They visited the island of Hiddensee , which would become a favorite retreat of Hauptmann's.
Gerhart Hauptmann : Bürgerlichkeit und grosser Traum : eine Biographie (Book, ) [qyjywolu.tk]
Because the city air bothered Gerhart's lungs, the couple spent the first four years of their marriage in the town of Erkner , where their three sons were born. In , they moved to Charlottenburg in Berlin. During this period he began to write. His first work was a "novelistic study" Signalman Thiel in His first play, Before Sunrise, was first staged in , directed by Otto Brahm. It inaugurated the naturalistic movement in modern German literature. It was followed by The Reconciliation , Lonely People and The Weavers , a powerful drama depicting the rising of the Silesian weavers in ,  for which he is best known outside of Germany.
In , he also took actress Margarete Marschalk as his lover. In order to get some distance, Marie moved to the US with their sons. Hauptmann prepared the first French performance of his play The Assumption of Hannele and then went after Marie, without even staying for the premiere. The rift, however, was not to be bridged. After several years of separation, the marriage was ended in July, However, Marie continued to live in the villa Hauptmann had built in Dresden.
He called it "the mystical protective sheathing of my soul". In the preceding year, Margarete had born him a son, Benvenuto. In September , they were married; this second marriage lasted until his death, though it was thrown into a serious crisis in and by his affair with a year-old actress, Ida Orloff. In , Hauptmann's first novel was published, The Fool in Christ, Emanuel Quint, which told the story of a wandering preacher who mixed sun worship and Christianity together. His novel, Atlantis, became the basis for a Danish silent film of the same name.
The novel was written one month before the RMS Titanic disaster , and the film's release was less than one year after the event. The storyline for both involved a romance aboard a doomed ocean liner, and the similarity to the disaster became obvious. This coincidental untimeliness caused the film to be banned in Norway,  due to perceived insensitivity.
Nevertheless, excited by the possibilities of this new medium, Hauptmann wrote several screenplays e. Appolonius of Tyre , none of which was ever filmed. Around the turn of the century, Hauptmann began to receive official recognition. Three times he was awarded the Austrian Franz-Grillparzer-Preis. He also received honorary doctorates from Worcester College at Oxford in and from the University of Leipzig in In , he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art", after he had been nominated in that year by Erich Schmidt , member of the Prussian Academy of Science.
Kaiser Wilhelm II , however, did not care for the "social democratic" poet. He vetoed the awarding of the Schiller Preis for The Assumption of Hannele and at the instigation of his son, Crown Prince Wilhelm , in , a Breslau production of Hauptmann's play Commemoration Masque Festspiel in deutschen Reimen was canceled, because in it the hundredth anniversary of the Liberation of Germany from Napoleon was depicted with a pacifistic rather than patriotic or jingoistic tone.
However, the very same Hauptmann who had criticized militarism in the Masque, the very next year was among those who supported the war. Hauptmann signed the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three , a manifesto signed by 93 German scientists, scholars and artists, declaring their unequivocal support of German military actions at the beginning of World War I.
He published supportive poems many of which read as unintentional satires and which he later crossed out in the manuscript. Several years later, he wrote Till Eulenspiegel, a poetic memorial to Hans Paasche , the pacifist and reformer who was assassinated by ultra-nationalists. In , he joined a declaration, signed by a number of German intellectuals and published in the Berliner Tageblatt newspaper, showing solidarity with the Republic. In the following years, he was the first recipient of the Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches The Eagle Shield of the German Reich an award for scholarly or artistic achievement.
During this period, the demand for Hauptmann's work had declined, to the point where, in order to maintain his lifestyle, he had begun to do films and serializations. Despite this, he continued to enjoy popularity. He was seen abroad as the representative of German Literature. In , in honor of the centenary of Goethe 's death, he went on a lecture tour of the United States and was awarded and honorary doctorate from Columbia University. On his 70th birthday, he was awarded several honorary citizenships. There were countless exhibitions and performances of his work, many with well-known performers.
Max Reinhardt played the lead in the premiere of Hauptmann's new play Before Sunset. From , Hauptmann summered with his family in Hiddensee. Hauptmann's copy of Mein Kampf , which can now be found in the Hauptmann collection at the Berlin State Library , was also heavily annotated. Because Hauptmann remained highly regarded by the German people, the Nazis did everything to keep him from leaving the country, despite the emigration of many of his colleagues. At times he suffered from official disapproval.
