Indian art icons : revealing some glaring glimpses. Delhi : B. Publishing Corporation, The discovery of El Greco : the nationalization of culture versus the rise of modern art Chicago : Sussex Academic Press, Sandomierz w malarstwie Jurija Sulimowa. Sandomierz : Wydawnictwo Diecezjalne Sandomierz, Beijing : Gu gong chu ban she, nian 11 yue. Turba Turbo. The great houses of Calcutta : their antecedents, precedents, splendour and portents. New Delhi : Niyogi Books, Portland : Triangular Press, New Delhi : B.
Publishing Corporation, June Paris : Les Belles Lettres, Sankt-Peterburg : Gos. Sankt-Peterburg : Art-Palas, Urbano Poggi, Rafaela, marzo-abril de Kathmandu, Nepal : Vajra Books, Pisa : Pisa University Press, . Ravage : illustre inconnu. London : The Pindar Press, Buenos Aires, Argentina : A.
Werthein, There : an archive of built places. Beijing : Gao deng jiao yu chu ban she, El silencio. Additional volumes. Photography and Germany. London : Reaktion Books, Zhongguo gu dai ming yao. Nanchang : Jiangxi mei shu chu ban she, Sankt-Peterburg : Peterburgskoe vostokovedenie, Aalders, Steven. De vijfde lijn.
Amsterdam : Prometheus-Bert Bakker Walk through walls : a memoir. Cham, Switzerland : Palgrave Macmillan, . Luis Cruz Azaceta : no exit. Helsinki : Helsingin kaupunginmuseo, . Abstraction in reverse : the reconfigured spectator in mid-twentieth-century Latin American art. Chicago : The University of Chicago Press, Bildhauer in Deutschland im Berlin : Gebr. Mann Verlag, Mirror affect : seeing self, observing others in contemporary art. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, Amadeo de Souza Cardoso : XX dessins. Javier Algarra : huellas que son signos.
Machine project : the platinum collection live by special request. Kromsdorf : Jonas Verlag, . Colette Urbajtel. Aurelio Amendola : dialoghi silenziosi : i ritratti di Aurelio, le scelte di santo, le opere degli amici. Jeff Cowen photoworks. Cardiff : University of Wales Press, Divine creature, divine creatures. Firenze : Mandragora, Lotta Antonsson I am a woman. Roma : Italus edizioni, . Karel Appel. Roma : Campisano editore, . Title TK : Brooklyn, NY : Primary Information, . Roma : Gangemi editore SpA international publishing, .
Esteban Lisa : the abstract cabinet. Juni bis 9. Oktober Gilgen : Museum Zinkenbacher Malerkolonie, . Islamic palace architecture in the Western Mediterranean : a history. Insomnia sleeplessness as a cultural symptom. Pittori toscani : la vita e le opere da Cimabue a Ottone Rosai.
Treviso TV : Editoriale Programma, aprile Paderborn : Wilhelm Fink, c Milano : Mousse Publishing, . Retorno a la belleza : obras maestras del arte italiano de entreguerras. Tiempo que no transcurre. Another family plot. Emma and Edvard. Love in the time of loneliness. Brussel : Mercatorfonds Eduardo Balanza : maestros. Murcia : [publisher not identified], . Ravenna : Longo editore, . Under the Radar underground zines and self-publications Leipzig : Spectormag, . Venezia : Marsilio, febbraio Amsterdam : Schilt Publishing, .
Zhouyuan : Zhuangbai Xi Zhou qing tong qi jiao cang kao gu fa jue bao gao. Antonio Asturi : una vita per la luce. Roma : De Rosa, Milano : Skira, Ettore Sottsass : il vetro. Tancredi : writings and critical perspectives. Venezia : Marsilio, Avant-garde art and criticism in Francoist Spain.
Liverpool : Liverpool University Press, Sevilla : Los Sentidos Ediciones, . The world of William Glackens. Facciamo presto! Firenze — Italia : Giunti ; Firenze musei, marzo Palma Mallorca : Lleonard Muntaner Editor, Bildende Kunst in Ostfriesland im Aurich : Ostfriesische Landschaft, . The revolution is dead — long live the revolution!
Bern : Kunstmuseum Bern ; Munich : Prestel, . Mannheim : Franz Bausback, Anton Josef Reiss : Leben und Werk. Marburg : Tectum Verlag, c Im Rahmen bleiben : Glasmalerei in der Architektur des Berlin : Lukas Verlag, . Bremen : Donat Verlag . Picasso e Napoli : Parade. Friedrich B. Henkel : Skulpturen, Collagen, Zeichnungen, Graphik. Berlin : Lukas Verlag, Novecento italiano : una storia. Crocetta del Montello Treviso : Fabrica, Carlos III : majestad y ornato en los escenarios del rey ilustrado.
Madrid : Patrimonio Nacional, . Dada and existentialism : the authenticity of ambiguity. London : Palgrave Macmillan, . Landscapes : John Berger on art. London ; New York : Verso, Visualising slavery : art across the African diaspora. Berlin : Sternberg Press, c Reparative aesthetics : witnessing in contemporary art photography. Helene Schjerfbeck : die Malerin aus Finnland. Berlin : Insel Verlag, Broken white. Eindhoven : Design Academy Eindhoven, ?. Oxford : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd, . Taiyuan : Shanxi jing ji chu ban she, Xi fang de Zhongguo ying xiang Hefei : Huang Shan shu she, Fisciano SA : Gutenberg edizioni, luglio Die mittelalterliche Stadtbefestigung im deutschsprachigen Raum : ein Handbuch.
Darmstadt : Philipp von Zabern, . The image of the black in African and Asian art. Beni Bischof Texte 2. In reserve: the household! Liz Johnson Artur. Making memeries. Weegee : a collection of vintage photographs from Munich : Daniel Blau : Munich : Hirmer, . Closer intimacies in art Copenhagen : Statens Museum for Kunst, . Anna Boghiguian. Friedrich Weinbrenner und die Weinbrenner-Schule. Bad Saulgau : Triglyph Verlag, Memoria y horizonte. Berlin : Deutscher Kunstverlag, . Rik Wouters : De voltooide symfonie. Sint Niklaas : Openbaar Kunstbezit, Stuttgart : Belser, c Von Courbet zu Schuch : Realismus und reine Malerei.
Heilbad Heiligenstadt : Cordier, . Obre les finestres : de Rogent a Roca-Sastre. Depero : il mago. A shining constant in the artistic sky : contemporary artists from Venezuela. Barbarians and poets : contemporary artists from Belgium. Cold current : contemporary artists from Norway. Crocetta del Montello : Antiga edizioni, . Gezelligheid : contemporary artists from the Netherlands.
Vanves : Hazan, Oslo : Press, Reggio Emilia : Aliberti compagnia editoriale, . Gand : Snoeck, . Raffaello e Perugino attorno a due sposalizi della Vergine. Ross Lovegrove : convergence. Paris : Centre Pompidou Editions Sebald und William Kentridge. Paderborn : Wilhelm Fink, Brill Deutschland, .
Herbarium in Stein : die Pflanzenwelt der Grazer Leechkirche. Kumberg : Sublilium Schaffer, Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, . Idea et inventio : italienische Zeichnungen des Berlin : Parthas, Dijon : Faton, The war of appearances : transparency, opacity, radiance. Jackson : University Press of Mississippi, .
Paris : Beaux-arts de Paris, . Jean-Jacques Karpff : visez au sublime. Vanves : Hazan, . Performance art in Eastern Europe since Matthys Gerber. Sydney, N. Being tiwi. The art of found objects : interviews with Texas artists. Carl Durheim wie die Fotografie nach Bern kam. Petersberg : Michael Imhof Verlag, . Roma : Editoriale Artemide, What they left behind : photographs.
Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, Berlin : Sternberg Press, . Lost in transition : un poema performativo. John Cage etchings Oakland, Calif. Pedro Calapez : o segredo da sombra : obras sobre papel — Lisboa : Documenta, maio Viollet-le-Duc: innovazione e tradizione in architettura : linguaggio formale e coincidenza tra forma e struttura nella concezione di volte poliedriche.
Roma : Gangemi editore SpA international Publishing, Erika Harrsch. Reno : Nevada Museum of Art, Alberto Di Fabio : aura. El Noucentisme a Barcelona. Inclinations : a critique of rectitude.
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Stanford, California : Stanford University Press, . Modena : Franco Cosimo Panini, . Pascale Marthine Tayou : miracle!!!. Venezia : Marsilio, dicembre La regola e il monastero : arte e architettura in Santa Scolastica a Subiaco secc. Barbara Cartlidge and Electrum Gallery : a passion for jewellery.
Stuttgart : Arnoldsche Art Publishers, Barcelona : RM Verlag, S. Marcos Chaves : arbolabor. Imperial threads : motifs and artisans from Turkey, Iran and India. Meiguo suo cang Zhongguo tong qi ji lu. Beijing : Jin cheng chu ban she, Ci qi chun qiu. Beijing : Beijing chu ban she, Walker Evans. Paris : Centre Pompidou Editions, The Buddha in Lanna : art, lineage, power, and place in Northern Thailand.
English Gothic misericord carvings : history from the bottom up. Leiden ; Boston : Brill, . Firenze : Edifir — edizioni Firenze, . Vietnam eye : contemporary Vietnamese art. Cinisello Balsamo Milano : Silvana, La morte dipinta : arte e teologia delle cose ultime. Milano, Italy : FrancoAngeli, . Magic party place. Heidelberg : Kehrer Verlag, c The castle. Beijing Shi : Beijing da xue chu ban she, Ralph Coburn : random sequence. La performance, encore. Aix-en-Provence : Presses universitaires de Provence, Bendorf : Verlag Beni Cohen-Or, c The expanded subject : new perspectives in photographic portraiture from Africa.
Austin : University of Texas Press, Vestire le statue : arte, devozione e committenza nella Toscana nord-occidentale. Light Raito. Mauro Ghiglione : complesse sparizioni. Genova : Il canneto editore, . Heidelberg : Kehrer, The anti-museum : an anthology. The American dream : pop to present. London : Thames and Hudson, Bizhan Bassiri : noor. Chaumont : Le Pythagore, c Lisboa : Documenta, Abril de The period rooms : allestimenti storici tra arte, collezionismo e museologia. Bologna : Bononia University Press, Palazzo Biscari alla Marina in Catania.
Tricase LE — Italy : Youcanprint selfpublishing, . Paths to Europe : from Byzantium to the Low Countries. Affreschi medievali in Istria. Crocetta del Montello TV : Antiga edizioni, . Culs de ferme. Bertina Lopes : arte e antagonismo. Milano, Italia : Officina libraria, marzo Rennes : Presses universitaires de Rennes, Magic object : Adelaide Biennial of Australian Art.
Galleria portatile : old master drawings from the Hoesch Collection. Petersberg : Michale Imhof, . Palazzo Bentivoglio in Borgo della Paglia. Bologna : Minerva, . Wiesbaden : Reichert Verlag, Desire lines : the public art of Tess Jaray. London : Ridinghouse Datong Dongfengli Liao dai bi hua mu. New romance : art and the posthuman. Sydney : Museum of Contemporary Art Australia, Oceanside Museum of Art. Milano : Jaca Book, . Davanti al naturale : contributi sul movimento caravaggesco a Napoli. Milano : Officina libraria, .
Roma : Artemide, . Visionaire : experiences in art and fashion. Malta : land of sea : exhibition catalogue. Midsea Books Winckelmann : moderne Antike. A unique partnership : Richard Demarco, Joseph Beuys. Edinburgh : Luath Press Limited, Die Palette des Malers. Bielefeld : Kerber Verlag, . Pierre Descargues Yves Klein ja g kultaa. Artisti sardi e orientalismo : altri esoterismi. Boston : De Gruyter, . The Luther effect : Protestantism, years in the world : short exhibition guide. Munich : Hirmer, .
Roma : Nutrimenti, Helsinki : Didrichsen, . Rumoer in de stad : de schilders van tachtig. Jana Sterbak : life-size. Thea Djordjadze : to be in an upright position on the feet studiovisit. Wien : Secession : Berlin : Revolver Publishing, . Function and fantasy : iron architecture in the long nineteenth century.
Bari : Editori Laterza, Barcelona : Viena Edicions, novembre de Meisterzeichnungen aus dem Braunschweiger Kupferstichkabinett. Foligno PG : Editoriale Umbra, . Suresnes : Couleurs contemporaines, B. Chauveau, . Vasily Kandinsky. Munich : Hirmer, c Kornfeld and Fondation Giacometti. Alberto Giacometti catalogue raisonne des estampes. Maratti e la sua fortuna. Judith Egger : Matter. Gutters of gold. Wuppertal : Von der Heydt-Museum, From Poussin to David : French drawings in the Albertina.
Munich : Hirmer Verlag GmbH . Mellan spraak Between languages : Jan Svenungsson. The face of the Buddha. Fotografien werden Bilder. Die Becher-Klasse. Dortmund : Verlag Kettler, c James Casebere fugitive. Munich : Haus der Kunst ; Munich : Prestel, . Madrid : A y N Ediciones ; St. Petersburg : Biblioteca Nacional de Rusia, Elliott Erwitt : retrospective. Bard, Aosta Italia : Forte di Bard editore, . Madrid : Editorial Manuscritos, . Helsinki : Sinebrychoffin Taidemuseo, . Kunstsymposium des eu-art-network. Oberwart : Edition Lex Liszt 12, Robert Eugler : moving colours.
Freiburg i. Lyonel Feininger : Madrid, del 17 de febrero al 28 de mayo de The flying carpet. I dialog med maleriet Jon Arne Mogstads kunstneriske prosjekt. Oslo : Novus Forlag, Inspiration Fotografie : von Makart bis Klimt : eine Materialiensammlung. Wien : Belvedere, . Georg Jensen : a tale of Danish silver. Seven films.
London : Koenig Books, c Tabemono no Bi : bellezza gusto immagine dei cibi giapponesi. Yu zhuan lou cang shu hua ji. Shanghai : Shanghai shu hua chu ban she, Lyon : Editions Libel, Achille Bonito Oliva y la transvanguardia italiana. Anastasis : Agostino Arrivabene. Mantova : Publi Paolini, . Le immagini della nazione : nazionalismo e arti visive in Germania, — Roma : Istituto italiano di studi germanici, Bozen : Athesia Verlag, . Van Gogh e le sue lettere : i segreti di Vincent tra arte e grafologia. Tricase LE — Italy : Youcanprint self-publishing, Jean Arp.
Milano : Electa, . Das Atelier im Wien : Passagen Verlag, c Wien : Edition Konturen, c Wien : Fotogalerie Wien, Storia del limbo. Milano : Feltrinelli, The glass of the architects : Vienna Beyond critique : contemporary art in theory, practice, and instruction. Sankt Johannis Zittau : eine kulturhistorische Dokumentation. Bosch : uomini, angeli, demoni. Senza misericordia : il trionfo della morte e la danza macabra a Clusone. Torino : Einaudi, . Katalog der deutschsprachigen illustrierten Handschriften des Mittelalters. Beck, Additional volume: Bd. Jia Aili : stardust hermit.
Berlin : Hatje Cantz, c A world view : John Latham. London : Serpentine Galleries : Koenig Books, . Franco Pivetti : il percorso. Bill Viola : electronic renaissance. Firenze : Giunti, March Sassoferrato dal Louvre a San Pietro : la collezione riunita. Passignano s. Perugia : Aguaplano, . Weitra : Verlag Bibliothek der Provinz, Restauro architettonico : letture dai maestri : antologia critica. Milano : Editore Ulrico Hoepli, . Sarah Oppenheimer. Columbus : Wexner Center for the Arts Con el agua hasta los ojos. Mixed messages : American correspondences in visual and verbal practices.
