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Series: Current Ornithology Volume: Current promotions. Other titles in Current Ornithology. Current Ornithology, Volume More Info. Current Ornithology, Volume 7. Current Ornithology, Volume 8. Browse other titles in Current Ornithology. Bestsellers in Birds: General. The Helm Guide to Bird Identification. The Most Perfect Thing. Mastering Bird Photography. Bird Sense. The Handbook of Bird Families.
Bird Photographer of the Year Bird Photographer of the Year, Collection 3. The Wisdom of Birds. Mrs Moreau's Warbler. Bird Photographer of the Year. The Wall of Birds. Guests of Summer. As an example, perch or roost sites may be at locations that provide protection from predators, mobbing, or inclement weather.
Applied to large, soaring predators, this theory suggests that they may select perch and roost sites near food resources or at sites where environmental updrafts develop. To test these theories, we characterized selection of nonflight locations throughout the annual cycle for Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in eastern North America.
We determined factors associated with selection of perching daytime and roosting nighttime sites by eagles by comparing land cover and topographic characteristics of GPS telemetry locations for eagles used with random available locations. We separately assessed selection for perch and roost sites during each of 4 seasons winter, summer, and spring and fall migration.
Golden Eagles showed different selection patterns for perching by season and age. Throughout the year, eagles selected perch sites on steep slopes. The direction these slopes faced differed among seasons, with eagles selecting south-facing slopes in summer and east-facing slopes during migration. Adults showed greater preferences for broadleaf forests in summer and for ridges in fall.
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Patterns of perch-site use were consistent with selection for sites that provide thermal protection and access to thermal updrafts. We found few patterns of selection for roosting sites. Our analysis provides insight into decision-making by a longdistance migrant across its annual cycle and throughout its geographic range, and thus into how resource selection changes seasonally. Bald Eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus and Common Loons Gavia immer have been the subject of intensive recovery efforts over 4 decades in New Hampshire.
In the last 2 decades, eagles have increased from 1 to 40 territorial pairs, and loons have increased from to territorial pairs. Eagle predation of loons and loon eggs has been documented in a limited but increasing number of cases. We looked for evidence that this predation has begun to limit loon productivity or provoke territorial shifts to avoid predation during the initial period of Bald Eagle population recovery — Our findings indicate that eagles may already be exerting a measurable predation pressure. However, at current eagle densities, this pressure does not explain observed local declines in loon abundance.
Our counterfactual analysis identified subsets of the data e. For bird species in which plumage characteristics are associated with social dominance, the analysis of status badges may reveal habitat preferences. We analyzed the extent of male Chestnut-sided Warbler Setophaga pensylvanica chestnut-colored plumage in relation to age and body size to determine whether badge size was a potential indicator of resource-holding potential.
We then modeled badge size in relation to habitat variables including habitat patch size, patch shape, and microhabitat characteristics in different silvicultural openings in western Massachusetts during and Overall, older and larger Chestnut-sided Warblers had larger badges. Badge size showed a strong positive relationship with patch area. Notably, our findings reveal a greater sensitivity to area than was apparent from a different study's analysis of abundance at the same study site during the same time period.
Badge size was positively related to patch shape complexity—an environmental variable not previously identified as important for this species by other studies. Our findings indicate that remote assessments of avian status badges may serve as reliable indicators of habitat preferences and suggest that this approach has the potential to reveal responses to gradients in habitat not reflected by abundance. The Brown Parrotbill Cholornis unicolor is endemic to the central and eastern Himalayas and occurs in alpine bamboo thickets at an altitude of 1,—3, m.
Fieldwork was conducted in the Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve and cameras were used to record reproductive behaviors. Duration of incubation, nestling provisioning, and other parental care behaviors were extracted from the videos, and measurements of the nest, eggs, and nestlings were taken in the field. One nest with a clutch of 3 eggs was found 2. Two of the three eggs hatched and both nestlings fledged. Both the male and the female incubated the eggs and brooded and provisioned the nestlings.
The incubation period lasted for at least 13 d and the nestling period was 15 d. As incubation progressed, incubation-bout duration decreased and recess frequency increased. During the nestling period, the frequency of parental provisioning increased as the nestlings matured. Our observations provide the first description of the nest, nestlings, and incubation behavior of Brown Parrotbill.
Alpine bamboo thickets are assumed to be an important breeding habitat for Brown Parrotbills, as this is typical for at least 6 parrotbill species. The American Robin Turdus migratorius is one of the most widespread, common bird species in North America; yet, very little is known about its migratory connectivity, migration timing, and migratory routes. Using archival GPS tags, we tracked the movements of 7 individual robins from 3 breeding populations in the United States. One robin captured in Amherst, Massachusetts, overwintered in South Carolina 1, km from the capture location, whereas 2 robins captured in Washington, D.
Understanding the annual cycle and differences in migration strategies for a species that exhibits large regional variation in movement has the potential to provide novel insights into how conspecific populations respond to current and future heterogeneity in climate and habitat.
The regionspecific patterns presented here suggest robins could serve as sentinels of environmental change at a continental scale. Improved knowledge of movements of the Interior population of Band-tailed Pigeons Patagioenas fasciata is needed to inform management decisions. We investigated daily and seasonal movements of adult Bandtailed Pigeons marked with satellite transmitters in — Thirteen of 15 satellite transmitters provided sufficient data to estimate daily and seasonal movements.
Mean daily movements ranged from 1. Minimum distance moved between consecutive locations was less than detectable given accuracy of PTT transmitters, while the maximum distance moved between locations was Five Band-tailed Pigeons captured in southern New Mexico traveled south into northern Mexico whereas 2 Band-tailed Pigeons captured in northern New Mexico migrated to southern New Mexico for the nonbreeding season. Our results are the first to provide detailed movement information between breeding season and nonbreeding season sites for adult Band-tailed Pigeons captured in New Mexico.
