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Synopsis This modern classic of biblical scholarship explains what the apostles meant when they used such words as "redeem, " "covenant, " "propitiate, " "reconcile, " and "justify. Features new cover. This book, then, is not a full-scale study of the atonement, but a. Read preview Overview. Read Overview. Currents in Theology and Mission, Vol. International Bulletin of Missionary Research, Vol.

Theology Today By Reno, R. Torrey, a prolific Christian author and evangelist. Cyrus Scofield published the famous Scofield Reference Bible in after seven years of labor. From until the church remained stable and a tower of strength in the community. Prior to this, all improvements were done by subscription and monies were collected prior to making improvements.

Most of the people listed on the church roll of served in some capacity as Deacon, Clerk, Treasurer, Trustee, Deaconess, Organist or head of the Sunday School Department. In revival meetings were held with James O. Smith from November 28th until December This was called the Union Revival Campaign and the meetings were blessed with 10 converts. In a coal furnace was still in use and 5 tons of insulation was placed in the ceiling.

The men and boys did the work of excavating the basement in preparation for the new furnace. Seventh meeting--Aug. His report was accepted, but it was decided to hold the committee until all the collecting should be done. A note of thanks was then tendered to Dr.

Tiffany and Rev. After some discussion it was moved and carried that the money now in Dr. Tiffany's hands be paid over to L. There were 13 members present. After a scripture lesson from John 17, read by Mrs. Youngs, Deacon Isaac Winn took charge of the meeting which was one of interest and help to all. In the business meeting which was held immediately after the Covenant Meeting, Mr. Everett reminded us that we were in arrears on the insurance and the sexton's salary, also that we needed some coal.

It was decided to raise the money by subscription, but 'twas thought best not to do anything about it in the meeting. A note of thanks was given to Isaac Winn for his work and also one for Dr. Tiffany for their kindness and faithfulness in working for the church. Editor's note: Regarding changes to the roof: The original steeple was struck by lightning.

Photographs show the changes made to the building. Mirnell Youngs was authorized to do this work Youngs, Church Clerk"]. There were nine present at this meeting which was lead by Deacon Sherwood. The Scripture lesson was from the To Quote Hickox to Wm Bunzey; and asked if the church desired him to do so; after talking the matter over it was decided to let Mr.

In the covenant Meeting we had a letter from Sister Rose Rider and weekly calendar from the Cedar Avenue Baptist Church saying that she was welcomed there upon our recommendation, and we all unite in sending a greeting to our dear sister there. We discussed the question of a pastor, and decided that if the Colesville church were willing we would call Mr. Earnest Hughes of Port Dickinson who has been recommended to us by his pastor Rev.

Pert Gates to come to us for a trial. Several other matters were discussed among them the question of what ought to be done with the members who seem to have forgotten their duties, but no action was taken. Youngs -- Clerk The insurance was paid Oct. Photos Courtesy of the Youngs Family. Pictured below are photos of the interior of the church sometime between and The hanging oil lamps suggest these were taken before the electricity was added to the church. It is curious there are so many palms and this may suggest these photos were taken on Palm Sunday or perhaps when the church remodeling was dedicated in Another observation is the absence of the stained glass window to the right which was added in the remodeling.

In the center photograph, it appears the pulpit was directly in front of the crossed palms hanging on the wall. Photos courtesy of Youngs Family Collection. It is an important chapter in the life the little country church because electricity was brought to various outlying towns in Broome County between and It is not documented when electricity was actually installed in the First Baptist Church of Port Crane, but a huge remodeling effort was completed in No record has been found of this project.

Unfortunately, this may have been recorded in the lost Record Book II. Pastors of the church in this record book are as follows: Russell A. Smith J. It is as follows and is added for those who are seeking information in their family genealogy. Church Roll - Many of the active members were also pillars of the community. The structure remains a landmark today.

The home, owned by Isaac Allerton was built in Youngs, Church Clerk for many years and wife of Mirnell Youngs. Mabel, a photographer, and Maude were twin sisters of Jesse May Snow Youngs who operated one of the three general stores in the village of Port Crane. Jesse D. Ernest took over the running of the general store and also became the Town Fire Chief, Town Constable, ran the Volunteer Ambulance Service, became Broome County Fire Coordinator, and ran the local print shop to name a few of his responsibilities.

Youngs was a contributor to the church and often printed material for it. His wife, Dorothy was also an active member. He was a cousin to Mirnell Youngs. Mirnell Youngs served as Deacon, Trustee, and filled many positions in the church. Another active member of the church was Edward Hancock. Hancock ran a local dairy and milk route. His activity in the fellowship is well documented and he served as Trustee, Deacon, Board Member and filled in for many other areas of service to the Master.

He had two sons and one daughter who remained in the area. Clayton, Edward, Jr. Edward moved from the community, but Clayton and Jane Mandigo remained and attend to this day when they are able. Clayton's son, Barry, was commissioned from Port Crane to become a faithful missionary in Lima, Peru.

Barry's service was to establish and operate a Christian Radio Station in Peru for many years. His passing in was a heartfelt loss. Emeril T. Elizabeth Baker served as church organist and Gertrude Baker, a daughter, was elected pianist for a number of years. Again, the children and grandchildren of Emeril and Elizabeth Baker served the lord willingly and diligently during the 's through the 's and beyond.

Sanctuary was completely remodeled with pews turned toward the side, sloped floor installed, ceiling lowered, choir loft addition added, steeple straightened, front door moved to corner of building. Also note: electric pole in front and stained glass windows. Editor's note: Although the name of the church was changed for all practical purposes, the name change was never officially recorded with the Broome County Clerk's office.

Several name changes took place throughout the years but the name recorded at the Broome County Clerk's Office remains to this day as it was recorded in , First Baptist Church and Society of Port Crane. Church Roll The following was re-typed from the original hand written document. Below are some interesting photos.

Click on Photos to enlarge. From the appearance of the cars, it may be these photos were taken during the early 's. Wedding Party Unknown. Glimpses of Christian History Issue In President Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term in office. Meanwhile Adolf Hitler was building his Third Reich in Europe and intensifying his efforts to eradicate the Jewish people by constructing concentration camps such as in Auschwitz.

