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United Kingdom. Search Within These Results:. Couleur la Que sais-je? From: medimops Berlin, Germany Seller Rating:. La couleur. It used propaganda, women's organisations, and legislation to promote maternity, patriotic duty, and female submission to marriage, home, and children's education. It introduced family allowances and opposed birth control and abortion. Conditions were very difficult for housewives, as food was short as well as most necessities.
Divorce laws were made much more stringent, and restrictions were placed on the employment of married women.
Family allowances that had begun in the s were continued, and became a vital lifeline for many families; it was a monthly cash bonus for having more children. In the birth rate started to rise, and by it was higher than it had been for a century. On the other side women of the Resistance, many of whom were associated with combat groups linked to the French Communist Party PCF , broke the gender barrier by fighting side by side with men.
After the war, their services were ignored, but France did give women the vote in Hitler ordered Case Anton to occupy Corsica and then the rest of the unoccupied southern zone in immediate reaction to the landing of the Allies in North Africa Operation Torch on 8 November Following the conclusion of the operation on 12 November, Vichy's remaining military forces were disbanded. Vichy continued to exercise its remaining jurisdiction over almost all of metropolitan France, with the residual power devolved into the hands of Laval, until the gradual collapse of the regime following the Allied invasion in June On 7 September , following the Allied invasion of France, the remainders of the Vichy government cabinet fled to Germany and established a puppet government in exile in the so-called Sigmaringen enclave.
That rump government finally fell when the city was taken by the Allied French army in April Part of the residual legitimacy of the Vichy regime resulted from the continued ambivalence of U. Darlan was neutralised within 15 hours by a strong French resistance force. De Gaulle had not even been informed of the landing in North Africa. Before that, the first return of democracy to Metropolitan France since had occurred with the declaration of the Free Republic of Vercors on 3 July , at the behest of the Free French government —but that act of resistance was quashed by an overwhelming German attack by the end of July.
Under Darnand and his sub-commanders, such as Paul Touvier and Jacques de Bernonville , the Milice was responsible for helping the German forces and police in the repression of the French Resistance and Maquis.
There, Fernand de Brinon established a pseudo-government in exile at Sigmaringen. The first action of that government was to re-establish republican legality throughout metropolitan France. The provisional government considered the Vichy government to have been unconstitutional and all its actions therefore without legitimate authority.
All "constitutional acts, legislative or regulatory" taken by the Vichy government, as well as decrees taken to implement them, were declared null and void by the Order of 9 August Inasmuch as blanket rescission of all acts taken by Vichy i. Many acts were explicitly repealed, including all acts that Vichy had called "constitutional acts", all acts that discriminated against Jews, all acts related to so-called "secret societies" e.
The provisional government also took steps to replace local governments, including governments that had been suppressed by the Vichy regime, through new elections or by extending the terms of those who had been elected not later than After the liberation, France was swept for a short period with a wave of executions of Collaborationists. Women who were suspected of having romantic liaisons with Germans, or more often [ citation needed ] of being prostitutes who had entertained German customers, were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved.
Those who had engaged in the black market were also stigmatised as "war profiteers" profiteurs de guerre , and popularly called "BOF" Beurre Oeuf Fromage , or Butter Eggs Cheese, because of the products sold at outrageous prices during the Occupation. Many convicted Collaborationists were then given amnesty under the Fourth Republic — He was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, but Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment.
In the police, some collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities. This continuity of the administration was pointed out, [ citation needed ] in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of , executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon when Charles de Gaulle was head of state. Papon was tried and convicted for crimes against humanity in Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina —54 with the Foreign Legion instead of prison.
Among artists, singer Tino Rossi was detained in Fresnes prison , where, according to Combat newspaper, prison guards asked him for autographs. Pierre Benoit and Arletty were also detained. The writer and Jewish internee Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40, in This surprised de Gaulle, who estimated the number to be around 10,, which is also the figure accepted today by mainstream historians. Approximately 9, of these 10, refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. Some imply that France did too little to deal with collaborators at this stage, by selectively pointing out that in absolute value numbers , there were fewer legal executions in France than in its smaller neighbour Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands.
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The proportion of collaborators was also higher in Norway, and collaboration occurred on a larger scale in the Netherlands as in Flanders based partly on linguistic and cultural commonality with Germany. The internments in Norway and Netherlands, meanwhile, were highly temporary and were rather indiscriminate; there was a brief internment peak in these countries as internment was used partly for the purpose of separating Collaborationists from non-Collaborationists.
