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That is, obtaining an education had an expression in obtaining a certificate of education or a university diploma. Theories of education consider the interaction not only of the pupil and the teacher the micro level of interaction but also of the interaction of the state and the education system, the social groups of pupils and teachers, parents and pupils, parents and school, schools and public organizations, schools and religions, schools and economic, social development of society.

This is the level of macro influence of education on society and society on education. That is why didactic theories and problems are considered not only from the point of view of the internal relations of the teacher and the student, but as a didactic and at the same time social environment, open to innovations and interference, dynamic changes.

Therefore, forming subject competencies, we simultaneously design the formation of social, communicative competences, life competencies. In the —s of the twentieth century in the USSR, the process of teaching began to be stated from the point of view of the activity approach in the domestic textbooks on pedagogy. The learning process as teaching and learning has components: purpose and objectives, content, methods, teaching tools, learning forms and results.

When planning the lesson, we design these components. This theory is connected with the L. Zankov, V. Davydov, I. Lerner, M. Skatkin, Z. Kalmykova and others [ 13 , 14 ]. Since the twenty-first century, the environmental approach to learning has been actively used. According to Manuilov [ 15 ], we define the functional environment as something, among which the subject resides, whereby his way of life is formed, which mediates his development and averages the personality. In the s of the twentieth century, the Italian scientist Rizolatti discovered mirror neurons.

Mirror neurons are neurons of the brain that are excited both when performing a certain action, and when observing the performance of this action by another person. Such neurons were reliably detected in primates, their presence in humans, and some birds, is confirmed. These neurons play a key role in the processes of imitation, empathy, imitation and language learning [ 16 ]. Prior to the theory of A. Bandura, according to the theories of J. Piaget and others, it was believed that abilities and attitudes were formed as they grew up [ 17 ].

Therefore, as we are accustomed to believe, some consistency is inherent in actions. Bandura believes that human behavior is not so consistent. Rather, it depends on the circumstances. Human behavior is more determined by the existing situation and its interpretation by a person than by the stage of his development, character traits or personality types.

From A. In the environmental approach, information and energy become important categories.

Challenges for Policy, Educational Leadership Research, Curriculum Theory and Didaktik

During the lesson, there is a dynamic exchange of information, knowledge, and energy between the teacher and the student. In our opinion, the basis of the synergetic approach in pedagogy is manifested here. Positive attitudes in study and occupation, the positive energy generated by the teacher, set a special positive spiritual atmosphere.

It is interesting that here one can turn around to the Academy of Plato history. The teacher becomes the facilitator of the child development. Therefore, art-pedagogical, creative methods of teaching are recommended. Moreover, the environment must be saturated with both information and positive energy. The teacher himself plays a big role if he is a significant personality for the student. This scientific direction in pedagogy connected with the social environment and the socialization of the individual has resulted in a new disciplinary science—social pedagogy.

It deals with other mechanisms of socialization—imprinting, imitation, identification. Thanks to the development of psychology, the theory of upbringing develops coping strategies, coping behavior, and the concept of a lifestyle. In the modern school, we observe serious changes related to informatics and the introduction of multimedia in the educational environment. Modern scientists—teachers, sociologists, futurists also reflecting—speak about a new generation of students, that is, schoolchildren of the twenty-first century.

Let us consider the foreign studies of scientists who demonstrate modern changes and new approaches in the development of didactics. Scientists D. Tapscott, D. Oblinger, B. Note the importance of all the changes. At present, having agreed in advance with the students, we can use the Internet video resources during the explanation and during the group work assignments, and we can allow students to use smart phones and phones when preparing a group solution. The average concentration duration of attention compared to that which was years ago, decreased ten times.

A new phenomenon is clip thinking. Teachers have diametrically opposed opinions on how to respond to changes: from conservative leaving everything as it is, schoolchildren need to be taught as in the last century until the need for a complete restructuring of the education system. Digital technologies change our way of life, ways of communication, way of thinking, feelings, channels of influence on other people, social skills, and social behavior [ 21 ].