In Eisenhower was named Supreme Allied Commander; the Italians toppled Mussolini and in "Roosevelt was elected for a fourth time. The Allies invaded Normandy," establishing a new front towards the defeat of Germany. Discoveries and theories were being made in the field of science during this time also, including insulin , penicillin , nuclear fission , and DNA In "Roosevelt died and was replaced by Harry Truman. What was God doing to encourage his people and influence mankind?

John R. Rice evangelist began the Sword of the Lord publication in and in Rice began to organize evangelism conferences, which in became Sword of the Lord Conferences. MacArthur, Sr. Rice authored more than books and booklets, circulating more than sixty million copies before his death. In Jack Wyrtzen began his Word of Life ministry over the radio. He is credited with developing Bible clubs in over 1, churches and starting youth ministries in 37 countries. Their agenda was to form a working group that would become an organization known as "Youth for Christ International" which was born in Torrey Johnson was elected as its first president.

Oliver B. Greene conducted revivals across the United States for 35 years, wrote many books and preached a radio broadcast. God always has a people and will never abandon his followers. He is there in good times and bad, in times of war, depression and political upheaval to expose the dangers of sin and convert the hearts of the lost. And he began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears. There were 14 converts, 12 of which were baptized on Sunday evening, August 16 by Rev.

Halsey Morgan. Revival of the Saints of God and Conversion of the Unbelievers was certainly heavily upon the hearts of the church membership. The date of this photo is unknown. This may have been the first parsonage. Prior to this, some believe the preachers were housed in the H. It was located on Canal Street midway between the J. Youngs Store and the end of Canal Street across from the church. An early photo of that store appears in the Introduction section.

A new parsonage was built on Pleasant Hill Road in As recorded in the minutes of January , "The Randall property was purchased for a parsonage for our church. Owner Mrs. Loretta Tuck. William Donhken to a 3-way wiring system. The average attendance, including prayer meeting under Pastor Westbrook was It was a very active church. The Westbrooks were called to a different ministry in One of the young men who perished was from our little church, Jack Ottaway, Jr. He was just 22 years old when he was called home to heaven. In memory of Jack Ottaway, we leave this recollection for those generations to follow.

Jack was trained as a Radio Operator on a B25 Mitchell in the Pacific He was there one day and the pilot came into the room to ask for volunteers to fly with him because the regular Engineer on that flight was out. Jack volunteered to take his place. On takeoff, a B52 came in and they collided head on. Jack knew when he left for basic training that his wife was pregnant. Jack died in that tragic air collision in June of and his son was born the following January. The senior Ottaways always felt they were blessed to have their daughter-in-law and grandson living in the apartment above them.

This Bible was given by the Ottaway family in memorial to their son and brother. It is still located at the front of the church in front of the pulpit. It is opened to Isaiah Chapter 9 and verse 6 is marked in yellow, referring to Jesus Christ: "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. This addition of three photos and narrative was made in November of when Mr.

Jack Ottaway, Jr. From until Reverend Justin Dix pastored the church. His wife was Ruth Monell and they had one son, Neil. To this day both Jerry and Inez serve the Lord in this church. Jerry is still serving as a Board Member and is a Deacon. He has served the Lord in a leadership capacity for over 61 years. Inez can still often be found in the kitchen, faithfully doing the work of the Lord.

Two other faithful members from the 's were Harold and Agnes DeAnjou. Great is the Lord's faithfulness from generation to generation. From this point forward we can only endorse the words found in the Centennial Booklet published in "It would be wonderful to be able to list all the names of choir members, directors, and pianists who have served in past choirs, but now, such a record exists only with God. For we know that all talents and gifts are divinely inspired and all are needed to carry on the work of the Lord. We will attempt to highlight certain events and persons who took part in the preservation of the work which was begun at First Baptist Church of Port Crane.

Some of these people have gone home to glory, some have moved away, some are still active and many new saints of God have heard the voice of the Lord and filled the vacancies. Ladies look at the Missions Board. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Rice Biography. In a peace treaty was signed with Japan which ended World War II, and as the prosperity of the country increased, people generally felt it was a happier time. The television was a new invention in and a vaccine for polio was discovered in Eisenhower signed the amendment to add "one nation under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance. The 's were known as the Golden Years.

The European countries were rebuilding from the war which left the United States enjoying a time of prosperity with little to no competition in trade from the International community. Christianity was still widely embraced by most of society and even if people did not attend themselves, they raised little objection to the church being the "guardian" of our morals.

Little did anyone know his tenure would last 20 years. This was a very stable and enjoyable time for the folks at the church. Christine Kark was a long time member of the Port Crane Baptist church and served in many capacities. She was a prolific writer and often wrote short stories for occasions at the church. I have copied one of the shorter ones that she wrote in , and below is a selection she wrote and read to welcome the Braids to their new ministry at Port Crane. Tis with pleasure this evening we meet, Our new Pastor and family to greet. All ready you've won a warm place in our hearts And anxious we are, that we all do our part, To aid you in carrying on God's Work in Port Crane; And praying that many will Salvation obtain.

Among our congregation, you will find -- Edward Hancock, both faithful and kind. Mernell Youngs, whose counsel is wise, And Lydia Simonson, who always stands by. Lillibridge, our organist, we couldn't do without, And the Ottaway's are splendid, beyond a doubt. Sisters Brock and Steele are with us, heart and soul, in all we do The Breese's are fine and their singing is too.

Florence Baxter is ready to help, whatever the need, Dorothy Youngs, the Brinks, the Goulds are friends indeed. Many other fine folks we hold as sisters and brothers, Ever ready, they stand, to help one another. Reverend Braid, we think your sermons fine, A blessing to our hearts and food for our minds. May the challenge they give us each week, Make us earnestly desire, more souls to seek. For the more we serve the Christ we love More treasures we accumulate above. To Sister Braid, a tribute we bring For she's the one who helps us sing. So friendly and jolly, we all love you too, And wish you success, in whatever you do.

Little Miss Braid, you're five years old today, God's Blessing on your life we pray. May your sojourn with us, indeed be sweet, For happy Christian Fellowship, cannot be beat. Again we say We're for you one and all And very glad you came in answer to our call. This is a skit Christine Kark wrote for Watchnight Services in The room was moderately furnished, the family comfortably arrayed.

The father, not old, but more than middle aged, sat before the fire; God's Holy Word open upon his knee. Mother, a serene look upon her face was busily knitting a sweater. The children, four in all, were variously occupied. Bruce, the eldest, was whittling an airplane; Melanie, next oldest, sat at the piano softly playing an old hymn; Prudence and little Roger were on the floor, their heads bent over a jig saw puzzle.

