Moreover, results of three surveys involving software development companies in UK [15,16], Australia , and Malaysia  confirmed that these companies still considered RE problems very significant. Another survey , clearly demonstrate that RE process improvement is an important issue.
However, a European survey of organizations engaged in SPI programs during the s confirmed that the SPI models then available offered no cure for Requirements Engineering problems . These enthusiastic adopters of SPI programs found that while SPI brought them significant benefits, their problems in handling requirements remain hard to solve. This and several other problems related to the process have motivated the development of several specialised RE process improvement models.
However, these models also suffer from problems and issues that could hinder organizations from adopting them. Inspired by the strengths of the existing generic SPI and RE process improvement models, we started a study to build a new, complete model that can be used to assist organizations in assessing and improving their RE process maturity levels. Also, our model can provide insights into the effects of SPI to software organisations mainly in the country that are yet to be certified, in particular with the CMMI-DEV certification. In this paper we explain the stages involved in developing the RE maturity model and the motivations on building the REPAIM as well the rationales for building the model based on existing framework and assessment methods.
In section three, we present an overview of model components, and section four summarizes and concludes this paper. The RE process improvement model was developed through multiple rounds of development and validation stages, which involved expert panel from the industry.
Three rounds of model developments were performed to deal with the results of the first two rounds of validation, which were fed back to the development stage to improve the model. The multiple rounds of validation were designed based the Delphi method, which has been modified to fit the purpose of the model validation from the one originally developed by Norman Dalkey in s . Reviews of how the Delphi method has been implemented by others show that the number of Delphi rounds range between one to five and a three round is typical [29,30].
Although Cantrill, Sibbald, and Buetow  stated that the expert panel sizes in the Delphi studies vary from 4 to , the panel size can be as small as 3 experts only. In this research, the validation stage involved three rounds and 32 experts . The activities in creating the RE process maturity model were emulated from the ways the existing generic and specific RE process improvement models were built.
Then, it was followed by the identification of the structure and components of the maturity model. Finally, the PMM-RE is completed after each component in the model has been defined with detailed information. The development of the model framework, structure, and detail components was guided by five identified success criteria: completeness, consistency, practicality, usefulness, and verifiability as explained in our other paper .
Then, the components of the assessment method were defined with detailed information. Finally the tools to support the assessment method were prepared. They are various motivators for this work. We embark on this study for the same reason that Linscomb  stressed in his article, that an organization should define and measure the RE process maturity because it is economic to get more business and retain existing business and it is the right thing to do. This research is also motivated by potential benefits expected to be brought about by successful implementation of an improved RE process to the overall success of projects [3,4] as demonstrated by empirical research in Chisan  and Damian et al.
Most importantly, review to other research in the recent years such as Beecham et al.
- Interpreting the CMMI (R): A Process Improvement Approach by Margaret K. Kulpa.
- Tratado de culinaria para mujeres tristes (Spanish Edition).
- Implementing “CMMI for Services” in the tourism industry.
- Highsong (Highsong - Book 1).
- Futile Efforts.
- Bred by the Spider Queen.
Inspired to offer a solution to organizations interested to improve their RE processes, we performed an empirical study to justify our then future research work, which is to develop this model, detailed in . To our surprise, results of the study involving software development companies appraised with various maturity levels of CMMI-DEV indicate that high-maturity ratings do not correlate with better performance and do not indicate effective, high-maturity practices.
Apart from the earlier mentioned motivations, we are also interested to offer a way out of the following issues that surround the CMMI-DEV:.
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Hence, this order of RE implementation and institutionalizations is not always logical and can create issue . For example, if an organization does not have an institutionalized way of eliciting requirements at maturity level 3 , by right the organization would not have any requirements to be managed at lower maturity level 2. In the continuous representation, for another example, there might be a case where an organization with a high capability for REQM for example, 5 has a low capability level for example, 0 for RD PA is not always logical.
