Edouard Chatton FR first used the terms prokaryote and eukaryote in his paper when he suggested that the most significant taxonomic distinction among life forms today is not between plants and animals but between cells with nuclei, eukaryotes, and cells without them, prokaryotes. Pro means before and eu means true, karyote refers to a nut or kernel , Heterotrophic organisms are therefore dependent on them for their existence as well as on chemotrophic Prokaryotes and autotrophs nitrifying and sulphurous bacteria, Cyanophyceae.
Eukaryotes are now placed in the domain Eucarya while prokaryotes are placed in either the domain Bacteria or Archaea. Ellsworth C. Dougherty US proposed the prokaryotic-eukaryotic dichotomy. They defined eukaryotes as cells containing membrane-bound structures called organelles, the most important of which was the nucleus. By this definition, all cells of multi-cellular plants and animals were eukaryotes. Cells that lacked membrane-bound cell nuclei, like bacteria and blue-green algae, were designated prokaryotes. The term prokaryote implicitly elevated bacteria to equivalent biological status with all other organisms, to be known as eukaryotes This represents the resurrection and embellishment of an idea first conceived by Edouard Chatton FR.
Emil-Karl Frey DE observed in a considerable reduction in arterial blood pressure when he injected human urine into dogs. Unlike many other contemporary scientists, he did not attribute this effect to a toxic action of urine, but rather as the specific activity of an unknown substance with potential biological functions , This F-substance was then called kallikrein , since it was considered to have originated in the pancreas Greek synonym: kallikreas Eugen Werle DE , W. Keppler DE , and M.
Grunz DE discovered kinins when they gave evidence that a smooth muscle stimulating substance KLK tissue kallikrein is a proteolytic enzyme, which liberates the biologically highly active basic polypeptide kallidin KD from the plasma protein, kallidinogen or kininogen , Its name was later changed to kallidin and that of the precursor to kallidinogen.
This work laid the foundation for understanding the system that we refer to today as the kallikrein-kinin system cascade. Evert Gorter NL and Francois Grendel NL determined that the area of the monomolecular film formed on a Langmuir trough by the membrane lipids was double the surface area of the erythrocytes from which the lipids had been extracted, suggesting that the cell membrane is bimolecular This was the first evidence that cell membranes are bi-layered.
Hans Molisch CZ , in , obtained the evolution of oxygen by illuminating preparations of dried leaves Carl Ferdinand Cori CZ-US described the rapid absorption of galactose in the intestine, galactose being the most active sugar in this respect He proved that the annual cycle of changing day-length is the major stimulus for bird migration and is associated with profound physiological change within birds Robert Kyle Burns, Jr. US established the adequacy of the hormonal theory of sex determination as a general mechanism for vertebrates See Frank Rattray Lillie, Josef von Halban AT and Robert Koehler AT proved that cessation of internal secretion of the corpus luteum is responsible for the menstrual bleeding in humans Ernest Henry Starling GB and Ernest Basil Verney GB isolated dog kidneys, which they supplied with oxygenated blood at controlled flow rates, temperature, and pressure.
They found they could produce regular flow rates of normal urine. From their analysis of the urine they determined that the glomeruli generate a protein-free filtrate. They artificially blocked tubular metabolic activity with hydrocyanic acid, collected ureter filtrate, and found that water, chloride, bicarbonate, and glucose are normally reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the tubular cells.
They also found that pituitrin a proprietary preparation of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland influenced the re-absorption mechanisms for water and chloride and that without it the mammalian kidney reverted to a urine characteristic of fish and amphibian classes Vasopressin would later be isolated as the active ingredient in pituitrin.
Edwin B. They discovered that the additional presence of copper is necessary for the animals to synthesize the pyrrol nucleus of hemoglobin , They also found that both the retinas of A-deficient rats and of rats whose eyes had been strongly illuminated were depleted of visual purple Descombey FR produced a tetanus vaccine from formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin Bessey US , and Percy R. Howe US concluded that vitamin A retinol deficiency in diets led to improper development of teeth and retardation of the growth of the skeleton and that vitamin C deficiency led to a deficiency of formation of intercellular cement substance leading to fragility of blood capillaries Ruyter BE was the first to call attention to the structural peculiarities of unique cells lining the afferent arteriole as it approaches the glomerulus.
He suggested that by swelling these cells could occlude the lumen of the afferent arterioles and thereby regulate blood flow to the glomerular capillaries Norbert Goormaghtigh BE named the juxtaglomerular apparatus and suggested that it might have an endocrine function Grimson US confirmed that the modified cells in the afferent arteriolar wall of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are endocrine in nature Taquini AR rediscovered renin from the kidney as an inducer of hypertension , See Tigerstedt, Leonard T. Skeggs, Jr. US , Kenneth E. Lentz US , Joseph R. Kahn US , Norman P. Shumway US , and Kenneth R.
Woods US determined that a serum enzyme angiotensinase converts the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I to the active octapeptide angiotensin II This activity occurs primarily in the lungs. William Stanley Peart GB demonstrated that the juxtaglomerular apparatus cells produce renin within the kidney Edward M. East US and Albert J. Mangelsdorf US , using Nicotiana tabacum as their research material, laid the foundation for understanding gametophytic self-incompatibility Daughters from the distorted brood produced an equal number of males and females, but half of their sons produced female-biased sex ratios, whatever the origin of their mates.
The remaining grandsons produced normal sex ratios and were shown to have lost the trait David Policansky US and John Ellison US showed that in the Drosophila males producing biased sex ratio offspring there is a high mortality among sperm bearing the Y chromosome. They concluded that in some way a gene on the X chromosome kills sperm bearing a Y chromosome Hermann Joseph Muller, Jr.
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US reported on the mental traits and heredity as studied in a case of identical twins reared apart Horatio H. Newman US , Frank N. Freeman US , and Karl J. Holzinger US presented a large study of heredity and environment in the development of pairs of twins Sears P. Carl Hamilton Browning GB defined substances that incite the formation of antibodies and react with them as antigens John Cunningham GB , working in India, found that the organism, Borrelia carteri , occurs in two antigenic varieties in human infections of relapsing fever John Cunningham GB , J.
Theodore GB , and A. Fraser GB extended the number of antigenic varieties to nine Gaston Ramon FR demonstrated that it was possible to augment the antitoxin response to diphtheria and tetanus by administering vaccines with pyogenic bacteria or with various additional compounds. This represents the first occasion on which immunological adjuvants were used.
Porter Warren Anderson, Jr.