THE APOSTLES' CREED

Suddenly, the father looked up addressing them all. Have you all picked your new scripture verses for the year? If so, let us hear them. Suppose we start with Mother. The mother looked up from her knitting, saying, "I decided this year to take I Timothy as my verse. I especially need patience with those friends of ours who are so worldly and so ready to criticize our attempts to show by our lives that all that really matters in this world is faith in Jesus Christ. Pausing in his whittling and with no hesitation the young lad replied: "I am taking last years verse over again. It was such a strength to me all through the year.

You all remember Ephesians l 'Put on the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil'. Going to high school, I find so many ways of temptation striking out at me. I trust that God will protect me from the devils ways and I'm sure that I will not be deceived by the devil and into his ways before I know it. In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths. During this time the jig puzzle had been forgotten but the two small children and they seemed eager to add their verses to those all ready given.

The little girl, only six, looked earnestly into the fact of her kindly parent.

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Mother says I can serve him by being a good girl and obeying older people. The little fellow in question smuggled up to his mother and found encouragement in her loving embrace. Shyly he said: The Lord is my shepherd, that's all I want. Tears came to the good fathers eyes as he said, "Though that was somewhat misquoted, how true it is. Surely if we have the Lord Jesus. He supplies all the rest and we'll want nothing more. As father finished he said, "now shall we all bow in prayer, that the Lord will sustain us through this new year; that we might hunger to see souls won to Him; that we share our neighbors' burdens and that all we do, we do to the Glory of the Lord.

Six heads were bowed, as softly each of the four older ones led in a short prayer; at the close of which Melanie struck the chord of Living for Jesus and all joined in singing this beautiful hymn. In the distance the bells, proclaiming the birth of a New Year, were heard. The End. The church prospered during these years as well and many ministries proved to be not only spiritually profitable, but fun for the congregation. During this time the Ladies Home Bureau was active in the community and many of the same church-going ladies attended the Home Bureau meetings.

Another active community organization was the Grange and many of our members served as members of the local Grange in Sanitaria Springs, NY. The Truth Seekers were a group of ladies who met to further the gospel and on December 27, a Tither's Association was organized beginning with a membership of 16 people. By there were 24 members who faithfully tithed on their incomes. The 's were a time of social turbulence. The drug culture emerged and "counter culture" was a popular term to describe the youth. Drugs were used in connection with transcendental meditation.

From this time on, the Christian church in the United States found it necessary to defend itself and Christian apologetics grew proportionately to its opposition. A young Catholic man, John F. Kennedy, was elected 35th President of the United States. During his short time in office, he had to deal with the Cuban Missile crisis, watch the Soviet Union put the first man in space, and witness the building of the Berlin Wall. In Martin Luther King, Jr. There were race riots in Los Angeles, and in massive protests against the military draft occurred.

In April of Time magazine printed their cover story, "Is God Dead" which sparked debate, but also ushered in a time of soul searching. That war sparked much interest in the possibility of Christ's imminent return. In Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. LSD a hallucinogenic drug had made its appearance in the 's. Also in , Neil Armstrong, a U. This decade was one of triumph and tragedy. God has always had a people! Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today and forever, and in the middle of the 's a young singer was becoming prepared to bring solace to a broken world through music.

Bill Gaither recorded "He Touched Me" in and went on to write and record over songs throughout his long career. God was at work and by the power of His Holy Spirit, revival fires were beginning to spring up. Word began to spread about the conversion of a gang member in New York City named Nicki Cruz and a book was published about his conversion in called The Cross and the Switchblade.

During this time, the First Baptist Church of Port Crane remained a strong lighthouse in the community with vision, love for the community, a love of missions, and an abiding faith in Jesus Christ. The Junior Church had a regular attendance of 20 children or more each week and the Young People met every Sunday night.

The teens met for a song service, time for testimony and Bible quizzing. They heard short devotional talks and spent time memorizing Bible passages. While sin was raging in the world, the Lord Jesus Christ was blessing the fellowship of believer's at First Baptist Church. Church membership stood at faithful attendees in During the decade of the 's there were 78 baptisms performed by Pastor Braid.

There were over sponsors for this celebration. In a new parsonage was built on Pleasant Hill. A new pulpit was installed in memory of Walter Pope in John F. Social turbulence continued worldwide during the 's. The Video Cassette Recorder VCR came on the market in and allowed movies to be rented and played in the home for the first time.

Prior to this, the traditional Baptist position had been not to patronize movie houses and not to add to the wealth of the "Hollywood" crowd. Wade, another matter of deep Christian concern. The Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, were tragically interrupted by an attack on Israeli athletes by members of a militant group called Black September with ties to Yasser Arafat's Fattah organization.

The terrorists killed eleven hostages, nine of them during a failed rescue attempt. Gerald Ford succeeded Richard Nixon as President in the summer of In a 7. This was called the deadliest earthquake of the 20th Century. In the first "test tube baby" was born in Great Britain. On March 26, , a peace agreement between Israel and Egypt was signed that President Carter facilitated. It was fueled by an Islamic revival that opposed Westernization of their culture and led to the re-emergence of sharia law and the taking of American hostages later that year.

The Christian events that followed were astounding. Amidst the controversy of abortion, women's rights, the sexual revolution and tumultuous events in the Middle East, grew a spiritual renewal that affected all Christian denominations. People were seeking answers to moral questions which led to an amazing number of bible studies, musical concerts and Christian political organizations such as the Moral Majority founded by Jerry Falwell.

At the same time television ministries grew in numbers, and through many of these television evangelists, people were looking for local fellowships to join. This was the beginning of "The Jesus Movement. In June of , Pastor Braid heard the call of God to another ministry and the congregation lost their beloved shepherd of more than 20 years.

God always has a plan! In September of , Pastor Gary Linebaugh answered the call to pastor the church. He was a young pastor with 4 young children and his wife, who served as pianist. The family was musically talented and all sang. Pastor Gary and Connie would often sing duets and the four children would sing as a group. Occasionally, the two youngest girls would sing together. The church began to grow and many young couples with children began attending. Brother Dale Linebaugh was a strong advocate for Christian summer camps and ranches and many young people began inviting friends and neighbors to church to introduce them to this "new life" in Christ.

