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Denmark too was associated with leding ships. A number of places that were sheltered natural havens in.


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One of the main aims of Viking shipwrights was to make the light, flexible, and strong. The floor timbers were often shaped. Complete stem- and stern-posts were sometimes, perhaps normally, stored under water for a while to. Detailed analysis of Skuldelev 3 has. Traces of ship-repairing are shelters called nausts, large. Harbours and Landing-places Snekke-havens were one type of place where ships assembled and were repaired; coastal market-places were another.

Navigation The navigational techniques of the Vikings were developed sheltered waters of Scandinavia by. Scandinavians used the same methods of navigation on their more extensive voyages into distant waters,. The Vikings thus had a number of methods of navigating that required no more than experience and careful observation. They also accumulated a great deal of information about the prevailing. Viking Age. The expansion of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes certainly brought the clinker-building tradition to England, to Frisia. Normandy and the British Isles shipbuilding was greatly influenced by The Norman ships depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry at the end.

In England a distinctive type of clinker construction was in use until the tenth century. Later this. Dublin excavations have provided evidence of ships built not only there but also at other places bordering the Irish Sea,. With the progress of Christianization and the gradual establishment of kingdoms of a west European type, ships gradually lost the privileged status that they. The ship became a tool of trade carved details disappeared to be replaced by.

Viking Age Scandinavians travelling in Europe must have become acquainted with Christianity, and even in the era there were contacts. Some of these poems are didactic dialogues revealing mythological knowledge. Some Eddic poetry. The twelfth-century renaissance awakened a new interest in skaldic poetry in.

He gives ingenious Latin translations of old Danish poems about heroes and gods and recasts myths into In. Nordic religion transmitted to us by medieval authors consists of learned constructions with no reliable basis. Similarities between Christian literature. Serpent was based on the account of Christ's battle with the sea-monster Leviathan; the god Baldr was modelled. The poems must have presupposed a generally accepted conception of the world in which divine powers had well-defined properties and functions,. One example is the myth of the death of Baldr, the.

All the gods then shoot. Danorum offers a third version. Saxo incorporates HpSr and Baldr into the history of Denmark and turns the myth into a crime of passion over Nanna who, according to Snorri, is Baldr's wife. Saxo, like Vpluspd, has the story about the third brother who was born to avenge, and he relates that Odin begat him by stratagem with a Russian princess.

This element was also known to Icelandic skalds; with them, however, the Saxo's Gesta. Pre-Christian sources each use part of it. Only Vpluspd has the complete sequence, but in the broken and enigmatic form characteristic of Viking- Age. Viking-Age man, so rationally,. World Tree is paralleled by the tree in the middle farmyard, which made for continuity from one generation to the. However, cosmos was based on a dimension running from the near to the.

Thus the family of giants was created. Another primeval being was the cow Audhumbla. Its udder fed Ymir. The cow licked salt rocks and in three. His flesh became the earth, his bones the mountains, his blood the ocean, his skull the firmament, and his brain the clouds. Ymir's family, the giants,. This concludes the account of the beginning of the world. The gods have created an ideal condition,. The most recent research in the history of religions has, however, provided good reasons for regarding the myth of the recreated.

This applies not least to the recognition of everything in the sary part of it. German bishop Thietmar of Merseburg there is a similar account of human beings and animals being sacrificed a hundred years earchronicle by the. Snorri also relates that the chieftain blessed the drink. Norwegian king Erik Bloodaxe was married to the beautiful Gunnhild who lived in the farthest north with people skilled in magic.

In another tradition. An eddic poem refers to a land of the dead belonging to the goddess Freyja, and towards the end of the Viking Age we hear about Odin's Valhalla, 'the hall of the slain warriors'. In the tenth century some Scandinavian men were buried with horses and riding-gear. These finds have been interpreted in the light. There are utensils for housekeeping and cooking, beds and bed-linen, looms, pots and vessels, and objects of art whose meaning eludes is. Archaeological excavations have revealed that the chamber in the north mound was emptied soon after it was thus marked a break with the earlier burial custom.

Shortly after the pletion of this. Romans nor the Franks conquered any part of Scandinavia. Charlemagne's empire stopped at the southern border of Denmark, and his programme of Christianization extended no further. It was his son, Louis the Pious, who first. There are two accounts of the conversion of Harald Bluetooth. About a century later Adam of Bremen claimed that Harald's conversion. In the face of such a threat, Harald's claim. Olaf effectively completed the change of religion tion of evangelization, force, Stiklestad in there to the.

Olaf Tryggvason sent his missionary Thangbrand to Iceland, but did not succeed in converting the Icelanders. Like Harald Bluetooth on the Jelling stone, Ari asserts the independence of the country by stressing that the deci-. In Iceland the conversion was the chieftains' decision under pressure from the Norwegian king. Thus, in his poem Sonatorrek Egil Skalla-Grimsson rebukes Odin because his son was drowned: he regarded this as a breach of. Christ was one among several gods there. He also asked Thor to show him where to build his new farm, but he named it after Christ. Christianity implied a greater distance from God and a new kind of This explains.

Times of fasting were ing of horsemeat was banned. Rules about. God was the injured party, and punishment belonged to him. The king sagas konungasogur were the first to be to suspicion. Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. The family sagas Islendingasogur are generally later thirteenth century ; they have for their dramatic gists as well as.

Their ship is boarded by. Germany and the British Isles, where he makes huge Viking conquests, wins enormous wealth, and marries a couple of beautiful foreign. She then plots a conspiracy against him, involving both the Swedish and Danish kings together with the son of Earl Hakon. Olafs famous dragon. The bowstring of the Serpent's great archer, Einar,. Typically these things. Reformation, exiled by King Gustav Vasa for their refusal to abandon their Catholic faith in favour of Lutheranism.

Challenged by Saxo's impressive. Historia degentibus septentrionalibus History of the Nordic Peoples, , enthusiastically describing the ancient life. During this period the runic inscriptions from the Viking Age, as well as the Icelandic sagas, as historical sources llel. Enlightenment and the Nordic Renaissance The enlightened eighteenth century brought a temporary end to this kind of historiography and also to the Great Power status of both Sweden and.