Schoolchildren and students have more short-term memory; therefore, new methods of fixing knowledge in long-term memory and development of competencies are needed. These issues put forward new requirements for the teacher and his professional activities. Teachers need to learn new information and digital technologies more actively. In addition, new research is needed in the field of the psychology of perception and thinking with the active use of e-learning. Practical training of teachers for the use of ICT and digital resources, the formation of digital literacy, the inclusion of such courses in educational programs for teachers is necessary nowadays.

Connectivism as a new didactic basis in the foreign theory of education [ 19 , 22 ]. As is known, the theory of behaviorism as a behavioral approach appeared in the s. It has been used in education for a long time.

Engaging Students in Inclusive Literacy Learning with Technology

Schools of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries relied on the foundations of a behavioral approach although the theory of behaviorism has not existed yet. In the 30s of the twentieth century, the formation of the cognitivism process began in Soviet education. The Soviet didactic system was mainly built on the use of both theories. Further in the second half of the twentieth century, the theory of constructivism social constructionism was formulated.

Social reality has a dual nature. On the one hand, it has objective meanings, while on the other hand, it has subjective meanings.


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Each person builds a social reality around himself. An important tool of social reality is language. Through language and communication, a person builds for himself a field of knowledge and understanding. The processes of socio-psychological construction of the society through personal activity and activity are considered. In education, the course of social constructivism is associated with the socialization of the individual in society, the formation of socialization skills in each person, and the learning of self-structuring of knowledge by students.

The approach is connected both with the construction of the learning environment, including communicative and construction of knowledge through it. Currently, the theory is actualized by the use of active and innovative teaching methods in education brainstorming, case study, group teaching methods, etc.

We emphasize that the sequence of the appearance of theories, in principle, does not disprove the previous one, but complements, as it were, built on the previous ones, then penetrates into the previous ones and partially changes their use. This understanding is illustrated by the modern methodological principle of the science—the principle of addition and complementation. As in school, at the university, we use these trends when building the learning process. Note that the course of social constructivism echoes the environmental approach in pedagogy. A new direction for the emerging theory was put forward by Siemens and Downes in connection with the development of communication network and new opportunities for their use in teaching [ 22 ].

Knowledge is obtained through interaction with the network community. Of course, such a process of obtaining knowledge, on the one hand, can be characteristic of an already prepared or adult person who is able to critically evaluate, analyze, choose, and construct knowledge [ 21 ]. That is, it has some foundation of knowledge. At the same time, the students of secondary schools themselves demonstrate active assimilation of knowledge and skills in this way—through networks. Therefore, in our opinion, we predict that there will be a penetration of this theory gradually into lower-level classes even initial ones.

For junior high school students and teenagers, networks have become commonplace, so their networking skills are much better developed than those of educators. In Kazakhstan, which has Soviet traditions in didactics, the content of education was built on the basis of theories of encyclopedism, formalism, copyism in Russian—ekzemplyarizm , and others.

They are described in the textbook of didactics [ 23 ]. In the Western science of education, the transition from behaviorism to cognitivism and constructivism is considered. The transition to the dominance of theories of constructivism requires the active use of innovative teaching methods. It is clear that changes in reality dictate the need to move away from encyclopedism and cognitivism in learning.

In education, the understanding of learning outcomes has shifted from knowledge, or knowledge and skills, to the formation of competencies. If knowledge is formed consistently, then competencies develop in a complex manner. The learning strategy integrates both approaches and principles, the direction of development, and the methods and types of instruction. Training strategies are aimed at competence—the expected results of education.

Strategies for active, innovative teaching, project-oriented, and playful learning can realize the concepts of constructivism and connectivism. We give several of its provisions. Innovation is a phenomenon that carries in itself the essence, methods, techniques, technologies, and content of the new.

Innovations from Latin in - in, nove - new - the introduction of a new, the introduction of novelty. We propose one more typology of innovations in learning technologies, methods, and techniques : an absolute innovation absolutely new technology ;. Features of innovative training: 1 work on anticipation, anticipation of development; 2 openness to the future; 3 constant inconsistency, in other words, the non-equilibrium of the system, in particular the person himself; 4 focus on the personality, his development; 5 the obligatory presence of creativity elements; and 6 partnership type of relations: cooperation, co-creation, mutual assistance, and so on.