This new life is a life of church-going and Bible study and Christian summer camping. A young married couples group began called "The 72 Group". The combined age of husband and wife was not to exceed The group grew from several couples to over 50 people who met monthly for prayer, Bible study, music and refreshments.

Truly, the Lord has been great in our midst, and His greatness has been unsearchable. Therefore, it is with great praise and thanksgiving that we share this report with you, of God's goodness to me as your pastor, and to the ministry God had given to us, here at Community Baptist Church. Little did we think that beginning on September 12, , through this present date, that God's blessings would be so bountiful upon this ministry.

We have had the joy of seeing 75 souls come to know Jesus Christ as Personal Savior, and as a direct result of the ministry of God's Word. Our Sunday School has increased from approximately 80 the first Sunday we were here, to a record high of Our Morning Worship services have been averaging , and we have seen many heart-searching decisions among our believers.

We truly believe that this is the result of Zechariah that " During the past several months, we have had many speakers that have blessed and challenged our hearts. I believe that we all truly rejoice in the true revival that God gave to us during our week of meetings with Brother Dale Linebaugh. Our constant prayer is that this spirit of revival may continue to flood and thrill our hearts in the days before our Lord's Coming" He continued Connie and the children join me in a great big thank you for your love, prayers and many thoughtfulnesses shown to us in these seven months.

And it is our prayer that our wonderful Lord will richly bless and multiply each of you and our ministry together, until our Lord returns. The church grew in numbers and it shortly became evident that First Baptist Church of Port Crane needed to expand. A Building Committee was formed and a new Christian Education Building was erected with more Sunday School rooms and nursery facilities. An overflow area was added to the sanctuary that seated an extra 60 to 80 people. During the year fiscal year it was reported that an On The Grounds Picnic was held, new hymnals were purchased, the steeple was straightened, the front steps were refurbished and a railing installed, the Faith Promise had been taken, a Missionary Conference had been held, a public address system had been installed and a telephone installed.

The Constitution was updated, the church joined the Independent Baptist League for baseball, and a new communion set of silver-toned aluminum was purchased. Paul Griffiths was the special speaker. Dinner was served in the new fellowship hall. Revivals do not come without a cost. The Scriptures warn us that the enemy of our souls goes about "seeking whom he may devour" I Peter King James Bible and new babes in Christ are a prime target.

Pastor Herman Stahl accepted God's call and he and his lovely wife, Barbara, and son Steve moved into the parsonage on Pleasant Hill that summer. That year Pastor Stahl performed eight baptisms and received twenty new members. Barbara Stahl became the church pianist, Tom Hall the assistant pianist, and Mrs. Alice DeAnjou became the Choir Director. The interior of the parsonage received a new coat of paint, and half the roof of the original building was replaced. The belfry was replaced and sided with aluminum.

Pastor Stahl, a genuine man of God, filled with anticipation and an exceptional command of the Word of God, worked diligently to feed the flock and nurture the babes in Christ. John Klinepeter held evangelistic meetings that Fall and 12 public decisions were made for Christ. Special meetings were held in the spring of with former concert violinist Rev. Rudolph Schmitt. New indoor-outdoor carpeting was installed in the foyers and the choir loft was repainted. Many former members of the church continued to serve faithfully and new babes in Christ along with a few seasoned Saints who came into the fellowship from other churches took up the work of the Lord.

In a license to preach was issued to James McBroom. The Friday night youth group had grown and a committee of eleven couples and two ladies was appointed. In , a very successful venture commenced with the start of the Eager Beaver program for 1st through 3rd graders, and the Junior Astronaut Youth Program for 4th through 6th graders. During the 's, television evangelists flourished. Others grew and stood firm.

This was a very trying time for all churches and many young Christians found themselves searching for sound doctrine. Some Christians grew in the Lord, some were challenged, and some fell by the wayside. Very few churches and very few pastors went untouched during these years. The moral decline continued and the fires of revival were beginning to wane.

During Pastor Stahl's tenure, the controversies surrounding discipleship and church doctrines during these difficult days took its toll. After two years of laboring, Pastor Stahl took leave of the flock at Port Crane and followed the will of the Lord to a different place.

Truly, He has been very faithful, in many ways, throughout the past year. Praise His wonderful Name! He relayed information on his special blessings visiting the sick, the shut-ins, counseling those in need and the fellowship he enjoyed at Port Crane. Let us occupy it is work, but nothing is too small, if for Him, we labor.

Jesus said, "He that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal; that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together. The search began for another to take his place. Finally in November of the Lord called a very young man, only 24 years old, to become shepherd of this group of believers. Sarah arrived later. Reverend Mark Smith had grown up in a parsonage and knew full-well the testing a man of God must triumph over. Even though he was young, he had interned in a church of over people in Indiana and came with high recommendations and confirmation of his genuine love for the work of the church.

Many programs were established or strengthened and by the end of the Youth Program was comprised of Jr. He had been scourged by Roman soldiers, whose cruel loaded weapons inflicted wounds that left deep scars upon His flesh and caused intense pain and exhaustion. His hands and feet had been fixed to the cross with nails. He had been crowned with thorns and mocked and hooted by a reckless mob.

He had been hurried from the Sanhedrim to the Judgment-hall, and had carried the cross until He sank beneath its weight. He had for six hours endured intense suffering from pain and thirst, and when, after a strong Roman soldier had thrust a spear into His side, He was taken down from the cross, and declared by the centurion and his company to be dead, He was laid without food, and remained for two nights and a day, in a cold rock-sepulchre, whose door was barred by a great stone, sealed, and guarded by soldiers.

Suppose for a moment that Jesus had survived this terrible ordeal of suffering, and that, having eluded His Roman guard and His Jewish persecutors, He had again entered into Jerusalem, it must have been as a weak, disabled invalid, not as a man possessing normal strength and vigour. Yet on the third day He showed Himself alive, bearing no traces of the suffering He had endured except the marks of His wounds. The feet that had been pierced bore Him from Jerusalem to Emmaus, a journey of threescore furlongs; and He passed from place to place with a swiftness of movement and a superiority to obstacles that filled the disciples with amazement.