Museum II. Gent : Mer. Paper Kunsthalle, Minerva, la diosa de Compostela : espacios y obras a relacionar con el saber. Para amar el arte. Virgilio Costantini : un pittore siciliano tra Sargent e Zorn. Palermo Italy : Pitti edizioni, . Caio Mario Garrubba : i cinesi nel John Miller : I stand, I fall. Salzburg : Salzburg Museum, c Gillian Ayres. London : Art Books Publishing Ltd. Piacenza : Edizioni Scritture, Theophilus and the theory and practice of Medieval art.
Ashraf Geibatov : justice for Khojaly. Berlin : Schultz Contemporary, c Firenze : Edifir edizioni Firenze, . Jolanda van Gennip: saturation, lightness. Amsterdam : De Vrije Uitgevers War artists in Afghanistan : beyond the wire. Bremen : Gerhard-Marcks-Stiftung, c Hella Gerlach : ein gedanklicher Stretch. Hamburg : Textem Verlag Niki de Saint Phalle. Ishoej : Arken, , c Bielefeld : Kerber Verlag Balthus, Montecalvello e altri silenzi. Palermo : Edizioni Caracol, . Marcus Jansen : aftermath. Dresden : Kunstblatt, Olive Rush : finding her place in the Santa Fe art colony.
Frans Geffels architetto a Mantova. Mantova : Il rio arte, . Altar und Bild im Dom zu Xanten. Luzern : Quaternio Verlag Luzern, c Juli bis Il Museo Costantiniano : antiche e nuove donazioni. Parma : Grafiche Step editrice, La collezione Ermanno e Paola Winsemann Falghera. Parma : Grafiche Step editrice, . Premi de Pintura Performance art en Chile. Santiago, Chile : Ediciones Metales Pesados, Sam is not my uncle : the USA in Cuban poster and billboard art. Milano : Walter Padovani, . Gorafe : el silencio de los objetos. The place of sculpture in daily life. Chicago, Illinois : Soberscove Press, .
Faszinierender Blick : Potsdamer Veduten des Personas pintadas Paul Graham : Paris th November, Photography and American coloniality : Eliot Elisofon in Africa, The age of entitlement : or affordable tooth extraction. Gent : MER. Victorian photography, literature and the invention of modern memory : already the past. Firenze : Fondazione Il bisonte, . Berlin : De Gruyter, . Oceans of love : the uncontainable Gregory Battcock. London : Koenig Books, . Stefan Gritsch : body of memory. Ariccia RM : Aracne, settembre Ostfildern : Hatje Cantz, .
Radical seafaring. Gu gong bo wu yuan cang yu zhi shi tao ci qi. Beijing Shi : Gu gong chu ban she, Ming Qing shan mian tu dian. Beijing : Gu gong chu ban she, Gu gong bo wu yuan cang Qing Kangxi qing hua ci qi. Gu gong bo wu yuan cang jing pin xuan. Tong jing. Storia degli impressionisti. Paris : Gallimard, . Macerata : Quodlibet, . Breathless days, Durham : Duke University Press, .
Cinisello Balsamo, Milano : Silvana editoriale, -. Ignacio Gumucio. Santiago de Chile : Hueders, Fichter Firm. Frankfurt am Main : H. Fichter Kunsthandel, Destruction rites : ephemerality and demolition in postwar visual culture. London : I. Ltd, Iran — a picture book. Leipzig : Spector Books, . Hamburg : Verlag Dr. Li dai ta ben jing hua. Shanghai : Shanghai ci shu chu ban she, Helsinki : Maahenki ; [Helsinki] : Museovirasto, The art of stereography : rediscovering vintage three-dimensional images. Lindenberg i. Ultima Thule : Kurt Schwitters and Norway.
Oslo : Orfeus, . Wittenberg : Schauplatz der Reformation. Niura Bellavinha. Rio de Janeiro : Cobogo, Valladolid : Ediciones Universidad de Valladolid, . Rodin : Auguste Rodin and the Nordic countries. Damien Hirst : schizophrenogenesis. London : Other Criteria : Paul Stoper, . Martin, eds. Robert Ryman. Luther im Bild : eine Ikone wird erschaffen. Stuttgart : Belser, .
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Deutschland gegen Frankreich : der Kampf um den Stil Helene Schjerfbeck. Helsinki : Ateneum, Finnish National Gallery, . About trees. Berlin, Germany : Broken Dimanche Press, . Juli bis 1. Kiel : Ludwig, . Thomas Hoepker : strange encounters. Letter to Lagat. In connection with the Hereros' request for higher standards of education and the establishment of government schools in their re- serves, Conradie told them of his pleasure in hearing of their new interest in education, it being "high time" that they expressed it; however, I cannot tax the Europeans to provide [government] schools for the natives.
The finances of the country are in a very unsatis- factory condition and if I open a native school here I shall have to open them all over the country. You will therefore have to find the funds yourselves. I would again urge you, as soon as conditions improve to see that the dues are paid to the Trust Fund and I will see as soon as conditions allow that you have a Government school at Aminius.
In his response to each request, the Administrator consistently emphasized the need to leave the reserves and "to work amongst the Europeans. One small government school for the Aminius Reserve was con- structed in The cost of the land and of the construction was met by moneys from the Tribal Trust Fund see Annual Reports for paras. JUNE, 35 native affairs revolved around the singularly narrow matter of the demand for African labor. In this case, it can be seen how the au- thorities' native land policy, tax policy, and education policy were predicated upon the African labor shortage.
Not this much money had been spent on the entire African population of , for all purposes in the same ten-year period PMC, Min. Ill and Annex 16, p. The Union's Annual Reports and the voluminous minutes of the Mandates Commission 45 make clear that the Union of South Africa saw its mandated territory as "her little bit more" 46 — a territory in which to settle more of her citizens and a territory to develop for those citizens "for all time" in Smut's own words , 47 with the Africans supplying the labor and supposedly bene- fiting thereby.
All indications are that South Africa's intentions and record fell short, in significant respects, of the fulfilment of the high ideals of the sacred trust. From the inception of the mandate, there is little to indicate that South Africa intended to have her mandate wards achieve any ideals or aspirations or position in life apart from the ideals or aspirations or positions laid down for them by the Euro- pean authorities in South West Africa and in the Union of South Africa.
Perhaps no statement better indicates the degree to which the Union intended to exploit her wards for her own needs and keep League of Nations' supervision at arm's length than a statement by Jacobus S. Smit, High Commissioner in London, in It would be a sad day for Africa if the native were encouraged to look beyond the authorities in South Africa for civilisation and support. The caption under a cartoon in the Cape Times, July 10, , Farson, op. Freed Susquehanna University Some time about the middle of the fourth century B.
The young scholar's name was Tyrtamos, but he soon became known as Theo- phrastus of Erasos. He be- came a teaching Fellow in the Lyceum and its founder's most de- voted pupil and friend. When Aristotle, upon the death of another famous pupil, Alexander the Great, had to flee Athens in B. There the latter worked incessantly, lecturing, discussing, writing. He appeared every morning finely groomed and proceeded to discourse with abandon and gesture.
He is said, on his deathbed, to have reproached nature for having bestowed a long life on stags and crows, creatures to whom such a gift made no difference, whereas mankind, to whom it made the greatest differ- ence, had so short a life. If man could live long enough, he would see all systems brought to perfection and human life enriched with the acquisition of all learning.
He complained that he was passing away just when he had a glimpse of the promised land. It means "divine speaker. Hermippus Athen. Cicero, op. No explanation of purpose prefaces these Characters; therefore it is not certain just what kind of work it is, whether it is made up of extracts borrowed from one of his works of rhetoric, or one of his moral works, or his treatise on comedy, or a collection of documents and materials gathered by the author at random to be used eventu- ally in one of his great moral treatises, or a choice of descriptive "models" for the use of his own pupils in his course in rhetoric and suggested for their imitation, or as illustrations for Aristotle's ethical doctrines.