5th Indian Conference, ICVGIP 2006, Madurai, India, December 13-16, 2006. Proceedings
Johnston, Jr. US , Michael E. Pichichero US , Richard A. Eby US made the first polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae to be tested in adults and infants 36 , They went on to develop a vaccine, which was a commercial success. Louis P. Rodriques US , John B. Parke, Jr. Bell US , James J. Wang US , Gerald Schiffman US , Arthur Karpas US , and Joseph Shiloach US studied the antigenicity of the Haemophilus influenzae type b Hib polysaccharide then developed a clinically acceptable method of binding this polysaccharide to a medically useful protein, tetanus toxoid to form a conjugate vaccine.
In sequential studies, their Hib-tetanus conjugate elicited protective levels in mice, rabbits, young rhesus monkeys, and then in human adults, children, and infants. Their achievement opened the door to their and others' development of conjugate vaccines for other bacterial pathogens whose surface polysaccharide could serve as a protective antigen , , William C. They grew it in a diphasic egg slant medium they developed for isolation of intestinal flagellates Alfred Stock DE wrote about the danger of mercury vapor and concluded that mercury is a poison, which can accumulate in the tissues over a considerable period of time Martha Schmidtmann DE by following the spread of dye in cardiac cells presented the first evidence for a direct intercellular pathway permeable to molecules Walther Vogt DE prepared a fate map that showed where the cells on the surface of an early gastrula would be in the later embryo.
That is, he determined the destiny, or fate, of the gastrula cells , Note : Otto Heinrich Warburg DE had previously established that high aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis occurs in tumors in an in vitro environment. John Thomas Scopes , the so-called monkey trial held in Dayton, Tennessee in July , in which a science teacher was arrested for teaching evolution in violation of the state laws at that time.
Two-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan led the prosecution. Labor lawyer Clarence Darrow led the defense and goaded Bryan into declaring that humans are not mammals Sperry US , and George B. Walden US found that liver, heart, skeletal muscle, ash of liver, ash of kidney, and ash of pineapple promotes regeneration of hemoglobin following severe anemia , , These results suggested that iron in the diet is important for hemoglobin formation.
Thomas Benton Cooley US and Pearl Lee US reported on two Italian children with symptoms of severe anemia, enlarged spleens and livers, discolored skin and bone alterations Thalassaemia or thalassemia. George Hoyt Whipple US and William Leslie Bradford US coined the word thalassaemia deriving it from two Greek words - Thalassa meaning the sea and haima meaning blood, literally "sea water in the blood" Arnold Rice Rich US concluded that hemoglobin, derived from destroyed erythrocytes, is the sole source of bile pigment; its normal site of origin being in reticuloendothelial cells alone, especially the Kupffer cells , and the epithelial liver cells having no role in the formation, but only in the excretion of the bile pigment Percival Bailey US and Harvey Williams Cushing US postulated that medulloblastomas Bailey coined this name are derived from embryonic undifferentiated cells in the ependymal lining of the fourth ventricle.
They described the characteristic gross and microscopic structure of this tumor, its reddish-gray color, extremely cellular nature, numerous mitotic figures, and the formation of pseudo rosettes. The tendency of this tumor to spread to the leptomeninges, which proved valuable in terms of treatment considerations, was noted. They recommended radiotherapy in the post-operative care of patients with medulloblastomas 68 , Allergen administered by either the percutaneous, cutaneous, or intracutaneous routes causes a local reaction, which will develop into a blister when a cantharidal dressing is placed on it Walter Edward Dandy US reported a case in which he totally removed an acoustic neuroma.
He used a unilateral sub-occipital approach during which, following gutting of the tumor, he gently drew the capsule away from the brainstem Dandy's success was due in part to his innovation called ventriculography, which involved x-rays and injecting a gas into the brain's cerebral ventricles for visualizing the tumor. See , Dandy Percy Sargent GB was the first to remove a suprarenal tumor thus reversing virilism in the patient.
Gordon Morgan Holmes GB described the operation Henry Sessions Souttar GB performed a "digital" mitral commissurotomy closed mitral valvulotomy Geoffrey Jefferson GB performed the first successful embolectomy in Britain Konstantine Michaelovich Bykov RU was the first to demonstrate experimentally that the bilateral synergic activity of the hemispheres of the brain may be dependent on the corpus callosum and indicated the part the corpus callosum plays in the development of symmetrical reproduction of function in the hemispheres. He severed the corpus callosum in dogs and then used Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning methods to assess the effects of his surgeries.
His experiments showed the importance of the corpus callosum for interhemispheric communication , Howard J. Curtis US and Archibald Philip Bard US used electrical stimulation to prove the point-to-point connection of one side of the cortex to the other by way of the corpus callosum Howard Christian Naffziger US described the phenomenon of the pineal shift on skull x-rays, an important sign for brain tumor localization John Silas Lundy US , in , developed the concept of balanced anesthesia. He introduced the idea of combining more than one anesthetic technique—for example, using morphine preoperatively, a regional block to the surgical site, alongside an inhalational anesthetic of ethylene Hermann Ludwig Blumgart US and Otto Christian Yens US , in , performed the most famous of all radiotracer experiments on humans, the well-known study of arm-to-arm circulation time This ushered in the field of nuclear medicine.
Merritt Lyndon Fernald US proved that in the northeastern United States some species of plants and animals persisted in areas that escaped glaciation during the Pleistocene Fritz Berckhemer DE found a fossil skull of a young female in the Sigrist gravel pit north of Stuttgart, Germany and gave it to Karl Sigrist , Raymond Arthur Dart AU-ZA found in material from a limestone quarry at Taung place of the lion , South Africa a fossil cast of the inside of a primate skull, which fitted into another lump of stone which possibly contained a face.
It took Dart about a month to remove enough stone to reveal the face and jaw of a young fossil primate, which would be nicknamed the Taung baby. It was placed in early Pleistocene or late Pliocene. Australopithecus africanus existed between 3 and 2 million years ago. It is like A. Brain size may also have been slightly larger, ranging between and cc. This is a little larger than chimp brains despite a similar body size , but still not advanced in the areas necessary for speech. The back teeth were a little bigger than in A.
Although the teeth and jaws of A. The shape of the jaw is now fully parabolic, like that of humans, and the size of the canine teeth is further reduced compared to A. The American Type Culture Collection was founded. It is a repository and source of known strains of viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and eukaryotic cells. Thought is subversive, and revolutionary, destructive and terrible; thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habits; thought is anarchic and lawless, indifferent to authority, careless to the well-tried wisdom of the ages.