In the latter half of the eighteenth century,. Sublime art was now defined by these young rebels as the art that violated the conventional rules of harmony, correct measure, and balance. Mallet , a Swiss citizen of Geneva employed in the s as Professor of French at the University of Copenhagen. In he published his. He edited the society's journal Idnna named after the Old Norse goddess who provided Valhalla with the apples of immortality , publishing not only antiquarian articles about various aspects of Viking culture. The horn was decorated by the artist Bengt Fogelberg.

In the second trast to the first. The Viking Scandinavia as a model society. In his opinion, the. This is probably one of the main reasons why Frithiofs Saga became a success not only with Swedish educators, who made the text obligatory reading in schools, but also with the pious court circles of. Grundtvig, who was a passionate enemy of bookish learning and despised traditional.

A third well-known Webbe George Dasent, made flattering comparisons between the Vikings and his own Victorian contemporaries: eral interest in the arts. Richard Wagner in the Ring des Nibelungen , a stunning operatic extravaganza based. Old Norse Thing The plot was often taken from the Edda or the Viking world, and the idea was to create.

A more radically critical. Modern historians and archaeologists have generally not tried to present the. Vikings as great national heroes or as glorious leaders of exciting military adventures, but rather as competent but fairly unglamorous tradesmen, colonists, shipbuilders, craftsmen, mercenaries, or alas plunderers.

Bengtsson Orm and Toke have carefully concealed under their tough appearance, are suddenly revealed when one of the king's servants. Orm and Toke, like Hagar the Horrible, seem to have become popular as comic It is. In , according to the Annals ofStBertin,. Netherlands and north-western France were converted into desert', or that the Vikings caused 'political disintegration.

One of the aims of this book has been to provide a more balanced picture. The Vikings undoubtedly destroyed much and caused widespread disruption,. The main purpose of the Viking raids, at first the only one, was to acquire treasure by plundering, extorting protection. Those in the coastal regions were not so fortunate. The efforts made by Charles the Bald to defend the central part of his kingdom meant, in effect, that the Frankia survived with. Some may have been permanently no means of telling how many. In areas that control or were quickly recovered, some commu-. Physical damage could be made good, but the loss of estates deprived them of the resources.

Welland, or in East Anglia. Diocesan organization was also disrupted by the Scandinavian conquest, although the archbishops of York stayed in their see,. Scandinavian enterprise. The descendants of the Scandinavians who settled England, Ireland, Frankia, and Russia were quickly assimilated, but in the. It was presumably founded by a magnate who visited Jerusalem after the first. In England place-names certainly indicate the areas that It is,.

Thanks to this larger surplus, farmers, Scandinavian increased. Scandinavia Scandinavia was radically transformed during the Viking Age. By the end of the eleventh century the process of Christianization was well advanced in The Vikings contributed to these changes, but so too did traders, missionaries, and royal envoys.

He was remembered as the first king actively to encourage Christianity in Norway and there may be some truth important religious consequences. Hakon abandoned Christianity is supported by the poem Hdkonarmdl, composed in his memory, which implies that Hakon had, at least for a while, accepted Christianity personally, but had not made any serious effort to impose it on his people. The early progress of Christianity in Norway has been obscured by the emphasis later put on the role of Olaf Tryggvason, who was undoubtedly an active supporter of the new reliSnorri's claim that.

Before Christianity was publicly accepted, missionaries must have. By the end of the eleventh century Christianity had begun to affect all levof Scandinavian society. The church introduced a new language, Latin, and a new script, the Roman left. Their government was made more effective by such Danes and Norwegians. The rapidly expanding towns of western Europe needed timber and other raw materials as well as the preserved food that Scandinavia could supply. In the early twelfth century,. General surveys Although the general works listed here contain comments and additional information on many of the topics discussed in this book, they are not repeated in the further reading suggested for later chapters.

Peter Foote and D. Wilson, The Viking Achievement 2nd edn, London, , the fullest account in English of Scandinavian society in the period John Haywood, The Penguin. Historical Atlas of the Vikings Harmondsworth, survey with helpful maps. Europe Copenhagen, , the very instructive and lavishly trated catalogue of an exhibition held in Paris, Berlin,. Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings 1st edn, London, questioned assumptions then generally accepted about the Vikings. Trade from the Late 6th to the Late 8th Centuries ad', Acta Archaeologica, 55 , , an important article, of much wider significance than its title.

Walken, Christopher 1943–

The first three items are translations of some of the most important, and frequently cited, sources. Nelson on 'Kingship and Royal Government' pp. Janet L. Nelson, Charles the Bald London, , discusses Viking activity and reactions to it against the background of the other concerns of the West Franks. Ages Cambridge, , useful maps which make it easier to visualize and to follow the course of events during the reigns of Alfred the Great pp. Keynes and M. Loyn, The Vikings in Britain London, , a judicious discussion which. Richards, English Heritage Book of Viking Age England London, , especially strong on those aspects of the subject which turn on the examination of archaeological evidence.

Documents c. Alfred's struggles against the Vikings, but the value of the. Hall, English Heritage Book of Viking Age York London, , an excellent survey of the material excavated from sites in Coppergate and elsewhere in York, set most effectively into a general account of the development of the city as a , further. Lund, 'King Edgar and the Danelaw', Medieval Scandinavia, 9 , , an interesting paper which seeks to elucidate the history of the Danelaw against the. Southampton, , instructive and decorative.

Clarke, P. Irish and Norse Traditions about the Battle ofClontarf Haarlem, an important study of Clontarf in history and literature. O Corrain, Ireland before the Normans Dublin, surveys the Viking period in the context of general Irish history,. Wamers, Insularer Metallschmuck in wikingerzeitlichen Grdber Nordeuropas. Colleen E. Batey, Judith Jesch, and Christopher D. The Book of Settlements: Landndmabok, trans. Haraldur Bessason Winnipeg, John Tucker Odense, , a translation of a work published in.

Noonan on coin evidence for contacts between Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Brisbein ed. Constantine Porphyrogenitos, De Administrando Imperio, ed. Moravcsik, trans. Samuel H. Cross and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor Cambridge, Mass. Alexander A. Janet Cooper ed. Encomium Emmae Reginae, ed. Alistair Campbell Royal Historical Society, London, , text and translation with a most valuable and detailed discussion of its. Niels Lund, 'Scandinavia, c. Alexander R. Rumble ed.