None of these suggestions seems entirely satisfactory, though each has its defense. A parallel collection of another Peripatetic, Aris- ton end of the 3rd century , copies the style, composition and procedure of Theophrastus, a servile plagiarism except that in Ariston the Characters are not an independent piece, but constitute the end of a moral treatise. It is likely that Ariston merely followed the ex- ample of Theophrastus' collection in this, too, and that the latter may have been only the conclusion and concrete illustrations for a treatise on theoretical morals and may have become separated from the treatise.
It was a device not unfamiliar to any teacher. Homer has Idomeneus show Meriones the difference between a coward and a brave man. It is likely that Aristotle set the example himself, and that he listed the various emotions or qualities in pairs, perhaps the extremes with which he was greatly concerned. Aristotle also requires that characters be true to life. No art, he says, considers the particular, but a class; for particulars are infinite and cannot be known.
So rhetoric will consider not what is probable to the individual, but what is probable to a given class. Proverbs Aristophanes Wasps Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics IV. JUNE, 39 the natures of men in respect to moral virtue or character; so a good way to master the subject is to compose descriptions of representative men.
Perhaps it was more effective for his pupils to hold certain traits up to ridicule than to force listeners to make uneasy comparisons between their own shortcomings and a paragon of virtue. At any rate, satire comes more readily to the pen than ecomium; and the popular appeal of Theophrastus' new genre whether inadvertent or intentional was destined to wield a tre- mendous influence on subsequent literature, and become "one of the most prolific of literary kinds which flourished in the 17th century.
One impetus may have been the translation into Latin by Casaubon of Theophrastus' Characters, made in , which would make it more accessible to the general reading public of the day, and doubtless accounted for the spurt of satire in the decade that followed, in John Davis' Epigrams such as a court character known as a "gull"; Edward Guilpin's Skialetheia Shadow of Truth in such pictures as "The Cowardly Gallant"; John Marston's Scourge of Villanie with his "An Ardent Play-goer" and "A Fashion- Mounger"; and in two of Ben Jonson's plays: Every Man Out of His Humor , and Cynthia's Revels But of course the "character" was used before that.
We cannot discount the influence which was exerted for more than a century by Chaucer's charming and unforgettable pictures of the Canterbury pilgrims, such as the Clerk of Oxenford, the Poore Scoler of Oxen- ford, the Parson, the Reeve, the Monk, and many other favorites The transition to the next century may be found in Sebastian Brant's Shyp of Folys of the Worlde , a book which might be of interest to the modern reader.
The author's pur pose was to collect, catalogue, and export all the fools in the country. His descriptions accompanied by graphic woodcuts made the system of classifying types very familiar to the wide circle of readers to whom the book appealed. By the beginning of the 17th century, the genre had become firmly established in England by Bishop Hall , Sir John Over- bury , John Earle , Richard Brathwaite , Richard Flecknoe , Saltonstall, Wither, Samuel Butler, and many more, including many anonymous writers.
The fashion lasted on into the 18th century and with somewhat changed form into the 19th century with La Bruyere, Pope, Addison, Steele, Samuel Johnson, Words- worth, Coleridge, Lamb, and on down to the present day. The trend spread even to America. The field has been well tilled, and many studies have been made of the genre and its exponents. A bibliography has been compiled by E. Baldwin, a chronological list of character-books published between and , which numbers well over a hundred books. The question that arises is, How did the "character" as a liter- ary device survive the Hellenistic, Byzantine, early Christian and Dark Ages, from the time of Theophrastus till it came into flower again in the fourteenth century in England?
As a rule we hear only of this second stage; historians of literature are in the habit of bringing in the Character with Casaubon's edition; but the first period was much longer in extending from Theophrastus' day to the decline of the schools of rhetoric in the west. Not many could be added before , and after , though such a list would be fairly long, it would be so rambling and indeterminate that its main interest would lie not in the number but in the location of its names. Gordon, op. JUNE, 41 of transmission lay in this statement: "Its interest for the literary historian lies in the number of ways it reflects the spirit of the time, not only within its own limits, but through the media of five other literary forms: satire, epigram, essay, sermon, and drama" 16 and one might add one more, the epistle.
There seems to be no reason to doubt that the "Character" sprang up as a safe medium of expression in the dangerous days after Athens lost her freedom to the young lion Alexander from the north. The same reason obtained when Aristophanic comedy gave way to the New Comedy. The citizens, denied a part in politics and even the study of national problems, took to minding their private concerns and fell to considering the vanity of human wishes.
Attention to man- ners presupposes a philosophy of conduct; so Theophrastus' char- acters are an artistic by-product of a long preoccupation with the terms of conduct defined by Aristotle. Theophrastus wrote in two capacities: as a contemporary of Menander and as the successor to Aristotle. Writing with pleasure as an observer of his neighbors, he did not forget that he was also a professor and that the spirit of comedy might be the inspiration of the characters.
Ethics was its basis, but not wholly so; rhetoric was its end. The Characters were accepted as a model collection of ndrj for the student; copies were handed out and their milieu henceforth became the milieu of the classroom. Simple in form and truth, in language not bookish nor embellished, they seem to have become popular at once and to have retained their popularity throughout antiquity. It may be that Theophrastus B. They were all safe to use because no names were mentioned, no personalities were identi- fied.
There seems to be no logical reason to believe that Menander 15 Murphy, op. Both writers were to have their share of imitators in the years to come: Plautus and Terence kept alive the stock figures on the Roman stage, and the epigram, satire, and oratory kept alive the spark of Theo- phrastan characters. It was Theophrastus' contribution to literature to mould his sketches into a set form and thus create a new genre.
His Charac- ters always followed the same pattern: a definition of the trait fault was stated, followed by a concise, objective account of a person who typified that trait, giving an accumulation of acts or habits which illustrate the unpleasantness. For example: Garrulity Garrulity is the delivering of talk that is irrelevant, or long and unconsidered; and the Garrulous man is one that will sit down close beside someone he does not know and begin to talk with a eulogy of his own wife, and then relate a dream he had the night before, and after that tell dish by dish what he had for supper.
As he warms to his work he will remark that we are by no means the men we were, and the price of wheat has gone down, and there's a great many strangers in town, and that the ships will be able to put to sea after the Dionysia. Next he will surmise that the crops would be all the better for some more rain, and tell him what he is going to grow on his farm next year, adding that it is difficult to make both ends meet, and Damippus' torch was the largest set up at the Mysteries stale news, for this is clearly winter and the Eleusinian Mysteries were in September-October , and how many pillars there are in the Hall of Music, and 'I vomited yesterday' and 'What day is it today?
And if you let him go on he will never stop. In both cases the transition was from the display of char- acter in action to the consideration of character in and for itself and in both cases the explanation was the same ; viz. A late addition: "Such men as this anyone that would stay unburnt by the fire should flee by all and every means he can; for it is hard to bear with one who cannot distinguish leisure from occupation.
There is not time enough even for that which is relevant. We have all known persons at some time or other who possess the traits which he describes. Its principal charm is its irony which runs almost imperceptible. It seeks to portray not a full man in the round, in all his complexities, but only one angle on a flat surface, with the spotlight on only one outstanding feature. The writer emphasizes only that characteristic which his subject has in common with other men of that type, not those traits which make him a unique individual.
So, in the strict sense, this genre is not a true character sketch. It is too restricted for that. It is too brief to give a true perspective of a man who is made up of conflicting ele- ments. We realize that a garrulous man does not always talk, for he would not always have a traveling com- panion or a listener; a mean man is not always niggardly, or he would not have enough friends to invite to a stingy meal. On the other hand, one man could scarcely combine all the expressions of garrulity or meanness, but the author would glean evidence of these traits from many individuals and combine them into an enlarged caricature of garrulity or meanness.