The primary reason of not-adopting CMMI is high cost associated with the model apart from other reasons including organizations were too small, organizations had no time, organizations were unsure of the SPI benefits, organizations had other priorities, and organizations were using another SPI approach [46,47]. Despite those issues that surround the CMMI-DEV, we chose to build our model based on this known maturity framework for several reasons as detailed in the next sub-section. Mainly because of the easy accessibility of this model compared to other models.
Basing our model on the latest version of a known formal software process improvement framework offers the practitioners several advantages. Amongst the rationale for basing our model on this maturity framework is that:. Even though these RE practices are treated differently from the standards RE components found in the literature and lack implementation details, the RE processes are integrated with software development.
This is basically what we aimed to achieve in our model. Like the other RE process improvement models, our model will take practitioners from a high level view of the RE practices, through to a detailed descriptions and to a process assessment method to guide companies towards satisfying their specific RE process improvement and general company goals. But, SCAMPI Class C method just like CMMI group of standards was initially written for large organization and is consequently difficult to apply in small company settings because of its complex requirements and the need to commit significant resources to achieve the CMMI certification .
Whereas, the Adepts provides additional steps for establishing process improvements initiatives and to see the progress that could have been accomplished from implementing the initiatives. Hence, the approach in the research is to combine several features and functions of these three assessment methods in a single process assessment method. The aim is to optimize the applicability and usefulness of the developed assessment method.
Moreover, the new RE process maturity model is a specialised reference model. Hence, a specialised process assessment that can help organizations particularly small companies, examine their RE process against the model should be developed too. The term assessment used in this thesis implies that an organization can perform informal assessments to and for itself. These assessments are intended to motivate organizations to initiate or continue the RE process improvement programs. The model aims to be recognised as an applicable model to organizations which develop system and software products.
The REPAIM also defines rules to implement and assess itself, hence it support and assures a coherent use according to its definitions. Both model components are currently described in a single document called a REPAIM model guide, which was given to the expert panel during the validation stage. This is as shown in Figure 1. We place it within the formal maturity framework to guide practitioners towards improving their RE processes using a proven and familiar methodology. It also provide interpretive guidance and expanded coverage of practices and goals for the RE process. FLA-RE assessment method describes assessment requirements, assessments stages and steps, assessment.
Figure 1. Components of the RE maturity model. While FLA-RE is applicable to organizations developing software or software-containing product, it is mainly oriented to the small and medium-size enterprises SMEs. The FLA-RE assessment stages and steps are based on characteristics of several process assessment methods. However, details of this assessment method are not covered in this paper.
However, to ensure that the proposed model can complement the latest version 1. At each RE maturity level, organizations need to implement several RE practices to achieve the RE goal for the specific level. Unlike CMMI-DEV that separate goals and practices into generic and specific goals and practices to be satisfied by several process areas for a specific capability level, in this model, we consider all practices as RE practices since this model focuses at a single process area only.
A RE practice is an essential task that must be performed as part of RE process. Practices may be performed formally or informally. However, it does not mean that it is done frequently or that most practitioners will necessarily perform the practices. Each RE practice has a set of consistent components as follows:. They are meant only to provide ideas that may be useful for RE process improvement.
Input should not be optional component and output, generally, should be produced by one and only one practice. The examples are called typical output because there are often other outputs that may not listed.
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Figure 2. A practice may have none, one, or more related techniques. A technique must be related to at least one practice. The techniques listed in this document are intended to cover the most common and widespread use in the community. Explanations of techniques may be provided in this component.
The four RE maturity levels of the model provide a way to measure how well organizations can and do improve their RE processes. Process improvement is a series of actions taken to identify, analyze and improve existing processes within an organization in order to produce higher quality goods or to deliver higher quality services. Although process improvement is time-consuming and expensive, the evidence shows that the return on investment is high. The book also explains that improvements can be implemented on an ad hoc basis, but that systematic process improvement, guided by models or standards, would be the most effective and efficient approach.