All innovations in pedagogy, according to I. Derizhan, unite: the belief that the human potential is unlimited;. Firstly, the very methodology of innovative learning is built on a personal-oriented approach. In the Western literature, it is called student-centered learning. Secondly, it synthesizes synergistic, systemic, competence, dialogical and activity-oriented, culturological, information and technological, environmental, and other approaches. Third, it is possible to determine the laws and principles of the innovation process in education and the basis of the innovative culture of the teacher.

The methodology of innovative teaching is reflected in the training manual. In practice, there is a transition from reproductive methods of teaching to innovative ones. Traditionally, ITM according to M. Novak is divided into nonimitative brainstorming, pedagogical exercises, and discussions and imitative nongame, e. The collection includes a didactic description of the algorithms for applying the methods and the most interesting examples of student fulfillment [ 29 ].

It depicts 35 Margraves and Kings of Saxony, who lived from the twelfth century to the beginning of the twentieth century and in the procession they are presented consistently. The student does not need to possess special artistic skills; he is allowed to use any improvised material such as copies of biographical references with photos, glue, paper, markers, etc. The work can be performed in groups, as an independent work, or at a seminar with a given homework to study the theory of behaviorism.

In conclusion, presentations are made. Students not only learn the sources as much as possible but also learn to generalize, logically and artistically, visually, creatively represent solutions, present their decisions, work in a team. In , UNESCO recommended the following teaching strategies for the twenty-first century: experiential learning, storytelling, values education, enquiry learning, appropriate assessment, future problem solving, outside classroom learning, and community problem solving [ 30 ].

The active use of innovative teaching methods by teachers is a necessity nowadays. Jesse C. Suter is a research assistant professor at the Center on Disability and Community Inclusion at the University of Vermont. His scholarship focuses on the development, research and evaluation, and real world implementation of community and school-based interventions for children with emotional and behavioral disabilities and their families. Dr Suter has published widely on both wraparound and special education service delivery. Gary Thomas started work as a teacher, then became an educational psychologist, and eventually a Professor of Education at the University of Birmingham, where his teaching, research and writing now focus on inclusive education and the methods used in social science research.

He has written or edited 20 books and lots of boring academic articles. Her research and technical assistance activities address the implications of contemporary US policy and practice for students with disabilities, including national and statewide assessment policies and practices, standards-setting efforts, accessibility and universal design, accommodations, computer-based testing, alternate assessments, and graduation requirements. Across her career, her research also has focused on instruction for students with intellectual impairments, early childhood identification issues, and the prevention of dropouts among those students with disabilities.

Liz Todd has worked as a secondary teacher, an educational psychologist and a therapist using narrative practices and video interaction guidance. Over the past 14 years, her research has been into the ways that agencies and schools work together with parents and young people to ameliorate the impact of disadvantage on educational achievement. Her Routledge monograph with Cummings and Dyson, Beyond the school gates; can full service and extended schools overcome disadvantage?

Sharon Vaughn , H. She is the author of more than 35 books and research articles. His research agenda focuses on inclusive education policies, practices, and tools and professional learning for inclusive education. He approaches these interests from a sociocultural and international perspective. He has published his work in numerous national and international journals and edited volumes.

His current research focuses on the capability of mobile technology to provide access to content for both students and teachers. Dr Wanzek conducts research examining effective reading instruction and intervention. Her focus is on prevention and remediation for students with reading difficulties and disabilities. Her main interests are in improving the link between research and practice, and in continuing professional development for teachers of children with PMLD and SLD. Michael Watts is a freelance educational consultant and an associate lecturer at the Faculty of Education, Cambridge.

Margret Winzer is a professor at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada where she teaches courses in special education and early childhood education. She has written widely in the field of special education on various facets that include history, comparative studies, multicultural special education, and early childhood special education.

Woodward has a doctorate in special education from the University of Oregon. His past interests have included curriculum design, technology-based education, and professional development. He has conducted over 20 years of research in the area of mathematics education for at-risk students and those with LD. She has been involved in professional development and applied research for over 30 years. Her interests include parent-child interactions, language and literacy, social emotional competence and challenging behavior.