Thus the Character genre can be used only in situations where a particular trait is emphasized for the purpose of illustration, in epigrams to admonish or amuse, in essays, in sermons and letters to exhort and turn from wicked to righteous ways. In some instances it could serve as a chapter in a book of etiquette. With all its limitations, the genre survived. There were two channels of survival, the transmission by manuscripts, and the use by other authors.
As to the first channel, it must be admitted that the genre may have survived more because of the company the manu- scripts kept rather than because of its own merits. We are indebted to Strabo and Plutarch for shedding some light on the transmission of the manuscripts of Theophrastus. Strabo XXX. Aristotle was the first man, to Strabo's knowledge, who had collected a library, setting the example to the Egyptian kings. Neleus later returned to his native Scepsis as its ruler and took the books with him.
His descendants, who came into the property, kept the books but shut them up without much care for their preservation. It was the time when the kings of Pergamus of the house of Attalus were searching the Greek world for books for their library, a rival to that at Alexandria; but the heirs of Neleus hid his books in a cave where they remained forgotten and gradually became a prey to dampness and worms.
At last, at the end of the second century B. Thus the earlier Peripatetics, says Strabo, were left without the works of their master, and the latter had faulty copies. He rounds off the story by stating that after Sulla or Sylla , on taking Athens in 87 B. Strabo was Tyran- nion's pupil and probably gives the story from his master's account; however, the statement that the early Peripatetics had no copies of Aristotle's writings is said to be open to a good deal of exception.
Plutarch corroborates Strabo's statements and adds: "When the whole was afterwards conveyed to Rome, there, it is said, the greater part of the collection passed through the hands of Tyrannion the grammarian, and that Andronicus the Rhodian, having through his means the command of numerous copies, made the treatises public and drew up the catalogues that are now current.
The elder Peri- patetics appear themselves indeed to have been accomplished and learned men, but of the writings of Aristotle and Theophrastus they had no large nor exact knowledge, because Theophrastus bequeathing his books to the heir of Neleus of Scepsis, they came into careless and illiterate hands. Here he was initiated into the Mysteries and seized for his use the library of Apellicon the Teian, in which were most of the works of Theophrastus and Aristotle, then not in general circulation.
There is no doubt that the poor condition in which the manuscripts were found by the first ancient editors was the cause of many corrupted passages and transpositions, also the repetition of about thirty lines in the two chapters XI, end and XXX, There is evidence that the Characters remained in great favor in the first centuries of the Byzantine epoch. The general spirit as well as the style of these pieces lead one to place their composition about the sixth century.
During the Middle Ages the Characters continued to be copied and studied. For while our most ancient manuscripts go back to the tenth century, the most recent are contemporaneous with the Renaissance and the beginning of printing. Pirck- heymer, who had dedicated it to Albert Durer. It comprised only the first fifteen characters and was based on a manuscript procured by Pic de la Mirandole.
In appeared in Venice a more complete edition containing the first twenty-three characters. It was promoted by J. Camozzi Latin Camotius who had inserted it with some other treatises of Theophrastus in a corpus of Aristotle's works. Then came the first edition of Casaubon as mentioned above, with 23 Navarre, op.
Papyri IV. M Navarre, op. Since that time, it is known that the twenty-eight chapters found did not constitute all the work of Theophrastus. In fact, in certain manuscripts the table of contents gives thirty titles, the number now contained in modern editions. It began with Eudemus, a contemporary of Theophrastus, who copied him, or with him followed the precepts of Aristotle.
To be sure, at least one abridgement of the Characters was made a century or more after Philodemus, and the original pieces of Theophrastus somehow survived until the time of our first manuscript, the ninth century. The schoolmaster and teachers of rhetoric got hold of it and drilled it into use; it was such an excellent way of giving the young orator some idea of life before he had begun to live. Thus disguised, it passed into its place in the Medieval curriculum, flourishing chiefly in the Eastern Empire like all things Greek, but already embodied Ibid. Boyce, The Theophrastus Character in England to , p.
Navarre, op. Boyce, op. Navarre dates the earliest ms. Holm, Rhetores Latini Minores Leipzig, , pp. JUNE, 47 in the text books of rhetoric which Rome received from her Greek teachers and bequeathed to her barbarians. Thus in Wilson's Arte of Rhetorique there is a human type used to illustrate an abstract topic; it is the picture of a covetous man: 35 There is no such pinch penny on live as this good fellowe is. He will not lose the paring of his nails. His haire is never rounded for sparing of money, one paire of shone serveth him a twelve moneth, he is shod with nailes like a Horse.
He hath been knowne by his coate this thirtie Winter. He spente once a groate at good ale, being forced through companie, and taken short at his worde, whereupon he hath taken such conceipt since that time, that it hath almost cost him his life. Thus the first stage of the history of the Characters had prepared the way for the second.
When at the end of the 16th century, they resumed their place as a substantive work and exacted once more the public acknowledgements of imitators, their form and method was already familiar in schools. It is curious to observe, Gordon continues, how completely the history carries out the immediate intention of their author.
But we cannot entirely ignore the poets. By the end of the first century B. Roman children of the day were taught grammar along with mathematics and music. They all learned correct spelling, punctuation, usage, use of synonyms, figures of speech, and rules of prosody. When they proceeded to the school of rhetoric, they studied the famous orators of the past and practiced rhetorical exercises in declamation. Future poets got the same training as future orators and future generals. Quoted from G. Mair's reprint of the edition of Oxford, , p.
Gordon, p. Donald L. Then, as we have seen, since the manuscripts of the latter had a common tradition with those of Theophrastus, it is not unreasonable to suppose that his writings on rhetoric and his examples for practice were well-known. It is natural to look for reminiscences of Theophrastus among the poets, and obvious examples come readily to mind. The most familiar picture of a type of character is that of the bore of Horace 65 B. If he based this satire I.
Horace makes his predecessor dependent upon the Old Comedy of Athens Sat. He was, it is true, familiar with the whole range of Greek literature, and makes citations from Homer, Aristophanes, Euripides, Menander, and Plato. He alludes to Socrates and Aristippus, and draws freely upon the Academy and later exponents of Greek philosophy.
Why should the prolific Peripatetics escape him and he follow exclusively the Cynic and Stoic popular preachers? Or what is to prevent Horace from studying these same philosophers and rhetoricians in school? We know he was acquainted with Philodemus of Gadara, who was himself familiar with the teachings of Theophrastus. Fiske, op. JUNE, 49 Homer. Horace's bore has the adhesive qualities of Theophrastus' garrulous man, with a few additional annoying traits. The form, of course, differs from the latter's set "definition plus examples" scheme; but the resemblance is too strong to dismiss this satire as a direct descendant of the Character sketch.
On a smaller scale but typical are the brief pictures of the ages of man in the Ars Poetica More bitter in tone are the Satires of Juvenal A. The Eighth Satire is a sketch of a dandy of Nero's reign, who liked to drive a fast chariot down the public highway like a professional jockey, who haunted the stables, who swore by the barbarous horse- goddess Epona, and who preferred the lowest taverns not as a youthful prank, but as a rooted perversion of his rank and obligations. In the Ninth Satire a pervert complains of the troubles of his profession.
Juvenal's apparent sympathy is an ironic screen for bitter mockery and scorn. The stingy man becomes a stock figure, from the early treatment by Bion and Lucilius 44 through Roman comedy to the well-known L'Avare of Moliere It would be interesting though probably not pertinent to the question at hand to trace the influence of Juvenal on subsequent writers. One might merely note that early Christian writers of the fourth and fifth centuries, such as Ausonius of Bordeaux and his pupil and correspondent, Paulinus of Nola, imitated Juvenal with such pictures as that of a "loftily-coiffured lady" 45 and were the first of a long line of poets who turned Juvenal's phrases to the services of Christianity.