Thought looks into the pit of hell and is not afraid. The remarkable phenomena accompanying alcoholic fermentation are now duplicated in the case of lactic acid production, and it may reasonably be expected that most of the fermentative decompositions of sugars will be found to be initiated in a similar manner. The members of each pair of genes separate when germ cells mature….
Each germ-cell comes to contain only one set…. These principles…enable us to handle problems of genetics in a strictly numerical basis and allow us to predict…what will occur…. In these respects, the theory [of the gene] fulfills the requirements of a scientific theory in the fullest sense. This is the simplest assumption that one can make at present, and since this view is consistent with all that is known about the stability of the gene it seems, at least, a good working hypothesis.
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger DK was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for research indicating that a nematode, Spiroptera carcinoma , caused gastric cancer in rats The hypothesis was later rejected but, nonetheless, had an important role in the development of experimental research on cancer.
Gilbert Newton Lewis US coined the term photon for the smallest unit of radiant energy It was based on ionization of air. Leopold Stefan Ruzicka HR-CH analyzed civetone and muscone, two active compounds in natural musk perfumes and found that they consist of very large rings of atoms. He showed that civetone is composed of a membered, and muscone a membered carbon ring.
At this time, it was thought that rings with over 6 members were too unstable to exist for long This paper was submitted in In his excavations Tello found coca leaves placed in an urn, which accompanied the burial of a Peruvian priest, noble, or king from the Nazca period. This is the earliest record of the use of cocoa leaves Albert Jan Kluyver NL and Hendrick Jean Louis Donker NL wrote their treatise on the unity of biochemistry in which they stressed that biochemical mechanisms can be investigated using mutant strains of microorganisms and that hydrogen transfer is a basic feature of all metabolic processes It was on the aspartate ammonia-lyase reaction James Batcheller Sumner US was the first to obtain an enzyme in pure crystalline form.
This was the enzyme urease , which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield carbon dioxide and ammonia. After filtering off this precipitate and letting the filtrate stand overnight in the cold, he found that crystals of protein had formed in the filtrate. Study of these protein crystals revealed that they are pure urease enzyme endowed with a specific enzymatic activity enormously greater than that of the original jack-bean extract.
It was thus proven that the enzyme urease is a protein and that a polypeptide chain can act as a catalyst in the facilitation of a chemical reaction. Anna L. Sommer US and Charles B. Lipman US experimentally demonstrated the essential nature of zinc, copper, and boron for plant growth , Alfred Henry Sturtevant US found that inversion of a section of the third chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster reduces crossover frequency Hugo W. Alberts US devised a method for calculating genetic linkage values Olbrycht GB noted that to accurately construct genetic maps it is necessary to know the full number of crossovers doubles counting as two crossovers, triples as three crossovers that occur between the loci that are to be mapped.
In constructing such maps, it is first necessary to determine experimentally the amounts by which the various crossing over values exceed the directly observed recombination percents. The experimental determination of the amount by which crossing over exceeds recombination is made through use of loci lying between the two loci in question. Bridges created the sc ec ct v g f multiple recessive and called it "Xple" X-chromosome multiple.
This organism was used to test many aspects of linkage mapping Muller US demonstrated the nature of the mechanism of inheritance of the truncate character in Drosophila. They showed that it conformed regularly to the principles of chromosome heredity, factor constancy, etc. The truncate character, when it was analyzed, was found to depend on so many factors. Edgar Douglas Adrian GB and Yngve Zotterman SE , using the afferent nerve of a stretch receptor in a frog muscle, showed that it is possible by amplification to record the impulses in single nerve cells to a natural stimulus tension.
They postulated the concept of adaptation of receptors to stimuli and predicted that other units of the nervous system would also exhibit adaptation Edgar Douglas Adrian GB and Yngve Zotterman SE , established beyond doubt that the nerve impulse is invariant, that the intensity of sensation is conveyed by the frequency of impulses and the quality by the type of nerve fiber in action These papers included the first measurements of the pressure drops along the vascular tree and localization of the separate components of the peripheral resistance to blood flow, in mammals as well as frogs , See , Starling This technique was especially important because it allowed a clear differentiation between chromosomes and cytoplasm See , Claude Bernard Descombey FR described the flocculation reaction and observed that flocculation may occur in zones that do not correspond to the point at which the toxin and antitoxin neutralize each other Gaston Ramon FR intentionally induced inflammation at the site of injection on horses with pus or tapioca, to enhance antibody production.
Janeway, Jr. US and had invented the concept of adjuvant , Note : His discovery issued a key statement indicating a need to involve an inflammatory reaction at the antigen-injection site to enhance immune response. Jules T. They emulsified water in oil with the assistance of a water-miscible lanolin-like material to incorporate both dried inactivated tubercle bacilli and the target antigen in a single aggregate preparation.
Frantisek Vejdovsky CZ showed that nuclear fission in an ovule is preceded by the splitting of the centrosome which he called the periplast ; he was apparently the first to observe the centriole in These conclusions were based on the plaque-count, and dilution methods of assay that he had invented Louis Otto Kunkel US demonstrated that Cicadula sexnotata a leafhopper could act as a vector of aster yellows virus Thomas Clifford Vanterpool CA was the first to discover that mixed infections , the simultaneous occurrence of two viruses within a host plant acting together, could produce a distinct severe disease.
He showed that tomato mosaic virus and potato mosaic virus acting together caused the severe disease of tomatoes called streak or winter blight while either virus acting alone was shown to cause mild symptoms He was the first to describe a new group of diseases, the granuloses, which are characterized by the formation of virus inclusion bodies called granules within tissues of infected insects These are now considered Baculovirus. Edson Sunderland Bastin US succeeded in culturing sulfate-reducing bacteria from groundwater samples extracted from an oil deposit that was hundreds of meters below the surface.
Since this discovery over 9, strains of bacteria and fungi have been isolated from diverse subsurface environments 85 , The etiological agent he described and named Malpighamoeba mellificae attacks the Malpighian tubules causing a dysentery , Walter H. Burkholder US observed that halo blight of beans is caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola Walter F. Lavigne US , Robert A.
Bortolussi US , Alexander C. Allen US , E. Vanora Haldane US , A. Hightower US , Scott E. Johnson US , Stanley H. King US , Eric S. Nicholls US , and Clare V. Broome US established that human consumption of Listeria -contaminated foodstuffs causes a disease called listeriosis Louis Edmond den Dooren de Jong NL demonstrated that a strain of Pseudomonas putida can proliferate on a mineral medium to which any one of some eighty compounds was added as the sole organic substance available Maurice Lemoigne FR originally discovered poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid PHB as a major component of the cells of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium Frederick P.
