagonist. Hodel and Sean M. John Gardner , Michael Kurland , and Kim Newman , amongst many others, have all written tales in which Holmes's nemesis Professor Moriarty is the main character. Anthologies edited by Michael Kurland and George Mann are entirely devoted to stories told from the perspective of characters other than Holmes and Watson. Laurie R. Her Holmes, semi-retired in Sussex, is stumbled upon by a teenaged American girl.
Recognising a kindred spirit, he trains her as his apprentice and subsequently marries her. As of , the series includes sixteen base novels and additional writings. The Final Solution , a novella by Michael Chabon , concerns an unnamed but long-retired detective interested in beekeeping who tackles the case of a missing parrot belonging to a Jewish refugee boy.
Mitch Cullin 's novel A Slight Trick of the Mind takes place two years after the end of the Second World War , and explores an old and frail Sherlock Holmes now 93 as he comes to terms with a life spent in emotionless logic; this was also adapted into a film, 's Mr. There have been a host of scholarly works dealing with Sherlock Holmes, some working within the bounds of the Great Game, and some written with the understanding that Holmes is a fictional character.
In particular, there have been three major annotated editions of the complete series. This two-volume set was ordered to fit Baring-Gould's preferred chronology, and was written from a Great Game perspective. The second was 's The Oxford Sherlock Holmes general editor: Owen Dudley Edwards , a nine-volume set written in a straight scholarly manner.
Guinness World Records has listed Holmes as the "most portrayed movie character",  with more than 70 actors playing the part in over films. His first screen appearance was in the Mutoscope film, Sherlock Holmes Baffled. In addition to its popularity, the play is significant because it, rather than the original stories, introduced one of the key visual qualities commonly associated with Holmes today: his calabash pipe. In his lifetime, Gillette performed as Holmes some 1, times. In the early s, H. Saintsbury took over the role from Gillette for a tour of the play.
While the Fox films were period pieces, the Universal films abandoned Victorian Britain and moved to a then-contemporary setting in which Holmes occasionally battled Nazis. The series was co-directed by Hayao Miyazaki. Between and , Soviet television produced a series of five television films, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Livanov was appointed an Honorary Member of the Order of the British Empire  for a performance ambassador Anthony Brenton described as "one of the best I've ever seen". Jeremy Brett played the detective in seven series of Sherlock Holmes for Britain's Granada Television from to Watson was played by David Burke in the first two series and Edward Hardwicke in the remainder.
In March a release date of 21 December was set for the third film in the series. In the series, created by Mark Gatiss and Steven Moffat , the stories' original Victorian setting is replaced by present-day London.
Cumberbatch's Holmes uses modern technology including texting and blogging to help solve crimes. Joan Watson. The film Mr. Holmes starred Ian McKellen as a retired Sherlock Holmes living in Sussex, in , who grapples with an unsolved case involving a beautiful woman. Holmes has also appeared in video games, including the Sherlock Holmes series of eight main titles. According to the publisher, Frogwares , the series has sold over seven million copies.
The copyright for Conan Doyle's works expired in the United Kingdom and Canada at the end of , was revived in and expired again at the end of The author's works are now in the public domain in those territories. On 14 February , Leslie S. Klinger lawyer and editor of The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes filed a declaratory judgement suit against the Conan Doyle estate in the Northern District of Illinois asking the court to acknowledge that the characters of Holmes and Watson were public domain in the U.
Supreme Court , which declined to hear the case, letting the appeals court's ruling stand. This final step resulted in the characters from the Holmes stories, along with all but nine of the stories themselves those present in The Case-Book other than "The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone", "The Problem of Thor Bridge", and "The Adventure of the Creeping Man" , being in the public domain in the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fictional private detective created by Arthur Conan Doyle. For other uses, see Sherlock Holmes disambiguation. Sherlock Holmes in a illustration by Sidney Paget.
Sherlock Holmes Museum, London. Main article: Sherlockian game. Main article: Sherlock fandom.
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Main article: Sherlock Holmes pastiches. Further information: List of authors of new Sherlock Holmes stories. Main article: Adaptations of Sherlock Holmes. Further information: List of actors who have played Sherlock Holmes. Main article: Canon of Sherlock Holmes. Sherlock Holmes portal Novels portal Victorian era portal.
British Library. Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 23 April The New York Times. Retrieved 10 March The Telegraph. Mail Online.
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Fact and feeling: Baconian science and the nineteenth-Century literary imagination.
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Retrieved 19 October A Scandal in Bohemia. The Complete Sherlock Holmes. Garden City, N. Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 27 April The Bartitsu Society. From Holmes to Sherlock. Mysterious Press. Retrieved 12 January The Yale Book of Quotations. Yale University Press. Quote Investigator. Retrieved 3 January Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 10 July Today I Found Out. Encyclopedia Sherlockiana. Macmillan Publishers. Books and Writers kirjasto. Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 13 February Net: Societies".
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It's Called the Public Domain Or is It? Free Sherlock!. Retrieved 15 April Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 June Accardo, Pasquale J. Baring-Gould, William New York: Clarkson N. Blakeney, T. Sherlock Holmes: Fact or Fiction? Bradley, Alan Alberta: University of Alberta Press. Campbell, Mark Sherlock Holmes. London: Pocket Essentials. Dakin, David A Sherlock Holmes Commentary.
Duncan, Alistair London: MX Publishing. The Sherlock Holmes Letters. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Hall, Trevor Sherlock Holmes: Ten Literary Studies. London: Duckworth. Sherlock Holmes and his creator. New York: St Martin's Press. Hammer, David The Before-Breakfast Pipe of Mr. London: Wessex Pr. Harrison, Michael The World of Sherlock Holmes.
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Rennison, Nick The Unauthorized Biography. London: Grove Press. Richards, Anthony John London: Irregulars Special Press. Riley, Dick The Bedside Companion to Sherlock Holmes. Riley, Peter The Highways and Byways of Sherlock Holmes. London: P. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. Sebeok, Thomas; Umiker-Sebeok, Jean