The censors of the Propaganda Minister Goebbels kept an eye on Hauptmann's work and even banned a new edition of his novella The Shot in the Park because it featured a black character.
Hauptmann was told that reprinting was impossible because of a paper shortage. For Hauptmann's 80th birthday, in , representatives of the Nazi regime cooperated with honors, celebrations, and celebratory performances. Hauptmann was presented by his publisher with the first copy of his volume Complete Works. In , he published his Atreus Tetralogy, which he had been working on for four years. In , Hauptmann's name was included in the Gottbegnadeten list the "God-gifted list" , a list of artists considered crucial to the German culture, who were therefore exempt from mobilization in the war effort.
He was one of the six most important writers in the special list of the "irreplaceable artists. During the bombing of Dresden , Hauptmann was staying at a Dresden sanatorium due to severe pneumonia. I stand at the end of my life and envy my dead comrades, who were spared this experience. After the war, Silesia, where Hauptmann was living, became part of Poland, but Hauptmann was temporarily allowed to stay due to a letter of protection.
20th-century German dramatists and playwrights
Then, on April 7, , he was informed by the Soviet military authorities that the Polish government was insisting on his resettlement. Before his expulsion, he became very ill. At the beginning of May , Hauptmann learned that the Polish government was insisting on the expulsion of all Germans without exception. His last words were reported to be, "Am I still in my house? An official letter from the Soviet Administration in favor of the writer, who was highly regarded in the Soviet Union , proved ineffective, though the family was permitted to take its belongings.
Only an hour after his death, the local militia had gathered outside the window directly under his deathbed and banging pots and pans and blowing whistles and trumpets. At a funeral service held in Stralsund , near Hauptmann's summer home on Hiddensee island, Wilhelm Pieck , then co-chairman of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany spoke, along with poet Johannes R. Becher , and Soviet official Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov all spoke. On the morning of 28 July, 52 days after his death, he was buried before sunrise at the cemetery in Hiddensee.
In , a granite block was unveiled as the grave stone. It bore, as per Hauptmann's wish, only his name. In , his wife Margarete's remains were moved to lie beside her husband's, though she had died in Hauptmann first encountered the various representatives of the naturalist movement through the avant-garde society "Durch" in , which was an important influence. At their meetings, aesthetic questions about idealism , Realism and the naturalist movement were discussed.
With that, he also established his naturalistic orientation. At the end of the s, he was confronted with the incipient anti-socialist movement. The first of the Anti-Socialist Laws was passed in and strengthened in Hauptmann was in as called before the court in Breslau, because he had been a follower of the "Icharians," whose ideas hearkened back to the ideas of French communist Etienne Cabet. He sought refuge in his brother's house in Zurich in order to avoid prosecution. While there he encountered psychiatrist August Forel and the preacher Johannes Guttzeit, whose ideas influenced Before Sunrise.
Hauptmann began producing naturalistic works in Zurich. Hauptmann's play "Before Sunrise" caused one of the largest scandals in German theater history. The bourgeois audience was shocked by the frank depictions of alcoholism and sexuality. According to Franz-Josef Payrhuber, "Before Sunrise" was an epoch-making work, but it is not the representative example of naturalistic drama, that label would go to Die Familie Selicke by Arno Holz and Johannes Schlaf. Theaters under Brahm's leadership premiered 17 of Hauptmann's plays. With his most important play, The Weavers, which he had already been contemplating during his stay in Zurich, Hauptmann achieved world renown and reached the high point of his Naturalistic phase.
Hauptmann's early work received differing reviews. Conservative circles and also the government were not excited about his socially critical dramas, which made itself felt through censorship. His position in the opposition raised his profile in progressive, intellectual circles, which appreciated these aspects of his work. After many naturalistic-influenced works, Hauptmann's style changed and he grew increasingly well-received among the educated and upper classes. Nevertheless, he was still in demand as a writer and was regarded abroad as the representative poet of Germany.
The Hungarian philosopher and literature critic, Georg Lukacs later called Hauptmann the "representative poet of bourgeois Germany," by which he did not mean to underscore Hauptmann's prominent position. Rather, he expressed displeasure with Hauptmann's fickleness and lack of attachment to his "revolutionary beginnings.