Tilley US and Jacob M. Schaffer US determined that the germicidal activity of the aliphatic alcohols increases regularly from methyl through octyl alcohol for each additional methyl group in the straight chain , Samuel Ottmar Mast US proposed the tail contraction model to explain sol-gel amoeboid movement John Nathaniel Couch US described for the first time the existence of physiologically distinct and separate male and female strains in an oomycete Dictyuchus Friedrich Seidel DE , using eggs of the dragonfly, Platycnemis pennipes , determined that embryonic development in insects is typified by the presence of a special kind of germ-band formation.
Because of the distribution of cytoplasm and yolk in the egg the germ band is limited to a particular region. The ventral portion of the developing embryo is special because it is the carrier of the main system of organs. The ventral part of the embryo precedes the dorsal side in development Alden B. Dawson US carried out the first successful skeletal staining when he used alizarin red S Henry Allan Gleason US argued that every plant association is the unique product of the fluctuating environmental conditions of a particular time and place Gavin Rylands de Beer GB observed that certain cartilage and bone cells are derived from the outer ectodermal layer of the embryo; calling into question the germ-layer theory Lloyd R.
Watson US devised instrumental methods to artificially inseminate the honeybee , , This instrument greatly improved genetics of the honeybee. Sergei Sergeevich Chetverikov RU concluded that populations in nature maintain within themselves the variants, which arise within them by mutation. This would provide them with a supply of potential but hidden variability out of which the adaptiveness of the population to a changing environment could arise , William Bloom US worked out the early stages of the embryogenesis of human bile capillaries William Bloom US described the transformation of small lymphocytes into myelocytes in germinal centers George Ellett Coghill US , in his studies of the amphibian Amblystoma punctatum , established that innervation develops in a cephalo-caudal head-tail direction, and that limb movements emerge from a more general pattern of trunk movement.
He then theorized that behavior develops as the expansion of a "total pattern," rather than simply as the combination or coordination of reflexes and suggested strongly that this might well be true for higher vertebrates, including man Karl Ernest Mason US , working with the rat, was the first to associate testicular degeneration and hence male infertility with vitamin E deficiency Harold S. Olcott US and Henry A. Mattill US fractionated the oil of lettuce and found that one fraction had high antioxidant power and high potency as a source of vitamin E Emerson US , and Gladys A.
Emerson US isolated alpha-tocopherol from wheat germ oil and discovered that it is synonymous with vitamin E Salomon CH synthesized alpha-tocopherol vitamin E and proved its biological role as a vitamin Wells Phillips Eagleton US described cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis in relation to septicemia Giovanni Di Guglielmo IT described a syndrome of unknown origin characterized by enormous numbers of nucleated erythrocytes appearing in the bone marrow and blood acute erythroblastosis Erik Adolf Willebrand FI described a previously unknown form of hemophilia with a prolonged bleeding time course as its most prominent sign.
He named it pseudo-hemophilia , , Nikolai Mikhailovich Itsenko RU described glucocorticoid excess syndrome in which the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids is secondary to hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone from the pituitary. It may also be caused by a basophilic adenoma of the pituitary Harvey Williams Cushing US described this syndrome six years later Felix Mandl AT was the first to undertake parathyroid surgery, successfully removing a parathyroid adenoma in a patient with osteitis fibrosa cystica Later the same year, Charles Horace Mayo US performed the first surgical resection in the United States and described medical and surgical management of pheochromocytoma It completely revolutionized the understanding of neurooncology, and for first time the neurosurgical community was presented with an orderly classification of gliomas based on the tumor's natural history and clinical course.
This work changed antiquated thinking by showing that the microscopic structure of a tumor is important for prognosis. It completely revamped the understanding of these tumors. In fact, the histopathological basis of brain tumors in relation to patient survival rate and outcome still influences present-day neurosurgical thought Percival Bailey US simplified, refined, and made the concepts presented in the book more practical 66 , Bovie US conceived and introduced electrosurgery, which allowed the cutting of tissue with almost no bleeding.
During , Cushing removed a number of brain tumors previously considered inoperable , Maximilian Carl-Friedrich Nitze DE , in , developed an operating cystoscope fitted with an electric cautery Francis Bertody Sumner US made a thorough study of coat color among the mainland and Santa Rosa Island mice and concluded that both isolation and natural selection probably operated in the origin of species, but that environmental mechanisms could not be ruled out. Santa Rosa is an island off the Florida panhandle Heinrich Otto Wieland DE was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances.
He shared the honor with the pathologist Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger DK , who was awarded the prize "for his discovery of the Spiroptery carcinoma. He visualized a primal atom , an incredibly dense egg containing all the material for the universe within a sphere about 30 times larger than the Sun. This primal atom exploded some Ga scattering matter and energy in all direction , This theory is now known popularly as the Big Bang Theory , a phrase coined by Fred Hoyle GB in a moment of facetiousness, during a radio broadcast Note : Alexander Friedmann RU proposed an expanding universe as early as Hans Busch DE theorized that magnetic fields could act as lenses by focusing electron beams to a point This was vital to the invention of the electron microscope.
They found that the dose-frequency curve is linear , , He was able to separate the lipoid constituents of tubercle bacilli into three groups consisting of wax, glycerides, and phosphatides Rudolph John Anderson SE-US described the constitution of phthiocol, a fat-soluble pigment he isolated from human tubercle bacillus. He determined that this previously unknown substance was in fact 2-methylhydroxy-1, 4-naphthaquinone Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin DE-SE showed for the first time that combination between an enzyme and a substrate can be traced back to a certain atomic group.
He was experimenting with dipeptidases in which a carbonyl group is the site of combination , This work represents a dramatic turning point in the understanding of the chemistry of cholesterol and other steroids. This work stressed the importance of using in vitro results to understand in vivo activities of enzymes They also discovered that malonic acid is a powerful inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase They named it phosphagen phosphocreatine and established the fact that muscular contraction is accompanied by removal of phosphagen , and subsequent recovery in oxygen is characterized by a rapid restitution of the phosphagen —a phase of recovery apparently independent of the relatively slow oxidative removal of lactic acid They announced that voluntary muscle contains an unstable compound of creatine and phosphoric acid, which is hydrolyzed by stimulation, and resynthesized when the muscle is permitted to recover.
They proposed a structure and pointed out some of the physiological properties of phosphocreatine later changed to creatine phosphate , , They found that the urine of pregnant women, when injected into female animals, caused hyperemia of the ovaries, growth of the follicles, and, in some species ovulation Two morning samples of urine were injected into the marginal ear vein of a virginal female rabbit that had been isolated from male rabbits. The result was available 48 hours after the first injection. Of all the biologic tests, Friedman's was the most accurate.
