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He is the patron of the 7th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. There, he would meet and befriend Ruy Barbosa. In , he moved t. Roberto de Oliveira Campos 17 April — 9 October was a Brazilian economist, writer, diplomat, politician and member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. He served in a number of capacities, including Brazilian ambassador to the United States and to the United Kingdom, minister of planning for the government of Castelo Branco, and congressman.

He was also an avid researcher of Native Brazilian languages and folklore. He is the patron of the 15th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. After completing his. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in Brazilian literature, and was a pioneer of the Brazilian theatre. He is the patron of the 9th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. His mother's name is unknown. He entered in a Medicine course in , graduating in Soon after, Pitanguy went to France and England where he studied plastic surgery. In he began working at a Brazilian hospital. Pitanguy treated burn victims for weeks on an emergency basis.

He later referred to the event as life changing, as it taught him that for many, physical appearance was critical to living. Pitanguy was also a philanthropist. Pitanguy was a member of the Academia Brasileira de Letras. He had a doctorate in sociology from the London School of Economics, which was directed by Ernest Gellner. He published books written directly in French, English, Italian, and his native Portuguese. Merquior divided his published works in two segments.

In one the bulk was criticism per se; in the other the emphasis was the history of ideas, or more specific investigations like the highly esteemed study of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Max Weber. This is a list of Brazilian writers, those born in Brazil or who have established citizenship or residency. Ruy Barbosa de Oliveira 5 November — 1 March was a Brazilian polymath, diplomat, writer, jurist, and politician. Born in Salvador, Bahia, he was a federal representative, senator, Minister of Finance and diplomat. For his distinguished participation in the 2nd Hague Conference, defending the principle of equality among nations, he earned the nickname "Eagle of the Hague".

He ran unsuccessfully for the Presidency of Brazil in , and in Rui Barbosa gave his first public speech for the abolition of slavery when he was For the rest of his life he remained an uncompromising defender of civil liberties. Part of Barbosa's legacy to history is that he authorised, as minister of finance on 14 December , the destruction of most government records relating to slavery. This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. This is a list of some of the most important writers from Latin America, organized by cultural region and nationality.

The focus is on Latin American literature. For its profoundly philosophical themes, the critic Antonio Candido described the book as a "metaphysical novel". It is often considered to be the Brazilian equivalent of James Joyce's Ulysses.

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Several of his books and short stories have been turned into movies and TV series in Brazil. Ribeiro was a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, being elected in At the time of his death many considered him to be Brazil's greatest contemporary novelist. When Ribeiro was two months old, the family moved to Aracaju, in the northeastern state of Sergipe. Early on, he showed an interest in literature. In , Ribeiro began working for local newspapers as a journalist. The following year, he entered the Universidade Federal da Bahia to study law.

During this time, he published several magazines and journals with Rocha. In , his anthology of stories from Bahia, Lug. Miguel Reale November 6, — April 14, was a Brazilian jurist, philosopher, academic, politician and poet. Known as one of the most important jurists of Brazil, he is considered the greatest Brazilian philosopher of law of all time.

One of the leaders of Integralism in Brazil and ideologue of the "Brazilian Integralist Action", Reale subsequently adopted as ideology the social liberalism. He was a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. As a scholar, he became well known in Latin America and in Continental Europe for his works on law and philosophy. Was a prolific writer. Before vice presidency he was chairman of the Chamber of Deputies — , Governor of Pernambuco , Minister of Education — and Chief of President Sarney's cabinet — Maciel returned to the Senate following his Vice Presidency, until he was defeated in Retrieved 2 January Joaquim Manuel de Macedo June 24, — April 11, was a Brazilian novelist, doctor, teacher, poet, playwright and journalist, famous for the romance A Moreninha.

He is the patron of the 20th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. Semana Dr. He graduated in Medicine in , and started to practice it in the inlands of Rio. In the same year, he published his romance A Moreninha. In this magazine, many parts of his lengthy poem A Nebulosa were published. He was very linked to the Brazilian Imperial.

He is considered to be one of the most famous and influential Brazilian Romantic novelists of the 19th century, and a major exponent of the literary tradition known as "Indianism". Sometimes he signed his works with the pen name Erasmo. He was patron of the 23rd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. His family was a rich and influential clan in Northeastern Brazil, his grandmother being famous landowner Barbara Pereira de Alencar, heroine of the Pernambucan Revolution.