Some may target specific sector types, such as the service sector or the manufacturing sector. In response to the growing demand, the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute SEI in the US published a standard which, for the first time, was not specifically for the IT sector but is appropriate for all types of service industries. CMMI-SVC provides a comprehensive set of best practices for providing guidance to service organizations for managing, establishing and delivering services to meet the needs of their customers.
Services have many common characteristics ref. The first official version of the CMMI-SVC standard was published a few weeks before the final decision had to be made about the research topic for this thesis. Tourism is a typical service industry and so it seemed appropriate to research the implementation of CMMI-SVC in this type of industry.
These are typical characteristics of many tourism organizations, such as small hotels and tour operators. As process improvement always needs a direction or goal, one possibility for this was sustainability and in particular to take a closer look at sustainable tourism services. For easier reference, the three research questions, along with their motivations, are listed in the following diagram:.
It was not possible to apply the whole CMMI-SVC model to the entire tourism industry so representative selections from both were taken. Not all aspects of sustainable tourism could be covered, instead examples are given. There could not be any in-depth comparisons with existing quality programs so the focus was on giving tourism organizations guidance on the rating of CMMI-SVC.
Abstracts in English and German, the summary, trademarks, acknowledgements, lists of abbreviations, figures, tables and definitions all precede the main part of the thesis. This is supplemented by an explanation of what service quality in tourism means and how sustainable tourism can be characterized using the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria GSTC. The tourism industry will be represented by, and examples will be given for, a fictitious tour operator FTO.
The chapter ends with a conclusion and critical review of research question 1. The chapter ends with a conclusion and critical review of research question 2.
The appendix contains the following parts: - A. To make the reading of the thesis easier, it is suggested that appendix A. Practices included are those proven by experience to be effective. A process is a serious of activities that help to solve a problem. CMMI guides process improvement across a team, project, division, or an entire organization.
Similarly, this also applies to the examples of typical work products which may be named differently in the organization. Is it a separate document or is it embedded into another document? Instead, the model describes the minimal criteria necessary to plan and implement processes, selected by the organization, for improvement based on business objectives.
Most organizations, at the initial stages of process improvement, do not have clearly defined business objectives 15 and it can take them a considerable amount of time to formulate these. With version 1. This is illustrated in the following diagram:. Constellations are not only used to construct CMMI models, but also to construct training and appraisal materials in an area of interest. This chapter should be considered as an overview of CMMI-SVC with only the elements which are relevant for this thesis being explained.
Process areas constitute the primary structural element of a CMMI model; they describe fields of interest that organizations need to focus on when implementing CMMI.
The following table lists the names of all 24 process areas together with their acronyms and types:. SPs are activities that must be performed to satisfy the SGs of a process area.
Predicting Defects Using Information Intelligence Process Models in the Software Technology Project
For example:. GGs belong to the CMF and are used to institutionalize a process across the organization. It makes CMMI-based improvement more difficult and more expensive, but this is an investment that pays off. Table 3 lists all the GPs of GG 2 which is about the institutionalization of managed processes:. Levels are used in CMMI to describe a recommended evolutionary path for organizations that want to improve their processes.
CMMI can be viewed from two perspectives, both involving levels:. Each CL characterizes the degree of institutionalization of a single process area and is the foundation for the next level. The focus of the Continuous representation is on process capability. Each process area belongs to one ML. The focus of the Staged representation is on organizational maturity.
Each capability level CL has one generic goal GG associated with it, i. As these categories emphasize some of the key relationships among the process areas, they should also be kept in mind when using the continuous representation. The only specific practice that is partially fulfilled is the identification of risks SP 2. All other Specific Goals and Practices are rated unsatisfied . Omran illustrates the situation in the, in many of the relevant practices comparable, agile Extreme Programming framework in similar ways . Baker reflects deeply on the institutionalization of Scrum: "We believe that sustainable culture change comes from within.
What baker tries to make clear is that organizational change management is an enduring and iterative process that arises within an organization and can not be replaced by consultants that introduce new frameworks and leave the company afterwards without any further support. The way in which organizations handle change management and institutionalize Scrum as Defined and Managed Process as the Generic Goals of this Maturity Level demand depends on individual organizational aspects like culture and objectives as [39 , .
