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The forging of the unique and rugged American identity occurred at the juncture between the civilization of settlement and the savagery of wilderness. This produced a new type of citizen — one with the power to tame the wild and one upon whom the wild had conferred strength and individuality. Over multiple generations, the frontier produced characteristics of informality, violence, crudeness, democracy and initiative that the world recognized as "American".

Turner ignored gender and race, downplayed class, and left no room for victims. Historians of the s and later stressed that race, class and gender were powerful explanatory tools. The new generation stressed gender, ethnicity, professional categorization, and the contrasting victor and victim legacies of manifest destiny and imperialist expansion.

Some criticized Turner's frontier thesis and the theme of American exceptionalism. The disunity of the concept of the West, the similarity of American expansion to European colonialism and imperialism in the 19th century, and the realities of minority group oppression revealed the limits of Turnerian and exceptionalist paradigms. Turner's sectionalism thesis had almost as much influence among historians as his frontier thesis, but never became widely known to the general public as did the frontier thesis.

He argued that different ethnocultural groups had distinct settlement patterns, and this revealed itself in politics, economics and society. Turner's ideas influenced many areas of historiography. In the history of religion, for example, Boles notes that William Warren Sweet at the University of Chicago Divinity School , argued that churches adapted to the characteristics of the frontier, creating new denominations such as the LDS Church , the Church of Christ , the Disciples of Christ , and the Cumberland Presbyterians. The frontier, they argued, shaped uniquely American institutions such as revivals, camp meetings, and itinerant preaching.

This view dominated religious historiography for decades. Micheaux promoted the West as a place where blacks could transcend race and earn economic success through hard work and perseverance. Slatta argues that the widespread popularization of Turner's frontier thesis influenced popular histories, motion pictures, and novels, which characterize the West in terms of individualism, frontier violence, and rough justice.

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Disneyland 's Frontierland of the late 20th century reflected the myth of rugged individualism that celebrated what was perceived to be the American heritage. The public has ignored academic historians' anti-Turnerian models, largely because they conflict with and often destroy the icons of Western heritage. However, the work of historians during the s—s, some of whom sought to bury Turner's conception of the frontier and others who have sought to spare the concept while presenting a more balanced and nuanced view, have done much to place Western myths in context.

The Frederick Jackson Turner Award is given annually by the Organization of American Historians for an author's first scholarly book on American history. They had three children: only one survived childhood. Dorothy Kinsley Turner later Main was the mother of the historian Jackson Turner Main — , a scholar of Revolutionary America who married a fellow scholar. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people of this same name, see BFrederick Jackson disambiguation and Frederick Turner disambiguation. Frederick Jackson Turner. Portage, Wisconsin.

San Marino, California. Published by: Montana Historical Society. Block Annals of the Association of American Geographers. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 13 April Young and Gregory H. Nobles, eds. Whose American Revolution Was It? NYU Press. California Historical Society Quarterly , vol. The New Republic. Retrieved December 30, Slatta, "Taking Our Myths Seriously. The Organization of American Historians. Presidents of the American Historical Association.

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History of the United States Vol. Charles A. Bind Us Apart. Nicholas Guyatt. Edward Countryman. The Epic of America. James Truslow Adams. Robert M. Building the American Republic, Volume 1. Harry L. Anglo-Native Virginia. Kristalyn Shefveland. Tennessee Frontiers. John R.

Rufus King. Robert Ernst. History of the United States. Enjoy the Same Liberty. Theodore Roosevelt. James Ciment. Secession Debated. William W. The Cost of Liberty. William Murchison. American Leviathan.

Patrick Griffin. The Democratic Republicans of New York. Alfred F. Foul Means. Anthony S. The Northwest Ordinance. Robert Alexander. The Cherokee Nation of Indians. Charles C.

"Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis and Its Critics" - Wilfred M. McClay

Formation of the Union. Albert Bushnell Hart. Trans-Appalachian Frontier, Third Edition. Malcolm J. A School History of the United States. Thomas Hart Benton.

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The American Revolution and the Young Republic. Britannica Educational Publishing. Frontier Country. Patrick Spero. Charles Austin Beard. Colonial and Revolutionary America. Alan Gallay.

WER: Frederick J. Turner / The Significance of the Frontier in American History

Works of John Bach McMaster. The North Carolina Experience. Lindley S. Leaders of Freedom. Thomas P.


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