Birgit Sawyer, Peter Sawyer, and Ian. The Battle of Maldon ad Oxford, , an edition and translation of the poem with articles on its historical and literary background. Viking Ships: Their Ancestry and Evosomewhat outdated, this is still the most significant monograph in English on the Norwegian ship finds. Ole Crumlin-Pedersen ed. Ole Crumlin-Pedersen and Max Vinner eds , Sailing into the Past: The International Ship Replica Seminar, Roskilde Roskilde, , a valuable, if no longer up-to-date, introduction to the rapidly expanding field of experimental historic. Michael Muller-Wille, Bestattung im Boot: Studien zu einer Nordeuropaischen Grabsitte Neumunster, , although 25 years old, this work is still the authoritative study of the Scandinavian custom of boat burial, with a comprehensive catalogue of boat graves and related types of grave monument.

Peter Foote Copenhagen, Sven B. Jansson, Runes in Sweden, trans. Peter Foote 2nd edn, Stockholm, , two works that provide a good introduction to the evidence of the runic. Gro Steinsland, Dethellige bryllup ognorron kongeideologi Oslo, , a detailed myth in its social context, including the thesis that kings descended from gods and giants. Gro Steinsland and Preben Meulengracht Sorensen, Mennesker og makter Vikingenes verden Oslo, , a survey of Viking society, religion, culture, and analysis of a. Thor J. Tredje riket Stockholm, , a brilliant discussion in Swedish of Nazi aesthetics and its use of Viking symbols.

Johan Mjoberg, 'Romanticism and Revival',. Stefanie von Schnurbein, Religion als Kulturkritik: Neugermanisches Heidentum im 20 Jahrhundert Heidelberg, , a fascinating dissertation about modern fundamentalists who worship Vikings and the Old Norse gods. Erica Simon, Reveil national et culture populaire en Scandinavie: La genese de la hbjskole nordique Uppsala, i , a very thorough dissertation about the rise of the Grundtvigian folk high school and its use of Old Norse Viking.

Godfred, king of the Danes, forces the Abodrites to pay tribute, destroys Reric a trading centre in Abodrite territory , and transfers its. A large Danish fleet attacks Frisia and imposes tribute Godfred assassinated and succeeded by makes peace with the Franks. Hemming dies and after a violent conflict is succeeded by his kinsmen Harald and Reginfred as joint kings; they confirm peace. Anskar consecrated bishop of the newly created see of Hamburg which the pope converts into an archbishopric. The monks of St-Philibert abandon Noirmoutier and seek permanent refuge on the mainland, finally settling in at Tournus in Burgundy on the.

Lothar grants Walcheren to 'the pirate Harald' as reward for his help against Louis the Pious. The Mercians, with West Saxon support, besiege Nottingham, but are forced to 'make peace', and the Vikings return to winter in York. One part under Halfdan returns to Northumbria and winters in the Tyne valley. The other part, under three kings, moves to Cambridge and winters.

The Vikings from Cambridge invade Wessex, successively occupying Wareham and Exeter, but make peace with Alfred and, for the first. The Vikings withdraw from Wessex and winter in Gloucester. They take control of north-east Mercia and begin to settle there. Ceolwulf remains king of 'English' Mercia, extending from the Welsh frontier to London. Guthrum's force moves to East Anglia and begins to settle there. Before his death in Guthrum, as king of East Anglia, agrees a treaty with King Alfred, defining the boundary between English and Danish territory.

The Franks besiege Vikings in their fortification at Asselt on the Meuse, but the Emperor Charles the Fat agrees to pay them tribute, and grants territory in Frisia to Godfred. Sigfred continues campaigning in. Godfred tricked by the Franks and killed; the army divides, one part returns to England and unsuccessfully besieges Rochester, the other, under King Sigfred, unsuccessfully besieges Paris.

Soon afterwards from the Loire, led by Hasting, arrives in the Thames estuary. The West Saxons and Mercians regain control of most of the occupied by the Danes south of the Humber. Edmund cedes territory north of Watling Street to Olaf Guthfrithsson, who dies later in the year and is succeeded at York by Olaf, son of. Harald Bluetooth dies of wounds received in a rebellion against him, and is succeeded by his son Sven Forkbeard. Brian is killed in the battle. Edmund's defeat in battle at Assandun England is partitioned between Knut and Edmund, who retains Wessex. After Edmund's death on 30 November Knut is recognized as king by the English, who agree to pay a tribute of 82, pounds c.

Denmark is invaded by a coalition of Norwegians and Svear under Olaf Haraldsson and Anund Jacob, and are opposed by Knut in the battle. Winchester and is succeeded in Denmark by Harthaknut, his son by Emma; Magnus, son of Olaf Haraldsson, is recognized as king of Norway dies in. Edward the Confessor dies; Harald Hardrada claims the succession but is killed on 25 September in the battle of Stamford Bridge; Harold Godwinesson is killed in battle near Hastings on 14 October; on 25 December William, duke of Normandy, is crowned king of the English.

Sven Estridsson sends a fleet to support English resistance to William, but the Danes are unwilling to confront him. Diarmait described as 'king of Wales and the Isles and of Dublin' dies and is succeeded by Tairdelbach, grandson of Brian. Hemming, Danish king d. Odense ; , , Odin , , , , , , Odo, count of Paris, king d. Or in the words of a Manx folksong, 'war-wolves keen in hungry quest', who lived and died by the sea and the sword? This hook, by leading international scholars, considers the latest research and presents an authoritative account of the Vikings and their age.

Excavations as far apart as Dublin and Newfoundland, York and Russia, provide fascinating archaeological evidence, expertly interpreted in this extensively illustrated hook. Its chapters cover the different geographical areas of the Viking world, trace the Viking story from the first and run' raids on isolated coastal communities towards the end of the and 'hit eighth century to the establishment of permanent settlements and their The Viking was put to amongst interaction with local cultures.

From sagas to shipbuilding technology, from funeral rituals to fur-trading, The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings offers a comprehensive and absorbing overview of Viking activity Peter Sawyer is and the Viking legacy. Within the UK, exceptions are allowed in respect of any fair dealing for the stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in purpose of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 19X8, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency.