Bousquet and Leguay were both convicted for their responsibilities in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July Among others, Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent part of their post-war effort trying to bring them before the courts. A fair number of collaborationists then joined the OAS terrorist movement during the Algerian War — Jacques de Bernonville escaped to Quebec, then Brazil. Maurice Papon was likewise convicted in , released three years later due to ill health, and died in Until Jacques Chirac 's presidency, the official point of view of the French government was that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence.
While the criminal behaviour of Vichy France was consistently acknowledged, this point of view denied any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between and were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy. In later years, de Gaulle's position was reiterated by president Mitterrand. The Republic had nothing to do with this. I do not believe France is responsible," he said in September The first President to accept responsibility for the arrest and deportation of Jews from France was Jacques Chirac, in a 16 July speech.
The July Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps. President Macron's statement on 16 July was even more specific, stating clearly that the Vichy regime was certainly the French State during WW II, and played a role in the Holocaust. Earlier that year, speeches made by Marine Le Pen had made the headlines by claiming that the Vichy Government was "not France.
As historian Henry Rousso has put it in The Vichy Syndrome , Vichy and the state collaboration of France remains a "past that doesn't pass away". Historiographical debates are still, today, passionate, opposing conflictual views on the nature and legitimacy of Vichy's collaborationism with Germany in the implementation of the Holocaust. The trial of Papon did not only concern an individual itinerary, but the French administration's collective responsibility in the deportation of the Jews. Critics contend that this itinerary, shared by others although few had such public roles , demonstrates France's collective amnesia, while others point out that the perception of the war and of the state collaboration has evolved during these years.
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Papon's career was considered more scandalous as he had been responsible, during his function as prefect of police of Paris, for the Paris massacre of Algerians during the war, and was forced to resign from this position after the "disappearance", in Paris in , of the Moroccan anti-colonialist leader Mehdi Ben Barka. While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in the implementation of the Holocaust, the exact level of such co-operation is still debated.
Compared with the Jewish communities established in other countries invaded by Germany, French Jews suffered proportionately lighter losses see Jewish death toll section above ; although, starting in , repression and deportations struck French Jews as well as foreign Jews.
One of these rules, for example, stated that:. The contractors shall make the following statements: they are of French nationality, are not Jewish, nor married to Jewish in the sense of the laws and ordinances in force [under Vichy, ed. Thus, even if the tenants or coowners had signed or otherwise agreed to these rules after , any such agreement would be null and void caduque under French law, as were the rules.
Rewriting or eliminating the obsolete rules would have had to be done at the occupants' expense, including notary fees of to EUR per building. Munholland reports a widespread consensus among historians regarding the authoritarian character of the Vichy regime and its:. Although this claim is rejected by the rest of the French population and by the state itself, another myth remains more widespread than this one. This other myth refers to the alleged "protection" by Vichy of French Jews by "accepting" to collaborate in the deportation — and, ultimately, in the extermination — of foreign Jews.
However, this argument has been rejected by several historians who are specialists of the subject, among them US historian Robert Paxton , who is widely recognised, and historian of the French police Maurice Rajsfus. Both were called on as experts during the Papon trial in the s.
Robert Paxton thus declared, before the court, on 31 October , that "Vichy took initiatives The armistice allowed it a breathing space. After naming the alleged causes of the defeat "democracy, parliamentarism, cosmopolitanism, the left wing, foreigners, Jews, From then on, Jewish people were considered "second-zone citizens  ". Internationally, France "believed the war to be finished". Thus, by July , Vichy was eagerly negotiating with the German authorities in an attempt to gain a place for France in the Third Reich's "New Order". But "Hitler never forgot the defeat.
He always said no. It even, at first, opposed German plans. Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country. On the contrary, they wanted to send there the Jews that they expelled" from the Reich. The historic change came in —, with the pending German defeat on the Eastern Front. The war then became "total", and in August , Hitler decided on the "global extermination of all European Jews".
This new policy was officially formulated during the January Wannsee Conference , and implemented in all European occupied countries by spring [ when? France, praising itself for having remained an independent state as opposed to other occupied countries "decided to cooperate. This is the second Vichy. They always complained about the lack of staff. Although the American historian recognised during the trial that the "civil behavior of certain individuals" had permitted many Jews to escape deportation, he stated that:.
The French state, itself, participated in the policy of extermination of the Jews How can one claim the reverse when such technical and administrative resources were made available to them? Pointing to the French police's registering of Jews, as well as Laval's decision, taken completely autonomously in August , to deport children along with their parents, Paxton added:. Contrary to preconceived ideas, Vichy did not sacrifice foreign Jews in the hope of protecting French Jews.
At the hierarchy summit, it knew, from the start, that the deportation of French Jews was unavoidable. Despite Paxton's assertion about Vichy knowledge "from the start", deportations from France did not start until summer , several months after mass deportation from other countries started.