In the light of these facts, the view we have been considering is utterly untenable. It is no matter for wonder that Jesus, after such exhaustion, died six hours after He had been lifted up on the cross. The circumstances which preceded His dying are not consistent with the opinion that while in the sepulchre He recovered from a swoon. It is not possible to conceive that a man, wounded and bruised—His hands, feet, and side pierced with nails and spear—could appear so soon, bright and radiant, strong and vigorous, undistressed by pain or weakness, and possessing power of movement not only restored, but marvellously augmented.

If Jesus was not really "dead," no explanation can be given of His disappearance from history. If He had really lived as a man after His crucifixion, we should have looked for a fresh outbreak of persecution directed against Him. We have His own testimony by the Spirit, "I am he that liveth, and was dead.

Isaiah thus prophesied regarding the burial of the Messiah: "He was cut off out of the land of the living It was the Roman custom to leave the bodies of slaves and criminals, who alone were subjected to this punishment, suspended on the cross, a prey to beasts and birds, and when these and the elements had done their work upon the flesh, the remains were ignominiously cast out. The Jews, who inflicted capital punishment not by crucifixion but by stoning, did not thus deal with the bodies of malefactors; but, as the law directed, gave them burial on the night of execution.

The Jews could not themselves dispose of the bodies, because they would have sustained pollution by contact with them, and also because they had made over to the Romans the execution of the death-sentence. He came and went in boldly unto Pilate and craved the body of Jesus, securing for it an honourable burial such as the Jews had not contemplated.

Pilate "gave" the body to Joseph, and he bought fine linen, and took Him down and wrapped Him in the linen and laid Him in a sepulchre, which was hewn out of a rock. It was a new sepulchre, "where never man had yet lain. They, too, made ready spices and ointment with which to honour the body of the Lord; but when they came to the tomb on the morning of the first day of the week, they found it empty, for Jesus had risen.

It is not without meaning that the tomb in which the body of Jesus was laid was a new one. It was thus impossible to affirm that any other than He had opened a way out of its dark recess, the conqueror of death. Such was the wonderful combination of circumstances that led to the fulfilment of Isaiah's prophecy, "He made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death. When they besought Pilate to remove the bodies, they wished that Jesus and the malefactors should be laid together.

If the Jewish rulers had not parted with their right to dispose of the bodies, the three who had been crucified together would have been consigned to the burying-ground set apart for the interment of Jewish criminals; but it was the Divine decree that Jesus should make His grave with the rich, and therefore the event was so overruled that the bodies of Jesus and the malefactors were at the disposal not of the Jews, but of the Roman governor, who delivered the body of Jesus to the rich Joseph. While, therefore, Jesus was executed in such a way that, but for the intervention of the Jews and Pilate and Joseph, He would have been buried with criminals, "he made his grave with the rich in his death.

Joseph and Nicodemus were timid men. The one was a secret disciple and the other, through fear of the Jews, came to Jesus by night. Though members of the Sanhedrim, they had lacked courage to defend Jesus when He was under trial; but now, grown bold, they identified themselves with Him.

The sepulchre was carefully watched. The Jews, thinking that they might hear something about the resurrection of Him whom they called "that deceiver," went to Pilate and made known their fear that the disciples would steal His body and say that He had risen from the dead. It is somewhat startling to find in the Creed this statement regarding our Lord, "He descended into hell. It does not appear in the Nicene Creed, but it has a place in the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, where we read, "As Christ died for us, and was buried, so also it is to be believed that He went down into Hell.

The word "hell" is used in various senses in the Old Testament. Sometimes it means the grave, sometimes the abode of departed spirits irrespective of character, sometimes the place in which the wicked are punished. In the English New Testament, also, the word "hell" has not in every place the same meaning.


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It represents two different nouns in the original Greek—Gehenna and Hades. Gehenna was the name of a deep, narrow valley, bordered by precipitous rocks, in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, which had been desecrated by human sacrifices in the time of idolatrous kings, and afterwards became the depository of city refuse and of the offal of the temple sacrifices. The other noun, rendered by the same English word Hell , is Hades , which means "covered," "unseen" or "hidden.

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The Jews believed it to consist of two parts, one blissful, which they termed Paradise —the abode of the faithful; the other Gehenna , in which the wicked are retained for judgment. Lazarus and Dives were both in Hades, but separated from each other by an impassable gulf, the one in an abode of comfort, the other in a place of torment. As long as the spirit tabernacles in the body there are tokens of its presence in the visible life which is sustained through its union with the body.

But when it departs from its dwelling-place in the flesh, death and corruption begin their work on the body. Death is complete only when the spirit has departed, and it is probable that this statement in the Creed was meant to express in the fullest terms that Christ's death was real. As man He had taken to Himself a true body and a reasonable soul, and when His body was crucified and dead, His spirit passed, as other human spirits pass at death, into Hades.

It is not without a meaning that we read, "When Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he gave up the ghost. It was with His spirit that His last thought in life was occupied. He knew that though it was to depart from the battered, bruised tabernacle of His body, it was not to pass out of His Father's sight or His Father's care.

The descent into hell is not referred to in the Westminster Confession, but in the Larger Catechism this statement is found: "Christ's humiliation after His death consisted in His being buried, and continuing in the state of the dead, and under the power of death, till the third day, which hath been otherwise expressed in these words, 'He descended into hell'" [] What the Westminster Divines meant was, that while Christ's body was laid in the grave His spirit passed from the visible to the invisible world, that, as He shared the common lot of men in the death and burial of His body, so He shared their common lot in passing as a spirit into the abode of spirits.

The statement of this clause follows naturally what is said of the body of Jesus in that which precedes it. As His body was crucified, dead, and buried, so His spirit passed into the abode of spirits. Those who maintain that the spirit of Christ descended into hell in a sense peculiar to Himself, ground their opinion upon certain passages of Scripture. Psalm xvi. It expresses the confidence of the speaker, that God will not deliver His soul to the power of Sheol the Hebrew word equivalent to the Greek Hades , or suffer His body to see corruption, and in this sense the passage is quoted by Peter, as a proof from prophecy of the resurrection of Christ.

Ephesians iv. Paul's argument is that ascent to heaven must have been made by one who, before ascending, was below. Christ had come down from heaven to earth, and was below therefore, he argues, Christ is the subject of the prophecy he has quoted. He it was that hid ascended up on high, not the Father, who is everywhere. In Isaiah xliv.