Includes bibliographical references 1. Sawyer, Peter. That all in is periods, are perhaps most our knowledge of more prominent in discussions it first of the Vikings than place, the vast range of Viking activity means that depends on a great variety of sources that and in very different circumstances, at different times, Old English, Old Norse, Arabic, and Byzantine Greek, few, if all topics in medieval history.

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There are several reasons for this degree of uncertainty. In the duced not agree on not surprising: differences of interpretation, which occur in any, scholars have mastered all in were pro- Old Irish, as well as Latin. As these languages, any discussion of Viking activity as a whole depends to some extent on translations that are themselves interpretations and runic inscriptions dinavia or in maybe unreliable. What is more, apart from no texts were written before the eleventh century in Scan- many of the areas in which Scandinavians settled in the Viking Age.

Great weight has, therefore, been put on the histories written in Scandinavia and the Scandinavian colonies in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries that are discussed in Chapter Although few scholars as reliable still War accept these texts sources of information about the Viking Age, traditional accounts of the period that have been based on them continue to influence discussions of the subject.

Historians of Scandinavia, the Atlantic Islands, and Russia in the Viking Age now rely in recent decades more on archaeology and numismatics, disciplines that have made remarkable contributions to our understanding of the period, even in parts of contemporary texts, Europe that are relatively well provided with for they cast light on many topics about which the texts are silent. Both material remains and coins can also furnish valuable dating evidence.

Remains of timber structures can, closely dated made it in suitable circumstances, be by the pattern of annual growth rings in the wood. This has possible, for example, to discover when some ships were built, and to date the various stages of the construction of Danevirke. The lack of contemporary texts particularly affects rides; there for example, disagreement is, began to occupy these Even little in Orkney, Shetland, and the Hebabout when the Scandinavians islands.

Place-names provide the best evidence for this colonization but, as emphasized in Chapter interpreted in very different ways. Normandy and The fact that Ireland is Scandinavian much England cannot be taken to prove that fewer Scandinavians less than in settled in those colonies than in England. Discoveries dence made in the future evi- may help to settle some disagreements; they will certainly enlarge our understanding of the period VI and the re-examination of familiar in ways that cannot be foreseen.

To avoid confuforms commonly used in mod- 1 he forms of personal names vary in contemporary texts. Such in the index.


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In ters 9 and 10 different Old Norse forms forms are identified are used for and names that do not occur Chap- in other chapters. They plundered extensively in the British Isles and the Frankish empire and even attacked the Iberian peninsula and north Africa. In the ninth century they gained control of most of the Hebrides, conquered bases on the Irish coast and across the Irish Sea. Orkney, Shetland, and a large part of England, and established from which they launched attacks within Ireland Men and women from west Scandinavia emigrated to settle, not only in the parts of the British Isles that were then under Scan- dinavian control, but also in the Faeroes and Iceland, Atlantic islands that had previously been uninhabited.

In the also last years of the tenth century they began to colonize Greenland, and explored North America, but with- out establishing permanent settlements there. The Scandinavian assault on western Europe culminated in the early eleventh century with the Danish conquest of the English kingdom, an achievement that other Scandinavian kings attempted to repeat later in the century, but without success. Other Scandinavians, mainly Svear from what active in eastern Europe in is now east Sweden, were ways that were very similar to those of their con- temporaries in western Europe, despite the great differences between the two regions.

In the east there were no churches or well-established towns to plunder, but the invaders exploited the wealth of the region, principally furs and slaves, by seizure or by exacting to gain control what is now tribute. Some of their leaders were able of centres of power, and Scandinavians emigrated to north Russia. In eastern Europe the Slavs called the Scandinavian invaders Rus, a word derived from the Finnish name 'rowers' or 'crew of oarsmen'.

Arabic and Byzantine Greek the ninth century which for the Svear, it It was texts, itself 'Rus', variants of used to describe a word meaning which were used was only the English who, occasionally, many in which eventually gave Russia its name. In invaders Vikings, a Scandinavian word that is came from now has a called the wider meaning, and aspects of Scandinavian society in what is com- monly called the Age of the Vikings.

The first Viking raids reported in western Europe were in the of the eighth century, on monasteries in the British Isles. They were apparently modelled on English coins, but tain it is were made in uncer- whether they in Frisia or Denmark. Northumbrian monastery, probably Jarrow, was year later. In 79s Vikings attacked on Skye and lona Ireland. The first in the One in , was also on an on Noirmoutier, near the estuary of the early incident that did not involve a reign of Beorhtric, king of the ships, later described as in the west: Hebrides, and on Rathlin off the north-east coast of recorded raid on the Continent, island monastery, St-Philibert's Loire.

The crews of three from Hordaland the south coast of England and in Norway, landed in Portland on who mistook them killed a royal reeve for merchants. There must also have been raids on south-east England although none is at this time, reported until As early as the churches of Kent were obliged to contribute to defences against pagan seamen, and in the nunnery of Lyminge, an exposed site near Romney Marsh, was granted land within the walls of Canterbury as a refuge.

Across the Channel, in 8oo, Charlemagne organized defences along the coast north of the Seine estuary against pirates who ported before vian pirates clear that 'infest the Gallic sea'. Why the Raids Began It has often been suggested that the main cause of Viking activity was the pressure of increasing population in Scandinavia and the consequent short- age of land there.

That may have been partly true of western Norway, where there were few reserves of land, but in other parts of Scandinavia there hint of population pressure is no on the eve of the Viking period. Most of the first generations of Vikings were seeking wealth, not land. It is true that during many Scandinavians emigrated, but few did so out of necesmore likely that most of those who settled in the British Isles, Ice- the Viking Age sity. It is land, or Russia were attracted by the prospect of having more land than they could ever hope to own or rent in Scandinavia. A key factor in the outburst of piracy was, in fact, the commercial expansion in north-west Europe that had begun over a century before the first reported raids.

Towards the end of the seventh century a significant increase of trade between the Continent and England led to the development of several relatively large trading centres: Dorestad on the Rhine, Quentovic near Boulogne, and, in England, Hamwic the precursor of Southampton , Fordwich the port of Canterbury , London, Ipswich, and York.