Her scholarly interests include inclusive education and migrant education policy. The first edition of The SAGE Handbook of Special Education located its starting point in the debate about the nature and purpose of special education that became dominant in the s in response to sociological critiques of special education, and the emergence of inclusive education as an alternative.

Significantly, the Handbook focused on special education as a form of provision and an area of research rather than on categories of disability or learning difficulties. Probably the most remarkable thing about this Handbook is that most topics discussed in it would have been almost unimaginable 20 years ago. Kozulin, , p. This second edition continues and extends this project.

Special Education Inclusion

Constructive criticisms provided by nine anonymous field reviewers from around the world generated a list of topics to include in the second edition. This was followed by a broad trawl of relevant education journals — to identify recent additions to the literature not previously considered. This process provided a comprehensive foundation for the second edition. Many authors were invited to update chapters and prominent new authors were selected to reflect current scholarship consistent with the distinctive non-categorical approach taken by the book.

The range of contributors from the non-English speaking world was expanded, as was the coverage of developments in other world regions. As with the first edition of the Handbook, this two-volume second edition is intended as a source book of information and ideas about special education. It aims to reflect advances in research on learning and teaching in the foundation disciplines as well as renewed calls for engagement with the moral purpose of [Page xxxviii] education and its supporting philosophical ideas.

To this end, the book makes a number of demands on the reader as the authors start from different national and theoretical perspectives. The book does not attempt to provide a comparative analysis but includes new chapters that explore special needs education and the development of inclusive education from non-Western and non-English speaking perspectives. Implicit in their contributions are a range of views and a theoretical diversity that collectively map the field and address the problems and challenges faced by those who are concerned with educational access and equity for everyone.

A book such as this would not be possible without the support and involvement of many people and I am indebted to them all. I am especially appreciative of the extensive feedback from anonymous field reviewers of the first edition the Handbook that initiated the second edition.

Education Studies and Special Educational Needs, Disability and Inclusion Studies at Wolverhampton

I am in awe of the many contributors who have provided such fine chapters for the book. Their talents as teachers, researchers, and authors deserve the greatest respect. An outstanding team of Editorial Advisors helped to ensure that the book achieved the coverage and depth required by the many topics I wanted to address. From the outset of this project, both the contributors and advisors have been incredibly generous in sharing their expertise and I am indebted to them all.

To the extent that the book provides a useful resource to the field, the credit is due to their contributions but the responsibility for any omissions or errors is mine alone. Particular thanks are due to Seamus Hegarty who read the book in draft form and helped me to think through some key editorial decisions. Cristina Devecchi also read a draft of the text and prepared the glossary. John Ravenscroft helped to ensure that the cover design was accessible to readers with visual impairments. Lorna Thomson and Fannie Kong provided excellent clerical support at different times and Caroline Maloney was outstandingly assiduous in helping to put the final manuscript together.

I am obliged to the many amiable colleagues who have put up with my obsession and thankful for the many friends who indulged it. My family continues to be a source of sustenance for which I am deeply grateful. Most of all, I remain full of admiration for my partner, Martyn Rouse and his openhearted forbearance and unflappable wit, without which I would never have completed this book. It is a mine of information and challenging ideas. It is particularly timely as the UK legislation is being substantially revised — but the ideas are relevant beyond national boundaries.

If this is to be realised it will require new practices, new pedagogy, but most of all, entirely new conceptualisations about the nature of schools and schooling. The chapters in this book provide the roadmap for this revolution in our thinking and practice. In this context, educational and social inclusion is a real challenge. This stunning book appears at the right time: we need a new perspective to open our minds and develop our competences in order to achieve a new education for all.

We need to promote knowledge and pedagogy, and ensure trust and hope. If you are looking for something like that, this is your book. Social movements are always filled with words and word phrases that act as benchmarks and signposts. They focus discussion and debate, policy and practice. As new perspectives develop, new words are added to the list, sometimes necessarily and other times, unfortunately, usurping words that were already there. Pumpian, , p. As he claims, words are indeed powerful tools; they denote and connote, they delimit the boundaries of specific disciplines while simultaneously serving as bridges between them.

With time they may become tacit and commonsensical, but they also acquire new meanings and fuel new debates and discussions. Words, especially in contested and developing areas of knowledge, may carry moral and political connotations. Far from being representations of objective constructs and practices, some words are weighted by the burden of rival discourses.