The most difficult and important passage bearing on the clause is 1 Peter iii. The passage marks an antithesis between "flesh" and "spirit. His enemies killed His body, but His soul was as beyond their power. His body was dead, but in the abode of souls His "spirit" was alive and active. So far there is here simply the statement that our Lord's disembodied spirit passed to Hades, but the Apostle adds that He "preached to the spirits in prison," and it is inferred by some that He preached repentance, but this is an assumption for which there is no Scripture warrant.

We are not told what was the subject of Christ's preaching. He had finished His work on earth, had atoned for sin, had overcome death and conquered Satan. Even angels did not fully know the work of grace and salvation which Christ accomplished for man, and it is not likely that the spirits of departed antediluvians and patriarchs understood its greatness.

The least in the Kingdom of Heaven knows more than the greatest of patriarchs or prophets knew. While in the flesh they had seen His day afar off, and, as disembodied spirits, they knew that Messiah by suffering and dying was to work out their redemption, but before the work was finished neither men nor angels understood the mystery of it, and what is more likely than that the completion of His redeeming work was first made known to them in the spirit by the Redeemer Himself?

If we accept this view, the preaching to the spirits in prison was the intimation to those already blessed, who had while on earth repented and believed, that Messiah by dying had brought in everlasting salvation for His people. There is still a difficulty in Peter's words.

Christ is said to have preached to those who were disobedient in the days of Noah. Peter says that in the writings of Paul there are some things hard to be understood, but what he himself writes regarding Christ's work in Hades is also difficult, and the passage has found a great variety of interpretations. It would seem to imply that Christ in the spirit carried a special message to the antediluvians who had been disobedient and had perished in the Flood.

What that message was we are not told, and human conjecture may not supply what the Spirit of God has seen fit to conceal. While the passage is a difficult one, the inference is not warranted which some have drawn from it, that those who are disobedient to Christ and reject His Gospel may, though they die impenitent, nevertheless obtain salvation after death.

The plain teaching of Scripture is that it is appointed unto men once to die, and after that the judgment. Romanists teach that the department of Hades to which the spirit of our Lord descended was that in which dwelt the souls of believers who died before the time of Christ, and that the object of His descent was the deliverance and introduction into heaven of the pious dead who had been imprisoned in the Limbus Patrum , as they term that portion of Hades which these occupied.

This they say was the triumph of Christ to which Paul refers in Ephesians iv. According to the Romanists, Hades consists of three divisions—heaven, hell, and purgatory. Heaven is the most blessed abode reserved for three classes of persons:—1st, Those Old Testament saints whose spirits were detained in custody until Christ arose, when they were led out by Him in triumph; 2nd, Those who in this life attain to perfection in holiness; and 3rd, Those believers in Christ, who, having died in a state of imperfection, have made satisfaction for their sins and receive cleansing through endurance of the fires of purgatory.

Hell is the abode of endless torment, where heretics and all who die in mortal sin suffer eternally. Purgatory is supposed to complete the atonement of Christ. His work delivers from original sin and eternal punishment, but satisfaction for actual transgression is not complete until after the endurance of temporal punishments and the pains of purgatory. The Church of Rome claims the right to prescribe the nature and extent of such punishments, and having devised a complicated system of indulgences, penances, and masses, professes to hold the Keys of Heaven and to possess authority to regulate penalties and obtain pardon for the living and the dead.

Such claims are unfounded and false. God alone can forgive sin, and He recognises only two classes—the righteous and the wicked—here and hereafter; and only two everlasting dwelling-places—heaven and hell. The Romanist doctrine has no authority in Scripture, but is of heathen origin, being derived from the Egyptians through the Greeks and Romans, and having been current throughout the Roman Empire.

Its effect has been the aggrandisement and enrichment of the papal priesthood and the subjection of the people. It contradicts the Word of God, which declares that there is no condemnation to the believer in Christ Jesus; that he hath eternal life; that for him to depart is to be with Christ, to enjoy unalloyed, unending blessedness. Protestants, therefore, hold that "the souls of believers are at their death made perfect in holiness, and do immediately pass into glory.

Between those who hold the doctrine of purgatory and believers in universal restoration, there is not a little in common. Universalists reject the Atonement, and say that God always punishes men for their sins. The wicked must expect to suffer in the next world, but the mercy of God will follow them, the punishment endured will in time effect deliverance, and the result will finally be the restoration of all to purity and happiness. They thus maintain with regard to all, what Romanists hold respecting those who pass to purgatory, and both are to be answered in the same way.

We cannot make satisfaction, and we need not, for Jesus has borne "our sins in his own body on the tree. This clause has place in the Creed as a protest against the heresy of Apollinaris, a Bishop of Laodicea, who taught that Christ did not assume a human soul when He became incarnate. He thus denied the perfect manhood of Christ, and in support of His doctrine appealed to the fact that the Scripture says, [] "The Word in Greek, Logos was made flesh," "God was manifest in the flesh," while it is never said that He was made spirit.

He sought to establish a connection between the Divine Logos and human flesh of such a kind that all the attributes of God passed into the human nature and all the human attributes into the Divine, while both together merged in one nature in Christ, who, being neither man nor God, but a mixture of God and man, held a middle place. His heresy found many supporters, though it was promptly met by Gregory Nazianzen, who showed that the term "flesh" is used in Scripture to denote the whole human nature, and that when Christ became incarnate He took upon Him the complete nature of humanity, untainted by sin.

Only thus could He be qualified to become man's Saviour, for only a perfect man can be a full and complete Redeemer. Man's spirit, his most noble element, stands in need of redemption as well as his body, for all its faculties are corrupted by sin. In affirming that Jesus descended into hell, this clause of the Creed declares that He possessed the complete nature of humanity; that His true body died, and that His reasonable soul departed to Hades.

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On the morning of the first day of the week, thenceforth hallowed as the Lord's Day—the Christian Sabbath—the soul of Jesus left Hades, and once more and for ever entered the body, and formed with it the perfected humanity of the "Word made flesh. The close-sealed, sentinelled sepulchre, the broken seal, the stone rolled away, the trembling guard, the empty tomb, and the many appearances of Jesus to the women, the disciples, the brethren, and last of all to Saul of Tarsus, prove that He had risen. The Resurrection was a fulfilment of Old Testament prophecy. Peter thus interprets Psalm xvi.