This procedure tested for the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin hCG; a hormone released from the implantation site of a blastocyst that prevents menstruation in the urine of women. If hCG were present in the urine, the rabbit's ovaries would form corpora lutea ovarian endocrine structures formed following ovulation within 48 hours , Julius Moses Rogoff US and George Neil Stewart US demonstrated that a chemical extract of the adrenal glands of dogs greatly prolongs the lifespan of adrenalectomized dogs.
They found that the active ingredient was not epinephrine adrenaline Britton US , and Elizabeth M. Bright US demonstrated that the adrenal glands produce more adrenaline epinephrine in animals exposed to the cold. The adrenaline epinephrine causes an increase in heat production Joseph Barcroft GB and J.
Stephens GB demonstrated the spleen's role as a blood reservoir in the dog Thomas Milton Rivers US clearly distinguished between bacteria and viruses, thereby, giving rise to the field of virology Bacterium bacteriovorus , which lyses Bacillus danicus , he found to grow only in the presence of its host He proposed that the phenotypic expression of genes could be modified by the action of other genes. Rare imperfect mimetic forms when they appeared in a population would vary due to the action of modifier genes.
Selection would favor those modifier genes that produced an increase in the accuracy of the mimicry John Charles Walker US pioneered research on genetic resistance in yellows disease of cabbage. He showed the scientific community that disease control through genetic resistance could be an effective and relatively inexpensive approach to solving plant disease problems , Bernard Ogilvie Dodge US worked out the life cycle of the pink bread mold, Neorospora crassa , an ascomycete Emil Bozler DE-US demonstrated that the nerve net of cnidarians is made up of separate cells connected by synaptic junctions.
He also studied electrical aspects of muscle contraction and the role of calcium and magnesium in contraction and relaxation Nadine Dobrovolskaia-Zavadskaia FR and Nicolas Kobozieff BE identified t -haplotypes in mice because they contain the gene tct t-complex tail interaction factor that interacts with a spontaneous dominant mutation Brachyury T. James R. Archer GB , Steven J. Self GB , and Bryan G. Winchester GB explained the t-complex in mice as a genetic entity which alters meiosis is such a way that its transmission into gametes is favored The t-complex is located on the proximal third of chromosome 17 in the house mouse.
Naturally occurring variant forms of the t-complex , known as complete t -haplotypes, are found in wild mouse populations. The t -haplotypes contain at least four nonoverlapping inversions that suppress recombination with the wild-type chromosome, and lock into strong linkage disequilibrium. Barbara C. Turner US and David D. Perkins US , working with Neurospora , discovered spore killer , a chromosomal factor that kills meiotic products in which it is not contained Golic US discovered segregation distorter Sd , a meiotic drive system that operates in males of Drosophila melanogaster.
Males heterozygous for Sd , a dominant neomorphic gain-of-function mutation on chromosome 2, can transmit their progeny in greater frequencies than expected on a Mendelian basis Evgenii Nikanorovich Pavlovsky RU outlined his theory of landscape epidemiology and initiated modern concepts of parasite epidemiology Knight GB , and Arthur Morel Massee GB suggested that eriophyid mites gall mites could have some connection with plant virus transmission Arthur M. Massee GB was the first to demonstrate this to be the case It contains thorough discussions of avian physiology, anatomy, and other phases of avian biology Theophilus Shickel Painter US studied the Japanese Waltzer mouse and concluded that its phenotype results from a chromosomal deletion This was the first cytological identification of a deletion producing a specific genetic effect and the first case in mammals of locating a definite gene on a definite chromosome.
Thomas Lewis GB originally described the wheal and flare reaction. He described how he believed histamine to be crucially involved in the central area of the weal, where it then stimulates an axon reflex or antidromic reflex, which transmits the signal to more distant parts, i. Florence R. Sabin US and Charles A. Doan US showed that bovine tubercle bacilli were able to stimulate the maturation of monocytes and were destroyed by clasmatocytes histiocytes of the connective tissues Wilson US demonstrated that the ingestion of foods would allow food antigens to penetrate the gastrointestinal barrier, which are then transported in the circulation to IgE-bearing mast cells in the skin , The IgE class of immunoglobulin was not discovered until Dekker DE put forth the possible significance of mites in house dust allergy , , Spieksma NL , Marise I.
Leupen NL , and Ankie W. Lyklema NL reported that house dust contains mites of the genus Dermatophagoides and suggested that these were the major source of allergens in house dust , , , Wallace Osgood Fenn US was the first to measure the quantity of oxygen required by a nerve to conduct an impulse Anaerobiosis of cancer cells was an established fact by when methods were developed to measure the oxygen pressure inside of tumors in the living body , , Mark W.
Woods US , Katherine K. Earle US found that cancer cells, descended in vitro from one single normal cell, were in vivo the more malignant, the higher their fermentation rate Woods US , and Jehu Hunter US found that when different carcinogens were used to induce in vivo hepatomas there was a direct correlation between malignancy and fermentation rate Witwer US , and O. Pearl Lee US described the disease, which later became known as Cooley erythroblastic anemia Guido Fanconi CH reported a family in which three brothers had died in childhood from a condition, which resembled pernicious anemia.
He observed that these children had slight stature, hypogonadism and skin pigmentation. In subsequent reports defects of the thumb and radius were recognized as additional but variable syndromic components Albert Kuntz US described the gray ramus running from the second thoracic ganglion to the first thoracic nerve Note : It is thought to be due to an autosomal inherited defect of the glomerular basement membrane of the kidneys. Philip Edward Smith US perfected the surgical production of hypophysectomized rats and described the symptoms resulting as inhibition of growth in the young animal, weight loss, atrophy of the genital system with loss of libido sexualis , cessation of the female sex cycle, atrophy of the thyroid, parathyroids and suprarenal adrenal cortex, lowered resistance to injury, loss of appetite, weakness, and flabbiness.
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Smith found that he could reverse the atrophied functions in these animals only by injection of fresh hypophyseal tissue from adults. These animals have been widely used in studies of the endocrine system Alfred W. Adson US and Jay R. Coffey US recommended the division of the scalenus anticus muscle for relief from symptoms of cervical rib syndrome Manfred Joshua Sakel PL-AT-US , in , introduced hypoglycemic coma insulin shock produced by muscular injections of insulin as a treatment for psychotic disorders e. Note : In Berlin, between and , Dr. Manfred Sakel used insulin to reduce the anxiety, nervousness, tremors, vomiting, weight loss, and agitation of patients undergoing opiate withdrawal.