Having a glossary for the handbook stemmed from a need for some words and phrases to be defined in order to help an international readership navigate a complex field where some terms may not be well known, and others are contested or have different meanings in different contexts. This brief introduction describes how the glossary came to be, and how it developed and was revised for the second edition. The first challenge was to choose which terms were important to include for an audience that includes researchers, teachers, graduate and undergraduate students.

The second challenge was to define the terms. While there was a desire to be comprehensive, [Page ] there was also the need to provide a manageable and useful resource. Chapter authors were asked to suggest terms and provide definitions. Many of these have been included. Each chapter was read by two people, the editor and myself, and a first list of words was drawn.

Personal knowledge of the field, literature reviews and internet searches were used to draw upon multiple perspectives and clarify meanings. A draft glossary was peer reviewed and edited. The definitions included here are introductory and provided for clarification. Ableist assumptions may play out on individual, institutional, and cultural levels. In England, academies are publicly-funded independent schools, although they might have a private sponsor. They are free from local authority control and have greater freedom to set their own pay and conditions for staff; the delivery of the curriculum; and, the length of school terms and days see also Charter Schools [in the USA].

A change in instructional and testing environments that removes barriers for students with disabilities but does not change the construct being taught or assessed see Modification. Assumes that goal-directed social activity is the source of human consciousness, knowledge and learning, and emphasizes the activity system as a unit of analysis. Human learning is understood to be embedded in joint activity or practice, and mediated through language, other cultural tools and artefacts. Term used in the Education Additional Support for Learning Scotland Act to describe any support needed by a child whether arising from a disability or other factors such as family circumstances, ethnicity, or language.

In its broadest sense it should be interpreted as provision designed to overcome any barrier to learning experienced by the student see also Education Additional Support for Learning Scotland Act One of a number of approaches based on the principles of behaviourism. Now widely promoted as an early intervention for children with autistic spectrum disorders see Behaviourism. Any item, piece of equipment or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.

Computer-based augmentative devices use synthesized or digital speech to speak messages out loud. The level of education considered essential to participate in society. Often confused with primary education, basic education is not limited to age. The statistical concept of a normal distribution sometimes known as a Gaussian distribution after Carl Friedrich Gauss the German mathematician credited with its invention.

A broad term covering a range of interventions designed to change behaviour without the need to focus on the past or to uncover the reason for the behaviour. Many of these approaches such as applied behaviour analysis ABA are based on the principles of behaviourism see below. A psychological theory that claims all behaviour is learned. It views learning as a response to external stimuli and focuses on observable behaviours rather than mental activities.

Behaviourism has been influential in special education through approaches such as behaviour modification, applied behaviour analysis and direct instruction. Major thinkers included Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson and Skinner. A German word meaning formation, bildung is an essential idea within Didaktik, which is based on a view of the self-responsible and socially aware person contributing to his or her own destiny and capable of knowing, feeling and acting.

One of the main models used to conceptualize disability. Unlike the medical and the social model, the bio-psycho-social model is an integrated model that does not specifically focus on either the impairment within the individual or on environmental barriers, but acknowledges that biological, psychological, social and environmental factors contribute interactively to disability. An evaluative approach to human well-being proposed by Amartya Sen which is concerned with the opportunities individuals have to choose and lead lives they have reason to value.

Traditionally, this term referred to aggressive, destructive and self-injurious behaviours of people with a severe intellectual disability. However, in many jurisdictions the use has changed and refers to any behaviour the teacher deems challenging. Developed by William Glasser, choice theory views all actions as behaviour which drives humans to satisfy basic needs.

In this sense individuals have choices on how to behave and they are responsible for the choices they make See Competitive individualism.


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An approach assessment or intervention that focuses on thinking, including aspects such as memory, problem-solving, hypothesis-testing. A curriculum in which the content studied is common to all children, though the means and level by which they gain access to it may be different according to their needs. In neo-liberalism theory, competition is seen as a natural and just way of distributing rewards to those individuals who have the abilities and attitude to succeed. Consequently, individuals are viewed as responsible for meeting their own needs, thus relieving the state of its welfare responsibilities see Choice theory.