The Apostles had not grasped the statements of Christ in such a way as to lead them to look with confidence for His return, or to gather hope of His resurrection. On the contrary, they did not expect His resurrection, and, when they heard of it, they could not believe it to be real. Although the preaching of "Jesus and the Resurrection" exposed them to persecution and martyrdom, they nevertheless continued to proclaim a risen Lord.

Peter makes a similar statement: "We are begotten again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ. He is proved to be the Son of God by His resurrection from the dead. The life of Paul is an unanswerable argument for the truth of the Resurrection. Not only did he preach this as the central doctrine of Christianity; he maintained it at the cost of all that, before his conversion, he had held dear. He was not a man to give his faith to such a doctrine without overwhelming evidence of its truth.

As Saul of Tarsus he had been in the fullest confidence of the Jewish rulers, and knew all that they could urge against the reality of the Resurrection, but their arguments had no weight with one who had seen the risen Lord on the way to Damascus. The importance of the Resurrection of Christ as an argument for the Divine origin of Christianity is recognised alike by those who receive and by those who reject it. Negative criticism has assailed the doctrine and has devised ingenious theories to explain on natural grounds the testimony on which it is received.

The diversity of such explanations goes far to refute them, and their utter failure to account for the marvellous effects which the appearances of the risen Jesus produced on the witnesses, or for the place which the doctrine held in their teaching, has tended rather to establish than to discredit the reality of the Resurrection.

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Various sceptical theories, to which much importance was attached for a time, are now almost forgotten. The Mythical theory fails to account for the immediate effect produced by belief in the Resurrection. Myths require time for their growth and development, but the disciples of Jesus set the Resurrection in the forefront from the very first.

On the day of Pentecost Peter sounded the keynote of Apostolic preaching when he declared, "This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. Another view of the testimony for the Resurrection has found advocates who claim that it explains, without having recourse to supernaturalism, the belief of the disciples and others in the doctrine. With some minor differences of detail, they agree in attributing the persistency of those who said that they had seen Jesus alive, to the impression produced on them by His wonderful personality.

This, they hold, was so strong that the effect continued after His death, and the disciples saw visions of Him so vivid that they believed them to be real appearances. He had filled so much of their lives while He was with them, that they were unable to realise His departure, and retained His image in their hearts continually. Exalted and excited feeling projected His figure so that they saw Him apparently restored to life. A theory such as this will not stand, in the face of the evidence for the Resurrection.

It was no subjective impression, but the Saviour Himself, that brought conviction to the minds of the numerous witnesses. It was no apparition, it was a body that they saw and handled and tested and proved to be of flesh and blood.

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They heard their Master speak, and saw Him eat; and at frequent intervals for forty days He showed Himself to them. Sometimes He was seen by one, sometimes by many; and before His ascension He charged them to carry on the work He had committed to them: to feed His sheep, to feed His lambs, to go into all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature.

What they saw was the true body of their Lord, the same that had been crucified, dead, and buried, but a marvellous change had passed over it. It was now possessed of spiritual qualities, suddenly appearing, suddenly vanishing; now felt to be made of flesh and bones, and now passing through closed doors, or walking upon water. It was no longer subject to natural law as it had been before the Resurrection; and when the disciples beheld the Lord, they had not only proof of His continued existence, of His being God as well as man, and of God's seal having been set upon His atoning work,—they had also an intimation of what life hereafter will be for His followers, who shall be like Him, for they shall see Him as He is.

How full and widespread was the belief in the Resurrection of Jesus in the hearts of those who were its witnesses, is apparent not only from the fact that the great theme of their preaching was "Jesus and the resurrection," but is also evident from the importance they attached to the Lord's Day and the Lord's Supper. These institutions have a direct connection with the Resurrection, the former having been substituted for the Jewish Sabbath expressly on the ground that on that day the Lord rose; the latter, while it commemorates His death, sets forth also His resurrection life.

Forty days after His resurrection Jesus charged the Apostles, in the last words He is known to have spoken on earth, to testify of Him throughout the world, and assured them that they should receive power through the descent of the Holy Spirit. This last-recorded utterance called His Church to missionary enterprise: "Ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth. We are told that, when Jesus had spoken these things, "He led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.

And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. Ascension is the completion of Resurrection. The act thus foreshadowed in the type was accomplished when our great High Priest passed into the heavens, and "entered not into the holy places made with hands, which are the figure of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us.

The Ascension took place in open day and in the sight of the Apostles. Unlike the Ascension, the Resurrection of Christ took place unseen by mortal eye. Eye-witnesses of His rising from the dead were not needed. The fact that they had seen Jesus after He rose qualified them to be witnesses of His Resurrection, but it was only because they had seen Him taken up that they could bear personal testimony to His Ascension. Thus our Lord "ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty.

To sit on the right hand is an honour reserved for the most favoured. At God's right hand our Lord entered into everlasting and perfect glory and dominion. Being one with the Father, all that is the Father's is His. He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, having an eternal life and all the fulness of the Godhead dwelling in Him bodily. The Father Himself gave Him the place at His right hand, having highly exalted Him and given Him a name which is above every name.

None can dethrone Him or successfully plot against His kingdom. No weapon, carnal or spiritual, can ever prevail against Him. It is this that gives to Christianity its stability and power, for Christianity is Christ Himself sitting at the right hand of God. The ascended Christ exercises absolute authority and unlimited dominion.

The Father on whose right hand the Son sits is, in this clause, as in that which stands at the beginning of the Creed, termed the "Father Almighty. In the earlier clause, the word so rendered signifies God's supreme, universal dominion, while here the word employed denotes the fact that His power and operation are always efficacious and irresistible, and that all things are under His absolute control. This word "Almighty" warrants the belief which the clause declares, that the Son, sitting on the right hand of the Father, possesses absolute and universal power, and that in executing His office as Mediator none can resist or oppose Him.

The word "sitteth" is expressive not so much of the attitude as of the settled and continuous character of Christ's exaltation. The prophet, as teacher of the revealed truth, held office in Old Testament times; and when Jesus entered on His public ministry, it was as a Divinely-accredited teacher that He claimed to be received. He brought out of His treasury things new and old, and exhorted men to hear, believe, and obey Him. By His words and His life, He made known the will of God for man's salvation; and when He was lifted up upon the cross, it was to the end that, by the sacrifice He offered and the truth He taught, He might draw all men unto Him.