Prudentius also admired Juvenal; and St. Jerome adapts one of his lines but does not mention him by name. In his treatise on marriage he apparently draws from Juvenal's Sixth Satire the Misogynist. And what a medley of detail that life presents! Fops, fortune-hunters, dinner-touters, dabblers and busy-bodies, orators and lawyers, schoolmasters, street hawkers, barbers, cobblers, jockeys, architects, auctioneers, debtors, bores, quid- nuncs, doctors, plagiarists, hypocritical philosophers, poisoners, jugglers and acrobats, the slave who has become a knight, or the knight without a qualification, personal peculiarities, the faults and vices of fashion- able life.
He is speaking of Cotilus, a "pretty fellow" : What is a pretty fellow? A pretty fellow is one who arranges neatly his curled locks, who continually smells of a balsam, continually of cinnamon; who hums catches of the Nile and Gades; who waves his depilated arms in time to varied measures; who all the day lolls amid the women's chairs, and is ever whispering in some ear; who reads billets sent from one quarter to another, and writes them; who shrinks from contact with the cloak on his neighbor's elbow; who knows who is the lover of whom; who hurries from one party to another; who has at his fingers' ends the long pedigree of Hirpinus.
What do you say? Is this thing, Cotilus, this thing a pretty fellow? A very trumpery thing, Cotilus, is your pretty fellow. Although the Character lent itself to the satire and epigram genres of the Silver Age, yet it was to the masters of prose that Theophrastus owes his immortality. The esteem with which Theo- phrastus was studied and praised by Cicero would in itself be enough to launch that Peripatetic philosopher to meteoric heights and carry him safely out of the oblivion of the Dark Ages.
While Cicero does not mention the Characters by name, his frequent reference to the other works of Theophrastus points to the fact that he possessed and read many if not all of them. He was an eclectic philosopher, weighing and choosing the best tenets of every system; and he found much good in the Peripatetics.
His proficiency in oratory is attested not only in his brilliant career, but also in the acclaim given him by posterity. Along with Quintilian, Donatus and Priscian, he became one of the great arbiters of rhetoric throughout the Middle Ages. Anyone who was recommended by Cicero was thus assured a place in the curriculum. Sometimes he mentions the two philosophers and rhetoricians together; but more often he refers to Theophrastus alone, and on many topics. He consults him on politics and government, on W. Ker, Martial Epigrams Locb ed. JUNE, 51 rhetoric and delivery, on happiness and wealth, in short on many phases of oratory and philosophy.
He refers to Theophrastus' opinion that all polished prose must have a rhythm; 50 that everything in oratory depends on countenance and expression of the eyes; 51 and that an orator is not sufficient unto himself. The Loeb Classical Library was used in all these references. In talking about liberality, and the two classes who give largely, the lavish and the generous, he is probably following Aristotle's doctrine of the mean between two extremes. At any rate, Cicero defines each group, the lavish who squander their money on public banquets, doles of meat among the people, gladiatorial shows, magnificent games, and wild beast fights, vanities of which but a brief recollection will remain or none at all; while the generous are those who employ their means to ransom captives, assume friends' debts, provide dowries for their daughters, or to acquire more property.
But to me the privilege it gives for the exercise of generosity, of which I have given a few illustrations, seems far higher and far more certain. How much more true and pertinent are Aristotle's words as he rebukes us for not being amazed at this extravagant waste of money, all to win the favor of the populace. It is hard to believe that he would take a stand so diametrically opposite to that of his master Aristotle. It is tempting to speculate that perhaps here he was writing with tongue in cheek, or even to suppose that he might slip in the picture of a wealthy man, satirizing rather than praising him for extrava- gance and vulgar display.
Cicero turns to agree with Theophrastus later when he says, "For the greatest privilege of wealth is, beyond all peradventure, the opportunity it affords for doing good without sacrificing one's fortune. Hospitality also is a theme of Theophrastus' praise and rightly so, for it seems to me at least it is most proper that the homes of distinguished men should be open to distinguished guests.
De Finibus V. De Officiis II. Some other minor differences can be noted, especially dealing with scientific matters De Natura Deorum I. JUNE, 53 Wishful thinking makes the reader look for hints of characteriza- tion which lurk in such corners as this: "The third division of phil- osophy investigates the rules of human well-being; this too was treated by the Peripatetics, so as to comprise not only the principle of indi- vidual conduct but also the government of states.
From Aristotle we learn the customs, institutions, and regulations, and from Theophrastus the laws also of nearly all the states not only of Greece but of the barbarians as well. Both described the proper qualifications of a sovereign, both wrote lengthy treatises on the best form of constitution ; Theophrastus treated more fully the subject of political vicissitudes.
Among the alternative ideals of conduct they gave the highest place to the life of retirement devoted to contemplation and study. This was pronounced to be most worthy of the Wise Man, as most nearly resembling the life of the gods. These topics they handle in a style as brilliant as it is illuminating. In De Oratore 1. Wherefore the speaker will not be able to achieve what he wants by his words unless he had gained profound insight into the character of men, and the whole range of human nature, and those motives whereby our souls are spurred on or turned back. And all this is considered to be the special province of philosophers, nor will the orator, if he take my advice, resist their claim; but when he has granted their knowledge of these things.
For this is the essential concern of an orator This same theme is treated at length by Seneca, in his Moral Epistles, who also borrowed from Theophrastus. See other pictures of the Wise Man in Tusc. And since Aristotle became one of the sages held in veneration throughout the Middle Ages, his close companion could hardly have been forgotten. His name would be known, too, and his works read and copied and recensions and epitomes would be spread abroad for posterity.
Another writer who seems to have exerted tremendous influence on the schools of rhetoric is the unknown author of Ad Herennium. This work, written about 80 B. It is the earliest surviving textbook that makes the imitation of models coordinate with art and superior to talent. His pupils had to memorize definitions and exam- ples, compose their speeches in six parts, but most of all had to imitate a model. More than half his work was devoted to elocutio or style. Although he believed that the writer of a textbook should himself be a model of eloquence, it is found that many of his examples are adapted from other writers I V.
Some of his exercises involved the reproduction of stories from poets or historians, of fables and fabulous fiction, conversations of persons and the like, to test clarity, brevity, probability and memory; also to exemplify proverbs, even to declaim on hotly contested issues of his own day.
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Especially in Bk. IV he uses effectio and notatio to denote descriptions of physical appearance and the nature of man respectively. Quintilian A. Theodectes, whose works I mentioned above, also lived about the same time; while Theophrastus, the pupil of Aristotle, produced some careful work on rhetoric.
Quintilian III i. He also quotes Theophrastus on language being free from affectation: III. JUNE, 55 followed in this view by many, for it gives inspiration as regards matter, sublimity of language, power to excite every emotion and appropriate treatment of character. Such tasks are profitable in more than one respect. The mind is exercised by the variety and multiplicity of the subject matter while the character is moulded by the contemplation of virtue and vice. Further, wide knowledge of facts is thus acquired, from which examples may be drawn if circumstances so demand, such illustrations being of the utmost value in every kind of case.
It is but a step from this practice in the comparison of the respective merits of the two characters. But the method to be followed in panegyric and in- vective will be dealt with in its proper place, as it forms the third department of rhetoric. As a rule, however, the general character of a commonplace is usually given a special turn; for instance, we make our adulterer blind, our gambler poor, and our profligate advanced in years. The teacher will proceed further to demonstrate what skill is shown in the division into heads, how subtle and fre- quent are the thrusts of argument, what vigor marks the stirring and what charm the soothing passage, how fierce the invective and how full of wit the jests and in conclusion how the orator establishes his sway over the emotions of his audience, forces his way into their very hearts and brings the feelings of the jury into perfect sympathy with all his words.
This class appears to have been entirely divorced by Aristotle, and following him, by Theophrastus, from the practical side of oratory and to have been reserved solely for the delectation of audiences. In the matter of denunciations, vices and their degrees are a matter of opinion. Aristotle thinks that the place and subject of panegyrics or denunciations make a very considerable dif- ference; for much depends on the character of the audience and the generally received opinion if they are to believe that the virtues.