In the background Lake Malaren is covered with ice and to the left site faster after about , when the Frisians obtained a very large stock of silver from an unidentified source and produced from it a huge supply of coinage that quickly spread throughout the Continent and in England. Scandinavia and the lands round the Baltic were soon affected by this the fort overlooks the grew even of development, for the produce of that region, particularly its furs, was highly the settlement which was surrounded by a wall, part of which can be seen beyond the cemetery in the prized in western Europe.

Merchants could summer to buy furs, skins, areas with the sail and other produce, such east of into the Baltic in the as amber, eiderdown, foreground. Already in the first years were established of that century such a centre had been founded at Ribe on the west coast of Jutland, and by mid- century there were others around the Hedeby at the Baltic, the most important being head of Schlei fjord in south-east Jutland, Birka in Lake Malaren, and Wolin near the estuary of the Oder. Most of the produce tribute offered for sale in such places from the Saami, Finns, and producing areas.

Ottar secxN north of Norway and took tribute from the Saami: That tribute consists of the skins of beasts, the feathers of birds, whale-bone, and ship-ropes The made from walrus-hide and sealskin. Each pays according to highest in rank has to pay fifteen marten skins, five reindeer skins, his rank. The main wall of Danevirke, seen from the south-west. About ten kilometres of this barrier defending Jut- land was constructed in or soon Below.

Timber foun- dations to support the face of Danevirke in marshy ground. Each of these from a jacket of bearskin or otterskin, must be sixty ells long, one made of walrus hide, and two the other seal. He also hunted walrus for their tusks, for elephant ivory, as well for their skins. Over a century before Ottar's time, Scandinavians tribute in Finland and north Russia, which continued to be the main source of high-quality furs in Europe for centuries. By ad this activity, vians, had gathered similar at the latest a base for with a mixed population of Finns, Slavs, and some Scandina- had been established at Staraja Old Ladoga on the River Volkhov, some 8 kilometres from its estuary in Lake Ladoga.

Thirdly, merchant ships in the Baltic provided opportunities for pirates who were in North Sea. Those rulers and chieftains who who time tempted to extend their There were also political activities into the were best able to exact tribute gained wealth and power, as did those controlled the trading centres, or the routes leading to them.

The alternative channel into the sund, was less attractive, partly of the threat of piracy; it 0re- because of strong currents, but also because was not the end of the tenth century. Baltic, directly controlled by Danish kings until There are various indications that the first in half of the ninth century Danish kings were acknowledged as overlords by many of the local the lands rulers and round Skagerrak and Any who were unable could choose exile, a to Danish submit to prospect it made more by the opportunity to win fame and fortune by taking part Viking Kattegat.

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This district was of great value, for it was there that the Danes could obtain the iron duced in Norway. Made in , as that men from than accept Danish overlordship. Vikings in the West Ships based in the sheltered waters of At first most of the Vikings who operated in the north and west of the British Stavns Fjord could quickly cross the Isles were from Norway. There is no contemporary record of Scandinavian Orkney, Shetland, or the Hebrides in the early ninth century, but island to intercept activity in vessels sailing across archaeological evidence suggests that there were contacts between its west coast.

The shaded circle shows the limit of visibility in clear weather from the highest point m on Hjortholm Stavns Fjord. From and Orkney as were extensive Norwegian settlements Northern in Samso over 50 m both Jutland and Sjaelland Norway By the mid-ninth century there in the Hebrides as well as in the colonization that could only have been possible after any Isles, a resistance by the native inhabitants had been overcome, presumably by force. It therefore likely that the Scandinavian conquests in the Northern 26 higher ground on early as the seventh century. Isles began with the establishment of bases by the leaders of the The Danes and the Channel coasts.

Norwegian zones was blurred Danes challenged Norwegians dence clearly shows that it in the middle of the ninth century when in Ireland, archaeological was predominantly Danes who England and that most of those who occupied land and the Northern Isles and were from Norwav. Dorestad, a major trading centre about 80 kilo- gilt-bronze harness metres from the open and in each of the next three mounts, some of which are illustrated West Saxon army here.

This cemetery, sea, was raided years. In the Isle of Sheppey in was ravaged and in the was defeated by Vikings who landed on the north coast of Somerset. In the which was same year Vikings began the seventh century to and the monks to plunder monasteries in the interior of Ireland the beginning of the of St-Philibert abandoned Noirmoutier to seek shelter in the Loire valley. Scan- dinavians also took advantage of internal conflicts elsewhere in western Europe.

In Ireland too there were alliances between Vikings probably earlier. It and Irish kings, certainly from and was, however, Frankia that offered Vikings the most rewarding opportunities. In , during the war that broke out between the sons of Louis after his death, churches and towns in the Seine valley were is The im- that Borre was a power centre before and during the first Saxons, and in had monumental mounds, the largest nine between Louis, the Frankish emperor, and welcomed from in use Age.

When which then crossed the fleet war ended with the division of in the Frankia into three kingdoms, the Vikings had discovered that monasteries and towns on navigable rivers were vulnerable and that the Franks were sometimes prepared to pay large sums for the sake of peace. In an attack on Paris was prevented by the payment of bullion worth 7, pounds of silver: for the Vikings an unprecedented tribute. By the end of the decade ish not surprising that before of Vikings were attracted to Frankia. Camargue on Frank- Even the Rhone valley was plundered by a fleet that sailed into the Mediterranean lished a base in the A Viking fleet another did so in the later in and estab- the south coast of Frankia.

The West Frankish kingdom suffered most; the others were not so seriously disrupted by Vikings, despite the existence of many promising targets in the valleys of the Rhine and Meuse. These rivers were, in effect, protected most of the time by other Vikings who were based near their estuaries as allies of the rulers of that part of Frankia. Although the main arena of Viking activity in the middle years of the century was Frankia, the British Isles continued to suffer raids. In England one of the main objectives was the estuary of the River Thames.

In a wintered on Thanet, near its mouth, and based there or further upstream on the for several years Vikings Isle of Sheppey. Vikings began to winter in Ireland earlier than they did in England, Neagh and that a year later in were constructed fleet were first in on Lough Dublin, in one of several defended ship enclosures in that year.