With insulin, they became calm, gained weight, and were much more cooperative. At times, when the dose of insulin was high, the patient went into stupor. After such events, the patients were less argumentative, less hostile, and less aggressive. Ladislaus Joseph Meduna HU started seizure therapy by intravenous injection of cardiazol in depressive states , a therapy that was abandoned in , This treatment was first used in schizophrenia , but severe depressive states very soon proved to be the main indication , Note : people used electric eels and electric fish in ancient times to treat headaches and mental illness.
Chlorpromazine has a remarkable effect on patients with schizophrenia , in particular highly agitated, anxious, and psychotic patients. It softens the effects of hallucinations and voices. Patients became quiet and much more manageable. It has effects on all types of patients Otto Wuth US described the preparation of a stable colloidal gold solution for use in the Lange protein spinal fluid test. Wuth described the therapeutic and toxic serum levels found in patients on bromide therapy for epilepsy. He further recommended that patients on bromide therapy for the control of epilepsy be routinely monitored for serum levels.
Wuth demonstrated with his case studies that the blood levels of bromide correlate with therapeutic efficacy and not with the dose administered Note : This fundamental principal in therapeutic drug monitoring TDM was advocated by Wuth almost 50 years before it became standard practice in clinical medicine. Fritz Eichholtz DE and Otto Butzengeiger DE carried out the first experimental use of avertin 2,2,2-tribromoethanol as an anesthetic in animals Otto Butzengeiger DE introduced avertin 2,2,2-tribromoethanol as a rectal anesthetic in the clinic The detailed survey that emerged constituted, as far as is known, the first published epidemiological questionnaire.
This yielded results that enabled them to identify many of the risk factors for breast cancer that are still considered valid today. Their conclusions or their data reworked by later researchers agreed with those of modern reviewers: breast cancer was associated with age at menopause, artificial menopause, age at first pregnancy age at marriage used as a proxy , number of children, and lactation.
It followed a large sample of women with pathologically confirmed breast cancer for up to 10 years after their surgery. The study confirmed that women who were surgically treated at an early stage of the disease had a much better chance of surviving three, five, or 10 years longer than those operated on at any later stage. They showed that breast cancer risk increased for childless women, women who married later than average, and women who did not breast feed.
The overall breast cancer risk decreased according to the number of children. For all cases, rapid treatment held the key to survival among women with breast cancer. In reviewing the family histories of their cases, they anticipated the role that genes might play in the development of breast cancer. Note : it is generally believed that living Agnatha hagfishes and lampreys and the ostracoderms are descended from a common ancestor.
Thomas F. It was dated in an ordered stratigraphic sequence at the site to This makes it older than any other equivalently dated modern human specimen and directly contemporary with the latest European Neanderthals Classified as Neanderthal and dated to 45, years ago these fossils are the oldest known human remains on the continent Weber AT reanalyzed the deciduous molars from the Grotta del Cavallo Southern Italy , associated with the Uluzzian and originally classified as Neanderthal. The Cavallo human remains are therefore the oldest known European anatomically modern humans, confirming a rapid dispersal of modern humans across the continent before the Aurignacian and the disappearance of Neanderthals Hart, et al.
Nature is a part of our humanity, and without some awareness and experience of that divine mystery man ceases to be man. When the Pleiades and the wind in the grass are no longer a part of the human spirit, a part of the very flesh and bone, man becomes, as it were, a kind of cosmic outlaw, having neither the completeness and the integrity of the animal nor the birthright of a true humanity. Adolf Otto Rheinhold Windaus DE was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins.
Kurt Heinrich Meyer DE and Herman Francis Mark DE proved the existence of polymeric chain molecules by examining the crystalline structure of polymers with x-rays It was found to be the invertebrate analogue of the vertebrate phosphagen creatine phosphate , , This provided, for the first time, a mechanism for utilization of phosphate energy.
This became known as the Lohmann reaction. Marjory Stephenson GB obtained the first cell-free preparation of non-NAD dependent lactic dehydrogenase , which oxidized lactate to pyruvate in the presence of methylene blue Leslie Julius Harris GB and Thomas Moore GB confirmed the toxic action of irradiated ergosterol in excess and concluded that "a weight of evidence pointed to the toxic action of excess of vitamin D Hawkins US presented a gasometric method for determination of reducing sugars, and its application to analysis of blood and urine Riising US discovered that inorganic iron salts are ineffective at increasing the hemoglobin levels of anemic rats, but that ashed residues from dried beef liver, dried lettuce, and yellow corn were very effective in curing anemia.
From these results they inferred that the extracts contained some other inorganic substance that was necessary to produce hemoglobin. They later discovered that this necessary substance is copper Leavenworth US carried out an analysis of the basic amino acids in horse hemoglobin and concluded that the protein contains 7. These results agreed with the assumption that hemoglobin has 33 molecules of histidine, 13 molecules of arginine, and 37 molecules of lysine Neurosecretory cells in the X-organ part of the brain produce a molt-inhibiting hormone that is stored in the sinus gland of the eyestalk, while a molting hormone is produced in the Y-organ.
Interactions of these two hormones control the molting process. Prolan is a term no longer in use. Barkash RU presented evidence for the metabolic pathway from glucosephosphate to triose phosphate by way of ribosephosphate. They called it the hexose monophosphate shunt , Aldrich US , Irvine W.
Grote US , Louis W. Rowe US , and Edwin P. Bugbee US reported obtaining posterior lobe pituitary preparations with high oxytocic activity and low pressor activity and, conversely, preparations with high pressor activity and low oxytocic activity These would later be associated with oxytocin and vasopressin. Frederick Griffith GB discovered the transforming factor while working with Diplococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae. He demonstrated that this factor, which he isolated from smooth colonies, is a chemical that is present in the extract of dead smooth colonies but missing from live rough colonies.
When mixed with living rough colonies the transforming factor converted many of them to living smooth colonies James Lionel Alloway US , working in the laboratory of Oswald Theodore Avery CA-US , broke open cells of the smooth form of Pneumococcus and collected the cell contents, which were passed through a filter that would remove all wall material.
When this extract was added to a culture of growing rough cells some of them were transformed into smooth cells. When the transforming extract was treated with alcohol a thick syrupy precipitate formed See, Sanfelice, and Avery, Andrew C. Viktor Mutt EE and J. Julian Walawski PL and Jerzy Kaulbersz PL discovered enterogastrons produced in the large intestine, which inhibit the stomach secretion , He named this acidic carbohydrate hexuronic acid Today it is known as ascorbic acid ascorbic meaning, no scurvy or vitamin C. Cornelis Bernardus Kees van Niel NL-US , working with propionic acid bacteria, provided the first quantitative picture of the products derived by these bacteria from lactate, glycerol, glucose, and starch.