Complex learning difficulties and disabilities. Children and young people with complex learning difficulties and disabilities CLDD have conditions that co-exist. These conditions overlap and interlock creating a complex profile. Children and young people with CLDD have a range of difficulties and combination of layered needs — e. Closely related to chaos theory, complexity theory is applied to the study of systems which cannot be explained through fixed and deterministic parameters.

In such a system, all its elements continuously interact in spontaneous and adaptive organization and reorganization giving life to progressively more complex structures. Experience combined with reflection and social interaction allows the learner to build on prior knowledge and create their own understanding see also Dialectical constructivism and Endogenous constructivism.

A social theory oriented towards critiquing and changing society as a whole. Because the emancipatory aim is directed at society, critical theory integrates all major social science theories such as economics, sociology, history, political science, anthropology, psychology and more recently education. Central to critical theory is the notion of ideology critique of the process by which it is possible in collaboration with others to dispel the limitations of false consciousness. The various forms of knowledge, skill, education or other advantages a person possesses which gives them a higher status within a particular community.

Dakar Framework for Action, Education for All. A growing multidisciplinary area of study focused on the relationship between neural and cognitive development. Recent developments in brain imaging techniques have prompted great interest in this field of study. A curriculum based on the idea that children with severe cognitive impairments are at a similar developmental stage to their younger typically-developing peers, and thus need a curriculum, which reflects this, but nevertheless should be age appropriate see also Functional curriculum.

An assessment approach that focuses on measuring the stages that a learner progresses over the lifespan. These stages can relate to physical, cognitive or psychosocial areas. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM , published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook that provides categories and criteria for the diagnosis of mental disorders and certain other disabilities.

Within this position the role of the teacher can be at times didactic and at times providing less obvious support. Refers to the Continental-European tradition of phrasing issues of teaching and learning. A UK Parliamentary Act of , which made it unlawful to discriminate against people in respect of their disabilities in relation to employment, the provision of goods and services, education and transport.

The over-representation of particular groups in special education and other forms of segregated provision. Disproportionality manifests itself differently in different countries. In some countries it is associated with ethnicity, in others poverty. A system of coordinated services, to support disabled children and their families involving education, health and social services. An assessment approach that acknowledges and focuses on the environmental systems and subsystems in which the learner is located, for example the home, school and community see International Classification of Functioning and Disability.

Education Act, England and Wales. The Act established a new framework for supporting the education of all children and young people. Education for All EFA. A global movement, supported by various UN organizations beginning with the World Conference on Education For All in Jomtien, Thailand, where participating countries pledged to provide primary education for all children and massively reduce adult illiteracy.

It draws strong support from Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , which recognizes education as a fundamental human right. The law authorizes federally-funded education programs that are administered by the states. Endogenous constructivism see Constructivism and Dialectical constructivism considers that knowledge is developed within the student. Accordingly, knowledge cannot be transmitted precisely from the teacher to the student; therefore, the role of the teacher is to facilitate learning by providing meaningfully-structured experiences that provide active engagement in problem-solving without overtly controlling the instructional interaction.

A term and process created by Francis Galton to promote the procreation of the so-called fit and eliminate or halt that of the unfit. In its most extreme form it was used to justify forced sterilization of certain disabled populations see Social Darwinism. The European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education is an independent and self-governing organization, established by member countries to act as a platform for collaboration in the field of special needs education. An approach where the view of the specialist and teacher are seen as authoritative and superior to that of the parent or student.

Activities which provide information that can be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities. An assessment that identifies the intent and function of a behaviour, and the purpose that it serves for the individual. A functional curriculum is a curriculum designed to teach functional life skills deemed necessary for living and working independently in the community. Assumes that society can be studied by an objective and value-free social science that can produce true explanatory and predictive knowledge of reality objectively by reference to empirical evidence.

It attributes independence of the observer from the observed and it claims that universal standards of science determine what constitutes an adequate explanation of what is observed. The functionalist paradigm seeks to provide rational explanations of social affairs emphasizing the importance of understanding order, equilibrium, and stability in society and the way in which these can be maintained.