This data will allow a greater understanding of daily and seasonal movements of Band-tailed Pigeons from New Mexico and will aid in more targeted, collaborative conservation and management. Female song is more widespread than previously assumed, and is adaptive in many species; however, it may also be an aberrant, nonfunctional, behavior in others. We document novel vocalizations, including female song, from 2 paired female Cerulean Warblers Setophaga cerulea recorded in southern Indiana, USA, in June This is the first documentation of female song in this species.
When assessed spectrographically, one female's vocalizations were similar to the typical zeet call of this species, but with appreciable differences in duration, composition, and frequency bandwidth. The other female's vocalizations, which we define as a song, had large frequency modulations as well as harmonics.
The females' vocalizations resembled neither each other's nor the typical song of an adult male Cerulean Warbler. Unlike most other instances of infrequent female song in temperate-breeding passerines, these vocalizations only occurred during the incubation and nestling stages, rather than during mate acquisition. Based on their context, they appeared to function in intersexual communication with the male mate. We discuss potential explanations, both adaptive and nonfunctional, and urge researchers of this species to pay particular attention to the vocalizations of females in their study populations.
The ability to recognize other individuals e. For bird species with limited use of visual information, like species living in colonies or dense environments, the acoustic channel provides a long-distance and fast means to effectively convey identity-related information.
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The Rook Corvus frugilegus is a monogamous species, and one of the most social corvids, living in highly cohesive groups within colonies of hundreds to thousands of individuals. However, despite being a highly vocal species, only a few studies have focused on its acoustic communication skills, investigating mostly its vocal repertoire and kin recognition in fledglings. In this study, we investigated the potential individual signature of the caw. To do so, we recorded the caws of 5 semi-captive male Rooks and conducted acoustic analyses on both the frequency and time domains.
We discuss the potential variability of individuality coding across behavioral contexts and social affinities that needs further work. Nectar from plants is a particularly important food source for a number of bird families. Here, 4 observations of nectar foraging by family groups of Little Ravens Corvus mellori , a species only recently recorded as consuming nectar, are described. There are few details of nectarivory in the major reviews of the Corvidae, but this behavior has been recorded for 11 of the approximately 45 species of Corvus worldwide and is summarized here.
Non-kin infanticide is the killing of unrelated young by a conspecific adult, and occurs infrequently in some bird species. We observed a case of non-kin infanticide committed by a male Japanese Marsh Warbler Locustella pryeri in The sudden disappearance of a nesting male from his territory made the neighboring male expand his original territory to the vacant area where the unrelated nestlings were being reared by a female in the nest.
The male found the nest and attacked the unrelated nestlings. Behavioral innovations are likely to contribute to the persistence of native species in developed areas. Innovativeness has been well-studied in birds, and the frequency with which they innovate is related to their relative brain size. However, the mechanisms by which behavioral innovations emerge and spread remain poorly known. Two major mechanisms are thought to play a fundamental role: the independent appearance of the same innovation in different individuals and innovation diffusion by social learning.
Here, we describe observations of multiple Blue-faced Honeyeaters Entomyzon cyanotis collecting sugar packets, a technical innovation that had not been published in that species. We also demonstrate that this behavior emerged in 2 developed areas separated by 1, km, with multiple individuals engaging in the behavior within one of the sites, such that both independent innovation and social diffusion are likely to have occurred. Using brain size data on 62 species of the Meliphagidae family, we then discuss the likely importance of relative brain size in determining innovativeness in this family, and suggest that anatomical specialization such as the curvature of beaks used in nectar foraging could constrain the emergence of new behaviors in some large-brained species.
For decades, researchers have attempted to understand why some avian species expend energy building nests that are not explicitly used for breeding i. Most work has focused on whether dummy nests serve as indicators of male fitness or as decoys for confusing nest predators.
Anecdotal observations suggest that dummy nests may also be used as temporary shelters for adults and fledglings, but the frequency with which this occurs is unknown. It is likely that the actual frequency of dummy nest use by fledglings is greater than what we observed because our efforts to locate fledglings were infrequent and opportunistic, and because depredation may account for a significant proportion of the occasions when no fledglings were found. Dummy nests may play a larger role in post-fledging survival than previously thought and warrant further investigation.
Red-shouldered Hawks Buteo lineatus feed primarily on mammals, amphibians, and reptiles, but invertebrates also comprise a significant portion of the diet.
The majority of invertebrates consumed are insects and crustaceans, with the latter represented to date only by crayfish. In , we observed a Red-shouldered Hawk attack and dismember another crustacean, the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata , on a coastal beach in South Carolina, USA.
Actual consumption of the crab by the hawk was not observed but is probable. Consumption of ghost crabs by Red-shouldered Hawks is not unexpected, as these crustaceans are abundant within their range, active when hawks are foraging, and occur in open habitats beaches and dunes where they are more vulnerable to avian predators. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Red-shouldered Hawk attacking and presumably consuming any species of crab and the first report of probable ghost crab predation by a raptor in North America.
Following the discovery, we analyzed nest site preferences of the Band-rumped Storm-Petrel at this site using a paired design. Band-rumped Storm-Petrels preferred deeper crevices compared with those available within m of the nest sites. Physical and environmental characteristics of Hawaiian Bandrumped Storm-Petrel nest sites may aid conservation efforts including on-the-ground searches, removal of invasive mammalian predators, identification of potential translocation sites, and habitat restoration for this endangered species.
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