His taxonomic treatment determined the veracity of the genus Propionibacterium. During these studies he identified diacetyl as the compound responsible for the characteristic aroma of high quality butter This strongly suggested the presence of a lactation hormone prolactin. Simpson US found that extracts from the anterior pituitary cause hypertrophy of the mammary glands in virgin rats Oscar Riddle US and Pela Fay Braucher US showed that extracts of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland could cause the enlargement and functioning of the crop-glands in pigeons Oscar Riddle US , Robert Wesley Bates US , and Simon William Dykshorn US reported their discovery of a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates the crop-gland in pigeons and is lactogenic in guinea pigs; they named it prolactin , Schmidt DK , and Yuri A.
Pankov RU determined the primary amino acid sequence of the sheep lactogenic hormone prolactin , Edwards GB , Isabel A. Forsyth GB , and Alan S. McNeilly US found that they could successfully treat galactorrhoea by reducing plasma prolactin levels using brom-ergocryptine Interference with this ligand-receptor interaction inhibits both in vitro and in vivo immune responses Charles V. Clevenger US , Amy L. Sillman US , Michael B. Buckley US , Mark D. Olson US and Arthur R. Clevenger US , Tracey L.
Plank US , Susan E. Hankinson US , Walter C. Willett US , Dominique S. Manson US , Graham A. Speizer US , Marcela V. Maus US , and Sean C. Reilly US presented evidence that the somatolactogenic hormone prolactin , a naturally occurring peptide hormone needed for milk production following pregnancy, stimulates the movement, or motility of breast cancer cells causing the cells to essentially pick up and move, and actually trigger invasive potential of these cells , , He found that movements of the stirrup footplate evokes a wave complex in the basilar membrane, which travels from the stiffer basal part to the more flexible part in the apex of the cochlea.
The crest of the largest wave first increases, thereafter quickly decreases. The position of the maximal amplitude was found to be dependent on the frequency of the stimulating sound waves in such a way that the highest crest of the travelling wave appears near the apex of the cochlea at low-frequency tones and near its base at high frequencies , US reported studies of gas and electrolyte equilibria in blood in which they present line charts for graphic calculations by the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, and for calculating plasma carbon dioxide content from whole blood content Van Slyke continued to improve this method through eleven more papers.
US and Theophilus Shickel Painter US , using Drosophila , carried out parallel investigations in which phenotypic variations brought about by x-rays were related to physical changes in the chromosomes, e. Karl Heinrich Bauer DE proposed the theory that cancers arise because of mutations This came to be referred to as standard blood urea clearances Bauer US , N. Stokes died of a yellow fever infection. Marlvin Reeves, Frontier Speditionsdienstleistungen, marlvincourieragentsyahoo. Larry Holms ltaolpromotnuk2. Tina Forrester, Alan Becker, Heritageclaimsdpthotpop.
W1B 0BH, davidmooredmooreyahoo. England, prizeremittancedivisionuk2. Mittlerer Essex. Sameer M. Tattersall House internationale Lotterie, Raymond Schulson, agentrshotmail. Clyde Davis, clydedavis02yahoo. John walter. Pamela shawn, Grenzkurier. Lieferservice, London, England, frontiesnetscape. Loterie Nationale, Cote Divoire, allanwillshotmail. Registriert von Overlord Designs Inc. Rechtsanwalt Stacy Freels, stacyfreelscooperation.
K, event. LYON, bankingglobalatlanticltd. Hauptstadt Lotterie. Ltmrrobinvanjolgmail gt. Easygame Lottery, Kempering Niederlande, morriscollins01netscape. Tattersall Lottery, Raymond Schulson ltagent1flagents. Ed Bin Yakeen, drebyakeenuku. W1B 0BH, mrronimichaeluku. Tobiath lobo ltboiloboyahoo gt. Steve Rutherfoord, Arrow Express Ltd. Yahoo Lottery Incoperation. Seed Thomson ksj. Capital Investment world Ltd. Electron House. Johnson Wright. Gate Charity Lottery Foundation, clearanceofficer11yahoo. Ann Westwood, Tony Powell.
Anita Hanford. Dr Johnson Antwoine, antwoineyahoo. Peter Korolev, adminamericaexpressbank. Willcox, brainwillcoxmyway. Sweetwin Lotto, 10 Northumberland Avenue No. Aimee veloso ltchansie41yahoo gt. Laurens Vis, PO Box Mehmet Fehmi. Michael Ronin. Royal Foundation Inc, mikekerry, mike kerry, mikekerry55yahoo. Ray Barry, raybarry07yahoo. SIR H. Batch: xa Kelvin Robert, hsbcbankworldwidehotmail. House, London. Newcastle, England, ryan-gilbertuku. Sir Nigel Garside Shorthall ltagentyahoo. Melviv, gerraldmelvivlycos. Patrick M. John Owen.
Teresa M. Harold Sajid. Ian Dungavell. Sir Nigel Garside Shorthall, mailto:agentyahoo. Douglas, Isle of Man. Frank Anderson, Trans Atlantic S. A London, United Kingdom. Agent Michael Hernando ltagentmichaelhernandogmail gt. The Irish Lottery. K, Susan McClaren. British Lottery International, Anothony. Campbell, Rex Mcarthy. Liverpool Promotions, liverpoolpromo1winning. Tony Vincent, 26 scoutland.
Larry Bishop ltcamelotagencyuk2. Donald Jones, Hamilton Courier Company. British Lottery Promo Services Inc. Philip Edward. Andrea Davis. Leonard Walter, Bond Finance amp Securities, leonawalteryahoo. Cherry Rings. Richard Parker, Micheal Dise, 5th floor couting. Tyseley, Birmingham. B11 2AG. British Lottery International, 60 Merriman Road. Rex Mcarthy. Mrs linda cook, Highwood Group lindacook2london. K, worldlotterycamelot-promotion.
Donald Jones, Camelot Universal Promtions, hamiltoncourierdeliveryservicesuk2. Albert Phillips, albertphillipsukyahoo. W 4TH. Rachael Smith, lotterywinpromoyahoo. Alban Williams, Free lotto sweepstakes, United Kingdom.