Hauptmann had taken up a lavish lifestyle, lived in expensive hotels, often received guests, and took trips to Italy. When Hauptmann continued to live in Germany after the Nazis came to power, they attempted to use Hauptmann for their own purposes. Various works that displeased the party leaders were banned but others continued to be performed. At his 80th birthday, in he was honored by the government with a festival and tributes, which he accepted.
Hauptmann's ebb-and-flow character was highlighted in William L. Shirer offered in a first-person account, " Because he had been an ardent Socialist his plays had been banned from the imperial theaters during Kaiser Wilhelm II's time. During the Republic he had been the most popular playwright in Germany, and indeed he retained that position in the Third Reich.
His plays continued to be produced. I shall never forget the scene at the close of the first night of his last play, 'The Daughter of the Cathedral', when Hauptmann, a venerable figure with his flowing white hair tumbling down over his black cape, strode out of the theater arm in arm with Dr. Goebbels and Hans Johst.
He, like so many other eminent Germans, had made his peace with Hitler, and Goebbels, a shrewd man, had made much effective propaganda out of it, tirelessly reminding the German people and the outside world that Germany's greatest living playwright, a former Socialist and the champion of the common man, had not only remained in the Third Reich but had continued to write and have his plays produced. The American authorities, believing that Hauptmann had served the Nazis too well, banned his plays from the theaters in their sector in West Berlin.
Whereupon the Russians invited him to Berlin, welcomed him as a hero and staged a gala cycle of his plays in East Berlin. On 6 October , Hauptmann sent a message to the Communist-dominated 'Kulturbund for the Democratic Revival of Germany' wishing it well and expressing the hope that it would succeed in bringing about a 'spiritual rebirth' of the German people. After his death, the fame he had enjoyed in life began to fade. His reputation was further diminished by his uncritical attitude toward the Nazis.
Nevertheless, centenary celebrations were held in many German cities in , and his works continued to be performed on West German stages into the s, especially Der Biberpelz and Die Ratten. He is counted among the most important promoters of literary naturalism, though he integrated other styles into his work as well.
He ran into problems with the Prussian-in. Pauli after construction of Hamburg city walls.
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The square was renamed after dramatist and novelist Gerhart Hauptmann after his death in Thalia Theater is located at the square since Major re. The play sympathetically portrays a group of Silesian weavers who staged an uprising during the s due to their concerns about the Industrial Revolution. The play was translated into Yiddish by Pinchas Goldhar in the s, after which it became a favorite of the Yiddish stage. A Broadway version of The Weavers was staged in — Unlike most plays of any period, as pointed out many times in literary criticism and introductions, the play has no true central character, providing ample opportunities for ensemble acting.
Criticism Barrett H. Photograph of the first production in Stockholm of August Strindberg's naturalistic play Miss Julie in November , at The People's Theatre Naturalism is a movement in European drama and theatre that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
It refers to theatre that attempts to create an illusion of reality through a range of dramatic and theatrical strategies. The three primary principles of naturalism faire vrai, faire grand and faire simple are first, that the play should be realistic, and the result of a careful study of human behaviour and psychology. The characters should be flesh and blood.
Hauptmann was awarded the Grillparzer Prize in for the play. The production was directed by Max Grube, with music by Max Marschalk. The cast included Adalbert Matkowsky. Plot It is a fairy drama, the chief human character of which is Heinrich, a master bellfounder who has completed his crowning work, a bell which is to be hung in a church on a mountain inhabited by sprites.
Through the hostility of the sprites, the wagon bearing the bell is overthrown and the latter is sunk in a mountain lake. Heinrich is injured and is nursed by the chief personage of the drama, Rautendelein, half child, half fairy, whose love changes Heinrich's standards and brings about the death of his wife. New International Encyclopedia 1st ed. Log out of ReadCube. Yet rather than present an intimate depiction of a quaint corner of Germany, these naturalistically candid tales of family tragedies offer imagery that extends beyond their geographic boundaries.
By foregrounding the distinctive, if not alien, characteristics of the protagonists and their families, as well as the region's geographic and cultural isolation, Hauptmann reveals the heightened ethnographic awareness that pervaded imperial Germany, and reveals a connection between colonialism and Social Darwinism that was not limited to overseas colonies. Volume 89 , Issue 1. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.
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