Quintilian explains the first as the orator's imitation of an- other person's character or habits, and the second as a dramatization of the person as well as the giving of his words. In both figures the words must be suited to the subject matter and the situation — "a most useful exercise for poets, historians and orators. No definition of either figure would of itself create the Character; but both could take Theophrastus' sketches under their wings with some sense of family feeling.
Such at least seems to be the most plausible explanation of the fact that the Characters have survived solely and yet many times in manuscript collections built around Hermogenes and Aphthonius. They were not entirely super- seded but rather supplemented later by Donatus and Priscian in the fourth and fifth centuries. But the system of education changed little Ibid. Quintilian III. JUNE, 57 over the centuries. The study of these schools and their methods could lead us into a wide and tempting digression which might prove more fascinating than relevant. But it cannot be entirely ignored in the investigation of the Character motif.
The history of oratory and rhetoric is an unbroken one, bound as it is so closely with the school curriculum. The Greco-Roman educational program was not only homogeneous, but wide spread and long lived, fully accepted in Rome by the middle of the second century B. The grammaticus was concerned with much more than mere grammar. He taught not only correctness of language, the meaning of words and correct accent and delivery, but also the interpretation of the historians and poets. So the grammar school was de- voted to teaching all the seven liberal arts, 76 but the language arts of the trivium predominated.
The persistence of grammar school prac- tices is witnessed by Donatus, whose grammar was standard through- out the Middle Ages. He was teaching in Rome about A. His Ars Grammatica deals with the voice, letters, syllables, meter, accents, parts of speech, excellence of language, poetical license, and the figures of rhetoric. A more advanced and later grammar is that of Priscian, who was teaching Latin in Constantinople around His extant works include treatises on parts of speech and meters of Terence; but his most im- portant work is a translation of the elementary rhetorical exercises attributed to Hermogenes.
These "grammarians" transmitted the basic method of the grammaticus as a professor of literature: the 73 Clark, op. TB Cf. Seneca Epistles Mor. According to Quintilian I. The pupils then took turns reading aloud to the professor for correction and comment. The purpose of this study was to form the pupil's style by imitation of the language of the classics and to give him models of good conduct to imitate and of bad conduct to avoid.
The grammar school also gave instruction in the writing and speaking of themes or elementary rhetorical exercises. And here is where the Character sketch might very well fit into the course of study. Suetonius, in speaking of the grammaticus as teach- ing rhetoric as well as grammar, says, "It was this custom, I think, which led those of later times also, although the two professions had now become distinct, nevertheless either to retain or to introduce cer- tain kinds of exercises suited to the training of orators, such as prob- lems, paraphrases, addresses, character sketches and similar things; doubtless that they might not turn over their pupils to the rhetoricians wholly ignorant and unprepared.
Then came the last stage of education, the school of rhetoric, where the instruction was devoted to the language arts exclusively: grammar, logic, and rhetoric.
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The professor of rhetoric did not now teach grammar as such, but he criticized the student's style for cor- rectness, clearness, and most of all for appropriateness and use of embellishment. The methods were similar to those of the grammati- cus, but on an advanced scale. The student had to memorize defini- tions and elaborate classifications from the textbooks and the professor's lectures; then came analysis of models for imitation, and finally ap- plication of the precepts and imitation of the models in their own themes, in both suasoria and controversia.
The rhetoric taught in most schools was aimed at training boys for professional careers as advocates; it also helped him to participate in the debates of a legis- lative assembly and to make appropriate speeches on such occasions as festivals and funerals. Quintilian II. JUNE, 59 was recognized in ancient times, it is fairly safe to suppose that char- acter-writing passed on, under various headings and sometimes in rather vague fashion, by early rhetoricians to later teachers.
It fol- lowed in the wake of oratory. When, after Cicero and Quintilian, oratory began to decline, and after the second century survived only in the hands of professional sophists whose goal was brilliance and entertainment, the emphasis shifted to delivery and ornament and a perverse admiration for decorum and appropriateness. From the fifth century on, descriptions of the nature of man, old and young, rich and poor, now became ornaments of style, figurae sententiarum. In the usual way of pedagogy, several sorts of character sketches seem to have been invented and catalogued though not always under the same names.
The fate of the Theophrastan character in Roman and medieval rhetoric was to be moved out of the philosophical training of an orator and out of the "inventio" the investigation of material of his speech into the department of style, there to be treated with the figures of speech. Twelfth and thirteenth century manuals pro- vide information on what "descriptio" should be. The Character received attention under about twenty-five names in the early rhetorics. From the fourth century on, from Donatus and Priscian and their successors as masters of rhetoric, education in oratory gradually flowed into the training of boys for careers as Christian preachers.
When Henry Osborn Taylor considers the early Christian sermon, he points out that the early Fathers of the Church, of whom many had been professors and all had been students of rhetoric, show definitely in their florid styles the rhetorical sophistications they had been taught in the schools. Nothing was too high or too lowly to be used for the glorification of God and His saints. The flowers of rhetoric were cultivated and culled, all the jlores, colores, et lumina, to brighten their language and embellish their text, to point a moral or adorn a tale.
The Church Fathers if they checked rhetorical tendencies did so to subordinate the rules and methods to the high purpose of preaching. A study of this subject would lead into a field which has in itself the material for several dissertations. Suffice it to say that there was no lack of media for the trans- mission of pagan culture and its assimilation into Christian uses. The early Christian Fathers and scholars were almost without exception steeped in classical, that is pagan, learning; and with varying degrees of guilt complex renounced or clung to the pagan authors, or vacil- lated between the two extremes.
All the better for their consciences if they could find something useful in Cicero, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Quintilian, Seneca and Marcus Aurelius that would justify their keeping these authors on their shelves. Even the poets Vergil, Horace and Juvenal were read, cherished, and used. The very vituperations of the ancients by Christian writers testify to their widespread use. There are prohibitions in the decrees of various Church Councils against the reading of pagan authors, that of the Fourth Council of Carthage of the year forbidding Bishops to indulge in this prac- Cf. JUNE, 61 tice.
From Tertullian's declaration that professors of Greek and Latin were idolators in disguise made in the second century through Alcuin, the great scholar of Charlemagne's court in the ninth cen- tury, who, though an authority on pagan culture and especially on Vergil, was warned in a dream, as was St. Jerome, and forbade his monks at St. Martin's to read Vergil; to Abelard of the twelfth cen- tury, who wondered why bishops did not forbid the city of God to the poets that Plato would not admit to his city of the world, there was a constant attempt — and failure — to wipe out pagan culture.
There were secret ways to come by the forbidden books. The monks when they wanted an Ovid or Juvenal during a silent hour in a medieval library expressed their desire in the requisite sign-language by scratching the ear. Boethius, in the early sixth century, in prison did not write a Pilgrim's Progress, but a Consolation of Philosophy, until the eighteenth century one of the world's hundred best books, in which the name of Christ is not mentioned and the Holy Bible is not cited.
The great plan of his life was to translate all of Plato and Aristotle; and while he did not live to accomplish this tremendous feat, he did invent a new philosophic vocabulary and paved the way for later scholars like St. Thomas Aquinas and John the Scot. Thus Aristotle was kept alive, and as has been mentioned above, there is a strong possibility that his old companion Theophrastus was read in the same corpus of manuscripts. Each century could provide a scholar, or several, who could carry on the tradition of instruction by examples, and in many in- stances by sketches which echo the Characters of Theophrastus.
Often the early Christian writers used what might be called a variation of the Character. In exhorting the backslider and the heretic to the faith, the writer of an earnest epistle or a fiery sermon would draw a vivid picture of what a good Christian or a good bishop was like or should be, or of a person who made himself ridiculous or repre- hensible by some worldly aberration.