Advanced Load Balancing in the Cloud: 5 Ways to Simplify the Chaos
National U. K Lottorey. Dr Paul White, Zonal Co-ordinator. Dynamic Courier Dispatch. William Adams, delivery services LTD. Williams Anderson ltwilliamsandersonmsn gt. Dr Clayton Lord Jr. Cherry Kathleem Kathleen. The Honda Car Lottery and many other examples see below. So far as the writer knows, it would be illegal for foreign lottery companies to operate in the USA.
Our American visitors can therefore act as outlined below when they receive mail telling them they have won a foreign lottery. They might say that you have won 2 million dollars or euros. The money would be released when you forward your bank details along with current address and telephone number. They will say something like quotRemember to keep this information top secret from the public notice until all claims have been processedquot.
They actually mean to say that they dont want you to mention their approach to the writer or the police If you were tempted to reply to such mail, you would soon be asked to pay a quotprocessing feequot of several thousand euros or the equivalent in dollars. If you are based in Europe, you might be invited to hand over the money in Amsterdam or pay via an untraceable Western Union or MoneyGram service. Your money would be lost, but you would be sure to receive further tempting offers in the future NB If you tell them you cannot send the fee they require, they might send you a cheque for a larger sum so that you can bank this and then pay them the quothandling feequot.
Given time, you will find that their quotchequequot is worthless. They know that it will be a while before your bank gives you the bad news, and they rely on you sending them money before you know the awful truth. TIP: When in doubt, ask your bank for quotexpress clearancequot of a cheque. Never send money via Western Union to a person you do not know well. Warning: an example of a fake bank on the Web - quot Investment and Finance Banking Corporation quot.
A recent trend in the lottery fraud involves directing the potential victim to a quotbankquot website where he will be invited to open an account. He will need to make a deposit and this will clear the way for releasing the quotmillionsquot he has won in a non-existent lottery. However, a Whois search on the ifbcplc domain name reveals the registrant to be Signonafrica Inc, , Awolowo Way, Ikeja , Nigeria, administrative contact.
Okafor, Godwin godwinsignonafrica. NET and the administrative contact there is given as Okafor, Godwin godwinsignonafrica. Never let these people have your bank account and personal contact details. Do not send copies of your passport and signature etc. As well as trying to fool you into paying an advance fee, they will use your personal information in other fraud crimes. If this warning comes too late and you have given out banking details, please discuss the implications with your bank manager as soon as possible.
You will need to have your account number changed at the very least. What can you do to make life difficult for the criminals It would be good to get their e-mail accounts suspended. They use free, anonymous e-mail accounts and ISPs need to know when their services are being abused by criminals. Just take a look at the quotreply toquot address within the scam mail.
This would be something like agentgarysmithnetscape. Forward the junk to the service provider using the address abusenetscape. It is important to forward e-mail headers with the junk mail so that the ISP can investigate fully. In the subject line write quotcriminal abusequot, add the offending address and ask the service provider to immediately suspend the abusers mail account. The criminals will typically send mail from a different anonymous account so inspect the headers and copy your complaint to abuse the ISP in the quotsenderquot address.
On the subject of ISPs, I believe that those who do not shut down these accounts, once they have been made aware of criminal activity, share in the guilt. Readers should be aware of zwallet. Thank You for Your announcement. Best Regards, Ondrej Lolek, Helpdeskquot. Australian ISPs also seem helpful and efficient in responding to the menace. There follow some of the false names and titles used by fraud criminals in recent times. NL, Beds Koningin Julianaplein Den Haag, The Netherlands. DH Logistics and Diplomatic Courier. TW5 0TE, ltaccountsdhldcsyahoo.
Smith Phillip ventexservicesify Ventex Finance Company. ITALY, tommyclintyahoo. Bejes law amp Associates. Demellor, E. Venlo the Netherlands. Post bus Rabos Lottery programs, Lucas Donk, inforeality05netscape. Laan van Hoornwijck Inslagenlijn: Uitslagenlijn: Wilson Goodman St Michaels street. Plot 2A Harrison Drive. Ontario Or Kings Street West. Den Haag, The Netherlands, charterdfsbvwawrfnetscape. Swarthy A. Patrick Fuso, Banca Romana pentru Dezvoltare, claimsagent30yahoo. Herbert, mailstevensuk2. Mark G.
Abbott Van Batenburg Lottery Director , batenburg03netscape. Gianni Perez, Rivero Panucci. Morgan Mokena or Mrs. Nancy Van, southafricalotteryagent01yahoo.
Sir H. Robin Dayne, Paul Hodge, agentpaulsify. The Netherlands, infolotterijnlnetscape. B Kings, continentalexpress2yahoo. Straateen Plain Rotterdam. The Netherlands, agenc. Yahoo Lotto Inc Uk ltwonnoticeyahoo. Royal Fund Management Ltd. Global Hands Incorporated, Harrison Williams, globalhandsinctakemail. Nelson Bill, PH Consultancy, n-billconsultant. Aalsmeerderweg , ZX Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Hodge Phillip, hodgephilipsyahoo.
Thomas Sermon, lithuilzwallet. Richard McGladdery. Elen Karabo, quotcresta winnersquot ltglobaldraw2hotmail gt. V, Lissette Kersbeeck, Van Wilbert. Andries Bert. P Award Dept. Almond, agentalmondhotmail. J Leeds. Peter Phumza, peterphumzaesqyahoo. De Los Americas 46, C. Lotto, Abbott Van Batenburg. Your servant courier company Ltd, ltyourservantworldwidedeliveryyahoo. A, Isabel Rajoy, ltpro2loteriamsn gt. Davin Rayd, Elot Fin. Reconciliation Ltd.
Sandra Nzama, Richard Lama, rlama14hotmail. Euromillion Loteria Espaol, Paseo De La Castellana, , Madrid, ltlaprimitivainternationallottery22msn gt one wonders how many laprimitivainternationallottery mail addresses have been registered with Microsoft - and if they will take any action. B Kings, citylinkexpress3yahoo. Martin Blake, Michael Bennett. Hans Bouman, ltnatwestfinancenvnetscape. South Australia Lotteries, S.
World Payment Unit, ltdavidpaymentunit gt. Aaron Rex Mcarthy, rex4mcarthyexcite. Box , Auckland Park, Henley Road. Johannesburg, South Africa. Steve Lucas, Dr. Sophia Halendale. William Okoye, Cottona, Benin Republic. Irish National Lottery Inc. Tenth Street Sacramento, CA Alxe Bobns. Wilson Goodman, No. Ontario, Canada.
K, bhopkinsfinancier. Eduardo Luciano Duque. Box ,Auckland Park, Henley Road. Sergio Diaz ltstandardholdingswalla gt. Anderson, of Steenvoordelaan 21A. Peter B. T , Trafford, London.