Before long there were Viking bases at Wexford, Waterford, Cork, Limerick, and elsewhere, from which the surrounding areas were plundered. The booty included ornaments and elaborate caskets, but Irish monasteries as those of Frankia were not so rich in gold, silver, and gems and England. Captives, who could be sold to Muslims Spain or north Africa were far more valuable. The Vikings in in these bases were, of course, not land-bound: the Dublin Vikings launched several expeditions across the Irish Sea Dumbarton, the and in , after a siege capital of the British returned to Dublin with Picts in captivity', a 'a of four months, captured kingdom of Strathclyde.

The great multitude of men, English, reminder of the importance of human victors Britons, and booty. The Vikings based in Ireland were far from united, and rivalry between them was complicated by the in arrival of Danes in to challenge the Dublin and elsewhere. In subsequent years great pleasure Norwegians recorded with many battles between these invaders.

By there had been profound changes 10 Irish annalists in Frankia and England. In Charles, king of West Frankia, began systematically to defend the heart of his kingdom. He had bridges enemy passage of ships, built across the Seine and he fortified and Loire to hinder the towns and abbeys. The lower reaches of those rivers, together with other coastal areas, were, in effect, to the mercy of the many years. These changes in encouraged many Vikings to concentrate on England instead of Frankia. Several Viking leaders joined forces in the hope of winning status and inde- pendence by conquering England, which then consisted of four kingdoms.

In a fleet landed in East Anglia and was joined by others to form later contemporary chronicler described, with good reason, as a 'great army'. Five years later this army, by conquering two kingdoms, Northum- what bria a and East Anglia, and dismembering a third, Mercia, controlled much of eastern England, mained intact from York London.

Only one kingdom, Wessex, to re- and independent. For several years after the Viking army made determined, but unsuccessful, efforts to began to grant conquer Wessex, and between and estates in the conquered areas to its leaders their principal followers, who in turn distributed land to any of their men who wished to settle. These had colonists which they a profound effect on dialects settled; their influence on and place-names in the areas in the farming vocabulary and field- names confirms that many were, indeed, farmers. At much the same time as members of the 'great army' were settling in England, other Scandinavians, mainly Norwegians, began to colonize Iceland.

The existence of this island had long been known, but nobody lived there before the ninth century, with the possible exception of a few Irish Christians, who may have established religious communities, as they did on other Atlantic islands. Icelanders later claimed that their ancestors emigrated in order to escape the tyranny of Harald Finehair, tionally is remembered as the first who was tradi- king of a united Norway.

This explanation unsatisfactory because the emigration to Iceland began before Harald's time. Although lack of reliable evidence earlier developments in makes it impossible to say what part Norway played in the movement to Iceland, Irish annals suggest that Scandinavians based in Ireland had reason to look for new homes nent bases in the second half of the ninth century.

By establishing perma- in Ireland the Vikings lost the advantage of mobility, and dis- putes between different groups meant that they were unable to present a united front of the kind that proved so effective in England. They suffered many defeats. In they were expelled from north of Ireland and a Viking base at Youghal all their strongholds in the in the south was destroyed.

Whether the colonization was begun from the British Isles or from Nor- way, reports of the opportunities offered by that unexploited land must have spread rapidly and tempted about sixty years Later arrivals most of the land had many to look for new homes suitable for settlement there. After had been claimed. For such people the discovery in the tenth century of apparently better sites in south-west Greenland was welcome, and towards the end of that century some began to move on, to found the most remote permanent Scandinavian settlement were, eventually, According to some which there farms.

Several voyages to it a fertile Greenland in region they called Vinland are reported, but the natives proved to be unfriendly and permanent settlement was not possible. Remains of buildings of this period with traces of temporary occupation by Scandinavians, Meadows near the northern tip of Newfoundland, appear to have been a base camp for exploration.

There is, however, no reliable evidence to show how much further south or up the St Lawrence river found at L'Anse aux Greenlanders went. The break-up of the 'great army' after its failure to conquer Wessex coin- cided with renewed succession disputes in Frankia. Vikings were quick to and from to several Viking armies were active on the Continent, occasionally combining forces.

At first take advantage of such dissension, they concentrated on the area north of the Seine, including Flanders, where cities and monasteries had not been fortified, and in there was a major incursion up the Rhine to Cologne and Trier.

taicleanoscie42's soup

This led the Franks once again to protect that river Another, more sures by allowing a Viking army to control effective, its estuary. These mea- had some success. In the main army divided into two and each part returned to an area of earlier Viking activity, the Thames estuary and the Seine valley.

After the former group had failed to take Rochester, returned to the Continent, while others joined forces with Danes earlier settled in East Anglia. Although the city's The Seine Vikings besieged some who had Paris that winter. During these cam12 paigns huge quantities of plunder and tribute, and taken, but the Vikings also suffered some defeats Saucourt, in against the Bretons, and in in many captives, pitched battles, were in at near Louvain.

Alfred had learned the lesson Frankia and had constructed a network of fortifications the Vikings, having failed to gain even a foothold in the areas of England not already under Scandinavian control, abandoned and built a fleet. In the attempt. In the divided, words of the contemporary Chronicle: 'The Danish army one force going into East Anglia and one into Northumbria; and those that were moneyless got themselves ships and went south across the sea to the Seine.

Another group of Vikings was allowed to settle in the neighbour- hood of Nantes in , apparently to protect the Loire, but that arrangement lasted only sixteen years. The Viking occupation of Rouen proved perma- nent and was the basis of the later duchy of Normandy, which at its full extent included the Cotentin peninsula in the west.

Place- and personal names show that some of the Scandinavians who mandy came from tions that settled in the west of Nor- Celtic regions, probably Ireland, some had spent some time The other main development and there are indica- in England. The earlier Scandinavian kings, none of whom ruled York for long, had been mem- bers of the dynasty that regained control of Dublin in Whatever justification there was for such a title, the fact that his descendants were so closely associated with York lends some support to the suggestion that he was one of the leaders of the 'great army' that seized the city in For most of the tenth century the opportunities for Vikings Europe were limited.