Inasmuch as this picture did not bear the name of an individual, it was a type, but one familiar, how- ever, to every listener. Ambrose that we see set forth the principles and ideals of proper conduct that were to form the basis of instruction throughout the medieval world. It was the plan of St. It is particularly in his sermons, which could be livelier than most ser- mons, that we note a series of little pictures that might have come out of an ancient satire, or an ancient diatribe, or such a work as the Characters of Theophrastus.
There are the money-lender, the debtor, the society-woman, the tavern-loafer, the miser, and many others. A set of sermons on Naboth's vineyard includes a picture of the misery of exceeding wealth that has the full flavor of Horace, and a view of land-ownership that would find approval with Tolstoy and Henry George.
By it they are turned into neighing horses. A drunken man loses voice, he changes color, he flashes fire from his eyes, he pants, he snorts, he goes stark mad, he falls in a foaming fit. Hence come also vain imaginings, uncertain vision, uncertain steps; often he hops over shadows thinking them to be pits. The earth acquires a facial expression, and nods to him; of a sudden it seems to rise and bend and twist.
Fearful, he falls on his face and grasps the ground with his hands or thinks that the mountains close in about him. There is a murmur in his ears as of the surging sea; he hears the surf booming on the beach. If he spies a dog, he imagines it a lion and takes to his heels.
Sometimes he shakes with laughter unquench- able; sometimes he is plunged in inconsolable woe; sometimes he is seized with senseless fears. He dreams when awake, and quarrels when asleep. His life is a dream, his sleep is a depth. No voice can arouse him, and until the fit pass off, no shak- ing bring him to. S7 St. Jerome , a contemporary of St. Ambrose, was one of the best educated men of his day. His main object in life was to put his scholarship at the disposal of the Church.
He was one of those who felt guilty because they indulged in classical authors. He had a famous dream which came to him during a serious illness and which he was convinced had been sent to rebuke his excessive fond- 85 E. Rand, Founders of the Middle Ages Cambridge, , p. M Ibid. Like Ambrose, he found the world in need of reform, human nature being what it is.
He saw sinners among the saints; society was full of hypocrites, false leaders, popular young priests, immaculately dressed and daintily perfumed, and ladies of high fashion. Jerome could not refrain from borrowing from his vast knowledge of pagan writers material as well as tone for many caustic remarks. He is plainly copying them in his Adversus Iovinianum, a treatise against matrimony, which might have been taken from Juvenal's Sixth Satire, or from Seneca's De Matrimonio or from Theophrastus' Trepl ydnw all of which dealt with marriage unfavorably.
He was of the disposition to enjoy and use Theophrastus against the corruption of his world; for "he quotes with especial favor what he calls 'that golden little book' of Theophrastus. Though they change their raiment, their schemings are as of old. Their Basternian litters Cadillacs are preceded by a cohort of couriers. They redden their cheeks and fill in the skin so neatly that you would think they had not lost husbands but were on the hunt for them. Their houses are full of flatterers, full of feasts.
The clergy, too, are there, who ought to have been employed in their duties. They kiss the heads of these matrons, and then hold out their hands — to pronounce a benediction over them, you would imagine, if you did not know that they receive in their palms the tip for their sacred salutation. Our good ladies, therefore, seeing that priests depend upon their beneficence, are puffed up with self- esteem.
Having got rid of a husband's sovereignty, they prefer the independence of widowhood. They are called chaste and nuns — and after a seven-course dinner, they dream of apostles. She who is especially devout wears out only one robe at a time, pulling her rags out of full coffers. Her prayer-book is made of purple parchment. Migne, op. Rand, op. Jerome Epistolae. When she ex- tends her hand to the needy, she blows a full blast on the trumpet.
When she goes to mass, she hires the town-crier. I lately saw a noble Roman dame — no names, else you will think this a satire — on her way to St. Her eunuch couriers were in advance, and she was actually passing out pennies to beggars with her own hand, to create a finer im- pression of piety.
One old woman, covered with rags and the ravages of time, ran ahead to get another coin. When she reached her turn again, she got a fisticuff instead of a penny, and was covered with blood for her criminal con- duct. But nowadays many say, — not verbally, but their actions speak louder than words, — "I have not faith and mercy, but such as I have, silver and gold — that I don't give you either.
There is the fashionable young priest who trots around to all the best receptions, attired as immaculately as a bride- groom. There is the gloomy ascetic who lectures at religious confer- ences in exclusive houses, and beguiles the poor little women there, always sorrowing over their sins and never arriving at the knowledge of the truth.
These hypocrites put on a sad face and protect their long fasts by stealthy meals at night. And their get-up! Jerome distrusted a long beard. In an epigram deftly borrowed by Erasmus, he remarked, "If there is any holiness in a beard, nobody is more holy than a goat. Thus the picture was much more general, and sometimes included even the writer who acknowledged his sinfulness. Such pictures are to be found in abundance, though not exactly in the Theophrastus pattern, in the Instructor of Clement of Alexandria when he describes the gluttonous eater, an intoxicated woman, bad man- ners, a loquacious man later also viciously attacked by St.
Gregory the Great in his Pastoral Care , and women's dress and make-up : So those women who wear gold, occupying themselves in curling at their locks, and engaged in anointing their cheeks, painting their eyes and dyeing their hair, and practicing the 01 Rand, op. JUNE, 65 other pernicious arts of luxury, decking the covering of flesh, in truth, imitate the Egyptians in order to attract their infatu- ated lovers. And the true beast will thus be detected — an ape smeared with white paint.
For love of display is not for a lady, but a courtesan. Such women care little for keeping at home with their husbands; but loosing their husbands' purse- strings, they spend its supplies on their lusts, that they may have many witnesses of their seemingly fair appearance; and, devoting the whole day to their toilet, they spend their time with their bought slaves. Accordingly they season the flesh like a pernicious sauce; and the day they bestow on their toilet shut up in their rooms, so as not to be caught decking themselves. But in the evening this spurious beauty creeps out to candle- light as out of a hole; for drunkenness and dimness of the light aid what they have put on.
The woman who dyes her hair yellow Menander, the comic poet, expels from the house: Now get out of this house, for no chaste Woman ought to make her hair yellow. Nor, I would add, stain her cheeks nor paint her eyes. The early Christian writers looked upon the epistle as "the only proper genre for instruc- tion in piety and resorted to it even when they were not addressing a limited circle of readers.
To list and quote even a single example from all the preachers and scholars of the Middle Ages would constitute a corpus of formidable bulk. Suffice it to name a few besides the two well-known saints mentioned above. The germ of the Character lurks in much of the didactic material of Clement of Rome ; in Tertullian , who in commenting on women's dress, hair dye and hair styles, anticipates the condemnation of such practices by many later writers and shares similar views to those of his contem- porary, Clement of Alexandria.
Quasten, Patrology Westminster, Maryland, , I, p. Supra, p. The lamp of Christianity burned howbeit dimly in the darkest period before the dawn of the Renaissance, and while much of the writing activity of the scholars was devoted to history, of the church as Bede's in the eighth cen- tury, or of the Franks or the Lombards or the English kings or the Crusades, or to biography as that of Charlemagne or Boniface or St.
Martin of Tours, or to the miracles of saints and martyrs, there was much effort devoted also to the instruction of monks and priests, and the exhortation of the faithful. And not only to these good Christians is due the gratitude of the world, but also to such scholars as Lupus of Ferrieres c. He rivals the Renaissance scholars in his enthusiasm for securing, copying and correcting manuscripts; and it is to such as him that works like those of Aristotle and Theophrastus owe their immortality.
Somehow the Character was kept alive, not always in its original form, to be sure, but unmistakable in its effect. In a little book entitled De Contemptu Mundi sive De Miseria Conditionis Humanae, he writes about how uncertain this life is and what shall be our end. The most cheerful pages are those in which he gives a brief descrip- tion of some typical figure to illustrate his theme.