Part of the population housed at the Dachau concentration camp , opened in , was Jewish, and major death camps in Poland and Germany were opened in and early Paxton then referred to the case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had started only after the German occupation. Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid but was then invaded by Germany. Fighting continued there through In particular, in Nice, "Italians had protected the Jews. And the French authorities complained about it to the Germans. In fact, the rise of Benito Mussolini and Italian fascism had drastically curtailed Jewish immigration during the inter-war period, and Italy had passed drastic anti-Semitic laws in that stripped Jews of their citizenship.
Ultimately, a similar proportion of Jews from Italy as from France were deported. More recent work by the historian Susan Zuccotti finds that, in general, the Vichy government facilitated the deportation of foreign Jews rather than French ones, until at least Vichy officials [had] hoped to deport foreign Jews throughout France in order to ease pressure on native Jews. Pierre Laval himself expressed the official Vichy position In the early months of , the terror [Adam] Munz and [Alfred] Feldman described in German-occupied France was still experienced by foreign Jews like themselves.
It is difficult to know exactly how many French Jews were arrested, usually for specific or alleged offences, but on 21 January , Helmut Knochen informed Eichmann in Berlin that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy. Many had been at Drancy for several months. They had not been deported because, until January , there had usually been enough foreigners and their children to fill the forty-three trains that had carried about 41, people to the east By January , however, foreign Jews were increasingly aware of the danger and difficult to find.
Nazi pressure for the arrest of French Jews and the deportation of those already at Drancy increased accordingly. Thus, when Knochen reported that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy on 21 January , he also asked Eichmann for permission to deport them. Despite Vichy officials' past disapproval and Eichmann's own prior discouragement of such a step, permission for the deportation of the French Jews at Drancy, except for those in mixed marriages , was granted from Berlin on 25 January.
More Jews lived in France at the end of the Vichy regime than had approximately ten years earlier. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vichy disambiguation. French State, German military occupation zone. French protectorates. The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Allied powers. Client state of Germany — Puppet government of Germany — Government-in-exile — Vichy de facto Paris a de jure.
Paris remained the formal capital of the French State, although the Vichy government never operated from there. Although the French Republic's institutions were officially maintained, the word "Republic" never occurred in any official document of the Vichy government.
Part of a series on the. Early Middle Ages. Middle Ages. Direct Capetians — Valois — Early modern. Long 19th century. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Vichy French Air Force. Further information: Foreign relations of Vichy France. Main article: Free France.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. May Map of French Somaliland, Main article: Vel' d'Hiv Roundup. Further information: Round up of Marseille. August See also: Sigmaringen enclave. Main article: Provisional Government of the French Republic. See also: Category:French collaborators with Nazi Germany. Pierre Pucheu in , who was executed in This " see also " section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 21 October Article 1: The form of the government of France is and remains the Republic. By law, it has not ceased to exist. Article 2: The following are therefore null and void: all legislative or regulatory acts as well as all actions of any description whatsoever taken to execute them, promulgated in Metropolitan France after 16 June and until the restoration of the Provisional Government of the French Republic.
This nullification is hereby expressly declared and must be noted. Article 3. The following acts are hereby expressly nullified and held invalid: The so-called "Constitutional Law of 10 July ; as well as any laws called 'Constitutional Law'; La vie musicale sous Vichy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. French Studies, University of Birmingham. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 18 June Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources — Oxford University Press.
Nord Princeton U. Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 1 July Payne Fascism: A Reader's Guide. Archived from the original on 27 September Stanford University Press. France: The Dark Years, — Archived from the original on 1 November Psychology Press. Archived from the original on 2 November Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 31 May Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 24 October Fordham University Press.
Cette Constitution doit garantir les droits du travail, de la famille et de la patrie. Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 11 August Paris: Seuil. Retrieved 17 January Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 16 March Naval Institute Press, , p. Archived from the original on 11 July Archived from the original on 28 September Revue d'Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine. Archived from the original on 21 July April Journal of Contemporary History. University of Chicago Press, ; the French edition appeared in Lee Ready , World War Two.
Nation by Nation , London, Cassell, page Vichy et l'ordre moral. Paris: PUF. Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 11 August — via Cairn. Michael Robert Marrus, Robert O.
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Paxton Archived from the original on 21 May Archived from the original on 22 July United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ushmm. Archived from the original on 6 May Archived from the original on 3 August Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 28 January Paris: L'Esprit frappeur.
Holocaust Memorial Museum online Holocaust Encyclopedia".
Archived from the original on 1 September The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 16 December Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 January BBC News. Archived from the original on 9 November Archived PDF from the original on 24 July Retrieved 17 July The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 January Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 5 December Paris: Le Seuil. Vichy — Join the journal on Facebook!
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