Genetic law of development Intramental and intermental. Every function in the cultural development of the child comes on the stage twice, in two respects; in the social, later in the psychological, in relations between people as an interpsychological category, afterwards within the child as an intrapsychological category. All higher psychological functions are internalized relationships of the social kind, and constitute the social structure of personality.

The term is derived from the economic theories of Friederick von Hayek. A Hayekian marketplace represents a view of society organized around a market order in which the apparatus of state is employed solely to secure the peace necessary for a market of free individuals to function. His views have had great impact on current neo-liberal theories.

A recent reauthorization of the US Higher Education Act of , this law established the first statutory definition for universal design for learning. This definition incorporates the three principles of UDL — representation, expression, and engagement — and emphasizes reducing barriers with appropriate supports and challenges built into instruction.

Human capital and social capital theories. Theories that deal differently with the notion of capital, or the existing stock of goods, which are to be used in the production of other goods or services and which have themselves been produced by previous human activities. In human capital theory, capital stands for the practical knowledge, acquired skills and learned abilities of an individual that make him or her potentially productive and thus equip him or her to earn income in exchange for labour.

Social capital consists of the stock of active connections among people: the trust, mutual understanding, and shared values and behaviours that bind the members of human networks and communities and make cooperative action possible. For others, it is a process of identifying, understanding and breaking down barriers to participation and belonging often by addressing institutional factors and work generally on school development. Pedagogic approaches through teaching and assessment that are inclusive of all learners, and that actively reduce barriers to a learner participating in social, cultural and learning activities within the classroom and school.

A plan completed by a multi-agency team for any child receiving Part C early intervention services see Early intervention. The Act states that an appropriate education has to be designed around the individualized needs of the child, and thus it requires children to be educated in the least restricted environment that is with their non-disabled peers to the greatest extent possible. An approach which focuses on the unique perspective on the learner being assessed and foregrounds their individual experience of learning.

A World Health Organization classification framework for health and disability intended to provide guidance for planning and decision-making. A term used in the US legislation that requires a student with a disability to be educated alongside non-disabled peers, studying the same curriculum and having access to the same extra-curricular activities to the greatest possible extent.

As a market-emphasized descendant of classical liberalism, market liberalism advocates full freedom of markets, without obstacles for monopolies and cartels, and without consumer-protective legislation. Education policies in many countries have been influenced by these ideas see Hayekian marketplace. Mastery learning is an instructional strategy based on the principle that all students can learn with appropriate instruction and sufficient time to learn.

An understanding of phenomena from a medical perspective. It involves seeing many behaviours and difficulties as pathological and requiring treatment with drugs. An example is how a growing number of mostly boys are described as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and are treated with psycho-stimulants such as Ritalin.

Thinking about thinking — in education, the term is used to describe approaches that focus on learning to learn. A set of eight goals including universal access to primary education agreed at the United Nations Millennium Summit in September aimed at improving the conditions of poorer countries. A change in instructional and testing environments that removes barriers for students with disabilities, but does not change the construct being taught or assessed see Accommodation.

A form of assessment that requires the learning event to be recorded in a rich and meaningful way and can include photos or videos and focuses on achievements and future learning goals. Department of Education policy document that provides a set of concrete goals that can inform state and local educational technology plans as well as inspire research, development, and innovation. Its findings were used to justify many subsequent reforms. The notion that everything in the workplace should be measured and monitored against targets. Conceiving of nature as a machine, the Newtonian paradigm celebrated order and promised prediction and control.

Central to this view of science was the presumption that we live in a universe governed by immutable laws. See also Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Refers to the ways in which organizations have shared understandings or a common world view. Research conducted collaboratively with an overarching concern to transform social practice.

In education, the term performativity has been used to critique the notion of performance management and the commodification and marketization of education. Awareness of the sounds that make up words. The amendment to the Education of All Handicapped Children Act of , established a program to encourage states to develop services for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

Positivism is an approach to the philosophy of science, deriving from Enlightenment thinkers like Auguste le Compte — that states the only authentic knowledge is the scientific knowledge. Positivism views social reality as objective, and thus value-free, and amenable to scientific and empirical enquiry that can determine with accuracy the relationship between cause and effect. A term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding modernism.