Turner and Chain  as well as Greening  present different ways to install Scrum as enterprise wide defined and managed processes. As much as change management is an continuous and never ending process within an organization, as much is the CMMI implementation. According to DeMarco and Boehm many organizations stop their maturity development process at ML 3, because many governmental organizations demand exactly this level from producing enterprises . This organizational mindset results in a documentation overhead where nothing ever gets removed from, whereas the higher Maturity Level 5 would explicitly aim for simplification .
This situation induces the feeling of producing documents to fulfill CMMI goals instead of delivering business value to customers . In order to reduce this overhead and to make CMMI Maturity Level 3 achievable for smaller organizations, integrated tools for configuration management have empirically turned out to be useful. Hansen and Baggesen describe their positive experiences with the Microsoft Team Foundation Server TFS that provides one place for all source code, documents and builds even for distributed development teams .
Within the TFS developers are free to chose which templates to apply according to the development methodology they use, so they can choose for example a agile- or CMMI-compatible templates their project, which involves automated generation of corresponding files and configuration management . Similar recommendations on configuration management and some further integration facilitators provide Jakobsen and Johnson in their work on the combination of agile methods and CMMI .
Concerning SG 1, Scrum misses for example a defined use of quantitative or statistical techniques, performance measurement of subprocess by critical attributes and further analytic techniques. Regarding SG 2, a root cause analysis is missing additionally to the mentioned topics . Especially quantitative control and root cause analysis are missing. The TFS addresses partially the process areas "Quantitative Project Management" as well as "Causal Analysis and Resolution" through reporting features, while still supporting agile development methods . Systems like the TFS that support the integration of agile processes in formal quality management and process improvement systems might be an essential enabler for the integration of Scrum at advanced Maturity Levels of CMMI.
Further examination on similar systems will be necessary in futher surveys. Cohan and Glazer explain that high-maturity practices of CMMI Maturity Levels 4 and 5 help to quantify the performance of agile practices and to analyze data from agile projects instead of "relying on 'gut feel'", . This is an important aspect, as many organizations do not use methods that are empirically proved to be effective and efficient for them. One thing is evident, the fact that a development method is trendy or used by many companies does not implicate that it fits any organization, culture or objectives.
They proclaim that the gathering of metrics that satisfy CMMI Maturity Level 4 and 5 requirements is difficult to define for enterprises with little experience in this field, however the continuous occupation with agile measures , ,  has showed up to lead in the right direction by an refining, iterative process, according to Cohan and Glazer.
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Cohan and Glazer explain that the choice of the right metrics is crucial . First they explain that metrics may not hinder the development-team's ability to work agile. Second they add that metrics must be easy to collect and be useful for predicting future outcomes in order to improve future performance. The case study of Cohan and Glazer is one of the rare empirical evidences for the implementation of agile practices and measures at CMMI Maturity Level 4. There exist agile approaches like the ones depicted above that worked for some organizations, nevertheless a general statement about the integrability of Scrum and CMMI at this high level requires further empirical evidence.
The Systematic case study by Jakobsen and Sutherland provides empirical evidence for this synergetic maturity process leading to strong efficiency. Systematic has about employees in Denmark and worldwide and focuses on complex and critical IT solutions with high demands on reliability and safety . In a CMMI context all processes for development are monitored for effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore measures were also established on the Scrum process. This Philosophy led, in the case of Systematic, to measures like "fix time after failed builds", to find out whether problems are handled proactively and "flow in implementation of story", to find out whether an implementation is done without brakes.
Both measures are established using the disciplines from CMMI and analyzed using statistical process control techniques. That success needs to be institutionalized in the company. They belief the missing change in small projects is due to the facts that this kind of projects had already been managed in an very agile way before. Nevertheless the strong performance improvement in large projects is especially interesting at CMMI Level 5.