The Scandinavians who had settled in western in the British Isles and Normandy did not welcome newcomers, unless they had money. In Iceland the first settlers had taken the best land. The most promising targets for raids were well defended by armies. Vikings could still fortifications or relatively well organized hope to these are reported until the last profit from hit-and-run raids, but few of two decades of the century. Only large-scale invasions offered any hope of significant gains, but for most of the century no large Viking armies operated in western Europe. One reason was proba- bly that potential leaders were then engaged in internal conflicts in Scandinavia.

The East The decrease in Viking activity in western Europe may also have been partly because there were better opportunities to gather wealth in the there had been great changes since the eighth century. A hoard of Islamic coins deposited there in about suggests that the resources of the region were by then being exported to the Caliphate. For over years Facing: over 2. Don and Volga, were paid for huge numbers of which have been found in eastern Scandinavians also had dealings with the Byzantine empire.

In they attacked Constantinople and by the tenth century that city was an important market for Rus traders. The Rus had, however, already reached Con- contained Arabic, Byzantine, English, and Frankish a in silver coins, either directly across the Cas- Europe. In that year the Frankish Annals ofSt-Bertin report the arrival at the court of the Frankish emperor of envoys from Theophilus, the Byzantine emperor. They were accompanied by Svear 'who said that they meaning him by their whole people their king called Rus [Rhos] and had been sent whose name was Khan [Chacan], ship, so they claimed'.

Gorodishche, with both and Scandinavian inhabitants, soon became an important centre the growing trade in Russian produce in both western The amount for and eastern markets. This enabled the Samanid vast quantity of coins, commerce, and the Vikings been Russia ninth, silver who found earlier. This significant for the early tenth century than for the numbers of Scandinavian graves have been found in Facing, above: Remains found at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland are good evidence that Scandinavians had settled in who Green- land reached North America early in the eleventh century.

The largest of these cemeteries was near Smolensk, with 3, or early eleventh centuries, more at its tributary, the Gnezdovo, on the upper Dnepr, graves dating from the late ninth to the some of which certainly house men and women of Scandinavian descent, and which include boat-burials of people of high Traces of several turfbuilt houses were found, on which these reconstructions are based. L'Anse aux Meadows was apparently a base for the exploration ot the region, but was status.

Although the rulers of Kiev, Scandinavian descent, by the end of the century they had been slavicized, change that is clearly reflected in their altera few years. The prince of Kiev from acing, below: [eufosse in the river Seine, about halfway between Paris and Rouen, seen from the south. Part of a tenth- was named century silver hoard considered Rus, a term that was by then no longer used specifically for Scan- from Gnezdovo, on the upper Dnepr, near Smolensk.

Coin hoards vian and Slav styles. The after fact that for some about very few Islamic coins were imported into Scandinavia, although they continued to reach Russia, ties came from graves hoard. It contained a great mostly Svjatoslav. Nevertheless, he than before, suggests that in the first if in smaller quanti- half of the century much of the sil- ver reaching Scandinavia was acquired in ways that were not possible The most satisfactory explanation is that later.

If so, that success was partly due to the Scandinavian warriors, called varjagi in Slavonic Varangians in modern 16 English to later who were recruited by Rus princes in the tenth century. According Kievan tradition, Svjatoslav's son, Vladimir, prince from to reduced his retinue of varjagi early in his reign by sending the Byzantine empire. This is confirmed by Byzantine evidence that force of warriors, later called varaggoi, sent emperor to crush by Vladimir , many of them to in , a large enabled the a serious rebellion.

Thereafter Varangians, Slavs as well as Scandinavians, played an important role in the Byzantine army, and later formed the imperial bodyguard, the Varangian Guard. One of the most famous members of this elite was Harald Hardrada before he became force king of Norway in The Conquests of England Increasingly effective opposition in the east may well have been a factor in the renewal of Viking raids in western Europe towards the end of the tenth century. Another incentive for Scandinavians to seek profitable exile as Vikings was the revival of Danish power under Harald Bluetooth and his son, Sven Forkbeard.

It is unlikely to be a coincidence that the two main periods of Viking activity in western Europe began towards the end of the eighth and the tenth centuries, when Danish kings were extending their authority to neighbouring parts of Scandinavia. The leaders of several, apparently independent, Viking armies that operated in England after are named in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and in Swedish runic inscriptions, but the most important was Sven Forkbeard. Sven's son Knut returned his father vE,thelred's death, He had won. By the end of the following in year, after he was recognized as king by the English, The Danish con- quest of England did not put an end to the threat of Viking attacks, but the fleet that Knut maintained proved to be an effective deterrent.

Knut died in and was succeeded in turn bytwo sons. In , after both were dead, the English chose yEthelred's surviving son, Edward, king. Nevertheless, several later they had a claim to England. Three weeks in a battle in a battle at later Harold Godwinesson was himself killed near Hastings against William, duke of Normandy, crowned king of the English on Christmas Day.

He arrived in the Humber in , but nates William's vigorous defensive measures were effective and Sven withdrew in the summer, although he and his men were able to keep some of their booty. Five years later a Danish fleet, led by one of Sven's sons, Knut, set sail to sup- port a rebellion against William, but arrived.

The Danes returned home bourhood. In Knut, it after now king of the had been crushed before they plundering York and its neigh- Danes, planned to conquer Eng- land, a threat that William took very seriously, but the assembled fleet never sailed. There were a few later expeditions by Norwegian kings to the North- ern and Western Isles, but England never again suffered a large-scale attack by Scandinavians. The Viking Age was over. This was something that happening before. The prophet Jeremiah had foretold that divine punishment on the chosen people for their sins would come from the north.

Frankish sins did in the years after civil Northmen modern English , In calling the intruders seem to merit when Louis the Pious's death was fol- wars. Violence previously directed outwards to enemies beyond the empire's frontiers now erupted within. The powerful and their followers fought each other; they also oppressed the powerless whom kings were too distracted to protect.

Churchmen themselves were drawn into military involvements, sharing the sins of the Germain thus saw God's vengeful hand pagans. The monk of St- chastisement of Christians by How else could a learned connoisseur of Christian why the mighty kingdom history explain of the Franks, once so favourable to the church, 'had been laid so low, defiled by the Such in the laity. Thanks '. Yet in , a fugitive Frankish bishop ami- rargenn ut trent extra galliam jooJ rfarnfrft. Ja a mrniera and other Frankish trading.