He brought life and immortality to light, and since His departure He has not ceased to be the Teacher and the Guide of all who receive Him. His word abides with us, and His first gift to the Church after He rose was the Holy Ghost, who came to lead men to all truth. When the Lord ascended on high He received gifts for men, "and he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ.

Our Lord does not indeed now appear in visible form, speaking face to face with men as He did in Palestine, but He speaks in and through every believer who in His name seeks to win souls for His Kingdom. Paul recognised this when he wrote to the Corinthians, "Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God.

In His exaltation, Christ executes the office of a Priest. The functions of the Jewish high priest were not limited to the offering of sacrifice. When he had made an end of offering, he carried the blood of the victim into the Holy Place and made intercession for the sins of the congregation. As the mediator between God and His people, he thus foreshadowed the work of Him who is a "priest for ever, after the order of Melchizedek,"—succeeding none, and being succeeded by none, in His priestly office. As the high priest's work was partly without and partly within the Holy Place, so Christ's priestly work is twofold, consisting of His satisfaction for sin upon earth and His intercession in heaven.

After having as our great High Priest offered the sacrifice of Himself, He passed into the heavens. There He makes continual intercession for us. At the right hand of God He exercises kingly prerogatives also. He was anointed to the royal office at His baptism, when the Holy Ghost descended on Him. He must reign until all His enemies are under His feet. This clause of the Creed points to the future. As those who saw Jesus ascend stood gazing up, two heavenly messengers in white apparel appeared and said to them, "This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.

He comforted them by the statement that His going away was expedient for them. The time of Christ's return to judgment has not been revealed. Cruelly persecuted by Jew and Gentile, it is no wonder that Apostles and other believers associated the second advent with emancipation and victory, and termed it "That blessed hope, the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.

In his second Epistle to the Thessalonians Paul set himself earnestly to counteract their teaching. He indignantly repudiated the doctrine attributed to him, apparently in connection with a forged epistle, and he supplied a test by which the genuineness of his letters might be proved. The mistake of the Thessalonians has often been repeated. Attempts have been made to fix the time of the Lord's second coming, and the work of predicting goes on busily still. Enthusiasts and impostors have been more or less successful in finding credulous followers. Again and again the progress of time has falsified such predictions, but would-be prophets have not been discouraged by the blunders of their predecessors.

All men, quick and dead, are to be brought before the Judgment-seat, the faithful that they may be raised to everlasting blessedness, and the wicked to be dismissed to everlasting punishment. Paul describes the events of the great day of Christ's appearing as it will affect the saints. The most awful descriptions of the Judgment, as it will affect the wicked, are given by the Lord Jesus Himself.

In Matthew xxv. The virgins that go out to meet the Bridegroom, the servants with their talents, the Judge dividing all brought before Him as a shepherd divideth the sheep from the goats, are warnings of the certainty and severity of judgment, and of the doom reserved for the ungodly. As man, He became subject to human conditions, and was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin. Our Judge knows our frame, our temptations, our weakness, our difficulties; and in the Judgment, as in His life on earth, He will not break the bruised reed, or apply to men's conduct a harsher measure than they have merited.

Judgment will begin at the house of God, and sentence on the ungodly will be severe in proportion to knowledge, privilege, and opportunity. Men will be judged by their works, and in this doctrine of Scripture there is no opposition to that of justification by faith. Men cannot be justified by their own works, but if Christ be in them and the Spirit of God dwell in their hearts, then, being dead to sin, they follow holiness. The distinction between the children of God and the children of the devil is this, that the former class bring forth the fruits of righteousness, and the latter the fruits of sin.

The words "I believe," implied in every clause, are here repeated, to mark the transition from the Second to the Third Person of the Trinity. While this doctrine underlies all the teaching of the Old Testament Scriptures, it was yet in a measure not understood or realised by the Jews, and as Christ came to make known the Father, so to Him we owe also the full revelation of the Holy Spirit.

Prophets and Psalmists had glimpses of the doctrine, but they lived in the twilight, and saw through a glass darkly many truths now clearly made known. While we speak freely of spiritual life, our conception of it is so vague that we are apt to overlook, or to regard lightly, the work of the Holy Spirit in redemption.

The disciples of John, whom Paul met at Ephesus, believed in Jesus and had been baptized, and yet they told the Apostle that they had not so much as heard whether there was any Holy Ghost. That the Holy Ghost is a Person, and not, as some hold, a mere energy or influence proceeding from the Father, or from the Father and the Son, is apparent from the passages of Scripture which refer to Him.

An energy has no existence independent of the agent, but this can not be maintained with reference to the Holy Ghost. He is associated as a Person with Persons. In the baptismal formula and in the apostolic benediction the Holy Spirit is spoken of in the same terms as the Father and the Son, and is therefore a Person as they are Persons.

He is said to possess will and understanding. He is said to teach, to testify, to intercede, to search all things, to bestow and distribute spiritual gifts according to His will. The Holy Ghost addresses the Father, and is therefore not the Father. He intercedes with the Father, and so is not a mere energy of the Father. Jesus promised to send the Spirit from the Father, but the Father could not be sent from or by Himself. It is said that the Spirit when He came would not speak of Himself—a statement that cannot apply to the Father; and while Christ promised to send the Spirit, He did not promise to send the Father.

He is "another Comforter," who speaks and acts as a person. The arguments for the distinct personality of the Holy Ghost prove also that He is God. The baptismal formula and the apostolic benediction assume His Divinity. The words of Christ with reference to the sin against the Holy Ghost imply that He is God, and Peter affirms this doctrine when, having accused Ananias of lying to the Holy Ghost, he adds, "Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God.

Divine properties are ascribed to the Holy Spirit. Jesus was conceived by the Holy Ghost, and, because of this, though born of a woman, He was in His human nature the Son of God. The Father gave the Son, and accepted Him as man's Sinbearer and Sacrifice; the Son gave Himself, and assumed human nature that He might suffer and die in the room and stead of sinners, and the Holy Ghost applies to men the work of redeeming love, taking of the things of Christ and making them known, [] till they produce repentance, faith, and salvation.

The Father's gift of the Son and the Son's sacrifice of Himself are of the past; the work of the Holy Spirit has gone on day by day, ever since the risen and glorified Redeemer sent Him to make His people ready for the place which He is preparing for them. It is through Him that we understand the Scriptures, and receive power to fear God and keep His commandments. He comes to human hearts, and when He enters He banishes discord and bestows happiness and peace.