Companies that move to CMMI Level 5 must have a lot of experience in their development field as well as with the improvement, control and institutionalization of their processes. Usually, companies that fulfill these demands have the necessary competence and drive to conduct and manage large projects. If we transfer the goal of reducing unnecessary processes to the customers of CMMI Level 5 organizations it is interesting to see that Sutherland et al.
According to them, CMMI can reduce the number of software defects, but not strongly increase efficiency , so that methods like Scrum seem to be even necessary to fulfill the General CMMI Goal of increased efficiency. In the following, the two research questions and possible answers are discussed. An summary over the whole evaluation can be found at the next section 'summary'. The missing definition of the Scrum processes at organizational Level is the main deficiency. Yes, according to the theoretical evaluation, empirical case studies and current state of research, the Scrum processes can be adapted in a way that satisfies all CMMI Project Management Process Areas.
At CMMI Maturity Levels 2 and 3 many organizations have reached this goal by minor changes like the introduction of systematic risk management, data management and the institutionalization of the Scrum processes. At CMMI Maturity Levels 4 and 5 the adaption of Scrum requires sophisticated knowledge in agile measurement and strong organizational change management experience. Nevertheless, there exist first empirical evidences, like case studies, showing that the implementation of Scrum even at Maturity Level 5 is feasible.
However, ML 4 and 5 case studies are rare, so that further empirical evaluation and proof is necessary. The evaluation of the Scrum and CMMI integration approach shows that, as Deming proposed decades ago, hard fact and soft fact management must be combined to gain optimal business performance. The Scrum project management processes and practices satisfy the CMMI project management requirements at Maturity Level 2 fully and at Level 3 at least partially.
The evaluation shows that the integration and the adaption of Scrum, in order to satisfy all CMMI project management goals, is feasible by introducing systematic data-, risk-, and knowledge-management. Further, the institutionalization of Scrum as managed process is no problem, or even a natural step in the maturity process of organizations. The project management requirements of CMMI Maturity Levels 4, namely quantitative and statistical evaluation and control, is reachable by the introduction of agile metrics.
This requires strong self-reflexion and sustainable organizational change management. CMMI Maturity Level 5 and Scrum seem to be ultimate partners, as the goal of Maturity Level 5 is to reduce complexity and increase organizational and process efficiency. After having reached ML 4 the transition to ML 5 in combination with Scrum practices showed strong synergy effects resulting in clear increase of efficiency and defect reduction, especially in large projects On the whole, Scrum and CMMI match in large parts and the integration of both concepts can involve strong synergetic effects, like reducing complexity in CMMI and and expanding Scrum's processes towards higher process quality.
Nevertheless, organizations must be aware that it usually takes long, to combine both concepts and to improve them over the lifecycle of the maturity process. Nevertheless, it can be worth it, when the whole organization is aware of the effort that is necessary to change the organizational system in order to reach the common vision of better software and more efficiency.
Future Prospects for Software Engineers On the level of organizational culture it became obvious that the introduction of CMMI in enterprises tends to isolate teams from each other and builds distrust, whereas agile practices engage collaboration and build trust . So perhaps the main question of interest should not be, whether CMMI and Scrum can work together, but quite the contrary, namely, if CMMI and Scrum can exist in way without one another in a sustainable, large organization.
The fact that they were created autonomously and existed for long time independently creates categories in the minds of developers. One task for developers in the near future is to escape from those constricting patterns of thought, in order to increase the own creativity and create new integrative paradigms. Just as in software development, the development of the human mind is an iterative process, resulting in breaking out of mental cages that are no longer necessary.
Future Work for Researchers The major part of the integration evaluation grounds on the theoretical analysis of Scrum project management practices in the context of CMMI project management requirements. The theoretical analysis brings clear results that comply with many empirical evidences on Maturity Levels two and three and at least some first evidence at higher Maturity Levels.
Chrissis, M. Konrad, S. Kulpa, K. Auerbach Publications, , Print. Cohan and H. Damiani, A. Colombo, F. Frati, and C. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, , pp. Espinosa-Curiel, J. Foegen, M. Solbach, and C. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, AD, p.