A of satellite states needed to keep Frank is your friend he's certainly not your neighbour', was an eighth-century proverb among neighbours of on the other perhaps by Gerward, the Franks. Only one manuscript, of the eleventh century, shown here is extant: is the account of the attack on Paris in , alleging that than the Saxons, were the Franks' traditional contem- 'more Northmen died in Gaul'. By the s, with side Frisia firmly Charlemagne's armies were conquering Saxony. As Saxony's northern neighbours entered the field of Frankish force, 'Nordmannia' and Danes 'Nordmanni', 'Dani' first Denmark appeared in the Royal Frankish Annals written at Charlemagne's court: in the defeated Saxon chieftain Widukind fled with his warband to seek refuge with 'Sigfred king of the Danes'.

In , envoys from Sigfred appeared court: Widukind's reappearance soon afterwards the result. The final conquest of Saxony in inevitably attracted Danish interest. The Saxon population of an area beyond the Elbe was removed into Frankia, and the vacated lands given to the Abrodrites. He to Schleswig Charlemagne then sent which he did him envoys about returning fugitives. Godfred further upset the carefully constructed Frankish diplomatic system east of the Elbe by allying with the Wilzes, another Slav people who were ancestral enemies.

Before returning to a trading centre in in the Abodrites' neighbours Denmark, Godfred destroyed Abodrite territory, and transferred Denmark, anticipating 'a healthy income from its the boasting forces'. In , as and pride of the Danish He built a rampart the work among the 'many things were reported. Abodrite leader was king', the Reric, Hedeby This Frankish silver tolls'. Apparently of eighth- nated by Godfred's men. Charlemagne was already planning an expedition against Godfred in when he learned that mannia had attacked Frisians in three Frisia and ravaged all 'a fleet of ships from Nord- the Frisian islands, defeated the engagements and imposed tribute on them, and the century manufacture, it could have got to Denmark by matic Frisians a large had already paid pounds of silver'.

Charlemagne had collected army when news came that Godfred had been killed by one of his ret- inue. His nephew and successor Hemming 'made peace with the emperor'. Godfred had seriously threatened Frankish control of Saxony and the alliances that underpinned it. Denmark was kingdom. But Hemming did not last long. Other royals a passable early medieval 'greedy for power' engaged in succession disputes, ising rewards to warriors. The aristocracy SM prom- whom Godfred 21 trading or raiding or diplogift in the eighth or ninth century. Temporarily dis- men were driven to recoup their losses elsewhere.

In the generation appointed after Charlemagne's death in amount of visible, , the or so readily available Frankish wealth continued to grow, stimulating commercial exchanges, attracting the precious goods that constituted the wherewithal of imperial glory, lordly gift-giving, ecclesiastical splendour, Coinage oiled the wheels; and a it and aristocratic display. Charlemagne's heir Louis the Pious had some success ished the walls of his city to get stone to rebuild his church, increasingly demanded payments fairs direct- maintaining When the archbishop of Sens demol- peace throughout a Christian empire.

In Denmark, though, Louis was no peacemaker, but instead fomented con- When the sons of Godfred drove out a flict. An attempt Harald to the Danish throne failed in , ships' Harald, Louis welcomed the 'sent' when 'a Danish menaced Saxony, but fleet of in Harald became co-ruler alongside two of Godfred's sons. The next year, the Royal Annals recorded well-directed attacks of 'pirates from Nordmannia', Flanders, the in 'thirteen ships', on mouth of the Seine, and west- ern Poitou.

All these places would have been familiar ports of call to Danish traders in previous decades. Louis reacted by sending Archbishop Ebo of Rheims to on sionary drive events in the Danish frontier, but the Franks were unable to control Denmark. He baptized and Louis, with apt symbolism, also granted The Danish Harald the county of Riistringen in north-east Frisia as a bolt- hole should he be driven out of Denmark again, as indeed happened in Now just one of Godfred's sons, and remained so Horik, emerged as 'the king of the Danes', until his death in An attempt to restore Harald failed and subsequent Frankish missionary in , Anskar of Hamburg suffered attacked Hamburg and efforts spearheaded by Bishop a near-fatal setback in , when Horik destroyed Anskar's cathedral there.

The Danish- Saxon frontier remained fraught, though not until was there another Facing: Louis the large-scale military engagement, when Danes in Saxon army suffered very heavy Frankish annalists from the s to the s called losses. Interestingly, these a Denmark 'Northmen', just like their confreres busy ravaging Frankia, and making what bid ments fair to who were be permanent depicted in martial costume as of Christ' in this manuscript of was the Frankish empire's Achilles' heel. Frisia Pious Godfred had shown Other Danes would position had been hit the fleet, which the Franks Frisia's vulnerability to attack same from the once Louis the Pious's target, undermined by his sons' revolts in the early s.

Again, 'Danes fell on and burned the surrounding Frisia, slaughtered dered even more, levying as much many region', according to the so- people on Walcheren and plun- tribute as they wanted, Dorestad with the same fury and exacted tribute Louis's defensive efforts, there encircling the emper- in , in the were new attacks on and then same fell on way'. Despite emperor Frisia in Perhaps Sueones calling themselves Rhos were sent by the Byzantine to the Frankish court for onward transit home: Louis feared they might be spies and decided to keep them with him pending further enquiries see One Chapter head are the words: 'You, Christ, crown Louis': an attractive image of the restored Christian generalized anxiety about Scandinavians that year explains Louis's reaction when Svear or's 1.

Harald may well have con- difficulties r even after Louis , s restoration. In two birds with one stone, sent envoys nothing to do with the attacks on Frisia, killing had had claiming, moreover, to have cap- tured and killed those responsible the executed ald, King Horik, to Louis declaring that he men did not include Har- however , and asking Louis for a reward.

In Horik asked that 'the Frisians be given over to him' throws a lurid light Louis's last years. All this vastly increased output of the Dorestad the chief beneficiaries of who took their toll on Frisia and its all this coin traders. Send-to-Kindle or Email Please login to your account first. The file will be sent to selected email address.

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