Post-positivism, like positivism, seeks to study social realities as objective and amenable to scientific methods of research. However, it also admits to the fallibility of methods and therefore it emphasizes the importance of multiple measures and observations, each of which may possess different types of error, and the need to use triangulation across these multiple sources see also Positivism. Research conducted by practitioners in their place of work for the purpose of improving the quality of their practice and improving the outcomes for learners. Pragmatism, a school of philosophy originating in the US in the late s, is characterized by the insistence on consequences, utility and practicality as vital components of truth.

Pragmatism holds that it is only in the struggle of intelligent organisms with the surrounding environment that theories and data acquire significance. Groups of teachers and other professionals who work collaboratively for extended periods of time to improve their practice and the learning outcomes of all the students they teach. Psychometrics is the measurement of mental and cognitive functioning, together with the tools and techniques that have been developed to carry out such measurement. Psychometric tests are used for a range of educational, psychological and workplace purposes.

A US initiative introduced in that attempted to merge special and regular education into a unitary system. It has many of the features of the staged intervention approaches that are used in other countries. A Government of India-program for achieving universal primary education to children aged 6—14 years.

For further detail see The Archaeology of Knowledge Foucault, An assessment where the learner measures or describes their own achievement, success or performance. The ability of learners to monitor their own learning and behaviour, and make changes accordingly. More radical than social constructivism, social constructionism is an approach to psychology that aims to account for the ways in which reality, created through language, is socially constructed. A school of thought interested in uncovering the ways in which individuals and groups participate in the creation of their perceived reality.

Reality is seen as an on-going, dynamic process where individual and social influences are not separable and learning is viewed as socially and contextually specific. Theoretical school of thought concerned with how social interactions between people generate meaningful experiences.

Special Education Inclusion

One of the various models used to conceptualize disability see also the Medicalization and the Bio-psycho-social models. The social model focuses on the physical, social and attitudinal barriers that excludes disabled people from fully participating in activities of daily life. A form of assessment that uses uniform procedures and measures outcomes against norms derived from comparisons with similar populations through a process of standardization. Set of reforms aimed at the improvement of schools and basic educational outcome of children based on high standards, accountability and assessment as a measure of achievement.

It is designed to raise standards in the belief that it will improve economic performance and productivity. Structuralism is a theoretical paradigm emphasizing that many phenomena can only be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It explores the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel and it has been influential in a number of disciplinary fields, particularly in anthropology Levi-Strauss and in cultural studies Roland Barthes.

A form of assessment that measures the outcomes of student learning following the completion of a learning unit, course or phase of education. Summative assessment often uses standardized tests. A token economy is a system used in behaviour modification based on the systematic positive reinforcement of target behaviours. The reinforcers are symbols or tokens stars, points, etc. Token economy is based on the principles of operant conditioning and can be situated within applied behaviour analysis ABA. A pedagogical concept developed by Susan Hart and her colleagues, based on the conviction that there is always potential for change in current patterns of achievement and response, that things can always change and be changed for the better, sometimes dramatically, as a result of what teachers do in the present.

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. A set of principles for curriculum development that aims to give all students equal opportunities to learn by providing: 1. Multiple means of representation , to give diverse learners options for acquiring information and knowledge; 2. Multiple means of action and expression , to provide learners options for demonstrating what they know; and 3.

This influential report, took its name from Mary Warnock who chaired a Committee of Enquiry into the education of handicapped children in CQ Press Your definitive resource for politics, policy and people. Remember me? Back Institutional Login Please choose from an option shown below. Need help logging in? Click here. Don't have access? View purchasing options. Online ISBN: Online Publication Date: April 07, Print Purchase Options.

Copy to Clipboard. Rose, Jenna W. Gravel and David T. Joy Cumming and Graham S. Dell and Deborah A. Pugach and Linda P. Editorial Advisors. About the Editor and Contributors. A review of the Handbook in the Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology noted: Probably the most remarkable thing about this Handbook is that most topics discussed in it would have been almost unimaginable 20 years ago.

Kozulin , A. Review of L. Florian Ed. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology [online], 7 2 , — Lani Florian University of Edinburgh. Pumpian , I. Wehmeyer Eds.