He is the patron of the 30th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. He is famous for consolidating in Brazil the "comedy of manners" genre, initiated by Martins Pena. He founded and occupied the 29th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from until his death in Azevedo would show a love for theatre since he was a child. Initially working as a salesman, he later got a job at the provincial administration, but was fired for writing satires against the government. He later found a job as an amanuensis in the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture.

He died in Back to Profile. Photos Works. Main Photo Add photo. School period Add photo. Career Add photo. Some of the miracles might come to him in verse, the. Their antiquarian interest was recognized over three centuries ago. Mariae de Rupe Amatoris provided the king with many subjects, as did also Vincent de Beauvais' Speculum Historiale, of which he possessed a copy. But the sources in the Peninsula were very copious, as, for instance, the Book of the Miracles of Santiago, of which a copy, in Latin, exists in the Paris Bibliotheque Nationalc.

Of other miracles the king had had personal experience, or they were recent and came to him by word of mouth. Thus he often does not profess to invent his subject he merely translates it into verse and sometimes appraises it as he does so. It is a marvellous great miracle' C.

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Many of these miracles occurred then as now the humbler the to the peasants and unlettered : ' ' ' '. He seems to have followed the originals very closely, and evident traces 1 Their popular origin is borne out by the music. See H. Collet et Cf. Meyer, L. Villalba, Contribution a I'itude dcs Cantigas The attention thus neces-. Others had probably an equal celebrity in the Middle Ages, as that of the captive miraculously brought from Africa and awaking free in Spain.

Every tenth poem the collection was intended originally to consist of one hundred interrupts the narratives of miracles by a purely lyrical. The trick of one of them was to declare that, being captive in Turkey, encommendando-me miiito d Senhora achei-me ao oittro dia ao romper da alva em terra de Christaos Simao de Vasconcellos, Cronica, Lib. I, Jeronymo de Mendo9a, Jornada de Africa, ed. Domingos, i. Joan de Aboim , had an important bearing on the development of Portuguese poetry.

He came back determined to act the part of an enlightened patron of letters he encouraged the immigration of men of learning from France and maintained three jograes permanently in his palace. If, on the other hand, we look for imitations in detail it is jocs-partits. El Rei aia tres jograes en sa casa e non mats.

Riquier's segricrs per tolas cortz King Alfonso C. See also C. The word probably has no connexion with scguir to follow. Possibly it was used originally to differentiate singers of profane songs, caniigas profanas e seculares. Frei Joao Alvarez in his Cronica do Infanle Sanlo has obras ecclesiasticas e segraaes King Duarte counted among os pecados da boca cantar cantigas sagraaes ', The Cancioneiros show that the segrel was far less common than the jogral in the thirteenth century. Por estes ramos et por estas flores Et polas aves que cantan d'amores, he need not have read Peire de Bussinac's lines :.

Vocabulary and thought are spectre-thin. Indeed, it was part of the convention to sing vaguely. Yet the poets evidently had talent and poetic feeling indeed, their skill in versification contrasts remarkably with Joan Soarez de Paiva died in Galicia. The latter wrote in the first years of the thirteenth century C. Much of the information of this Poetica printed in C. There were apparently. These are poems with more life and action, often in dialogue. Perhaps the dona herself, wearied by the monotonous cantigas de amor, had pointed to the songs of the peasant women, include.

She reproaches and entreats her mother, answers her as choir to choir she bewails her lot to her ;. Her mother and lover are reconciled. Her lover is false and fails to meet her at the trysted hour. She waits for him in vain, and her mother comforts her in her. Sanmansobre is, it seems, a misprint for ntordobre. Sin lai, sin deslai, sin cor, sin descor. Sin dobre, mansobre, sensilla o menor.

Sin encadenado, dexar o prender. Some of these poems should never have been written or printed, but many of them give a lively idea of the society of that time. They laugh merrily or venomously at that do not the poverty-stricken knight with nothing to eat ;. We read of the excellent capon, kid, and pork provided by the king for dinner of the fair malniaridada, married or rather sold by her parents of the impoverished lady, one of those for whom later Nun' Alvarez provided of the poet pining in exile not of love but hunger of the lame lawyer, the unjust set his dogs ; ;.

These cantigas d'escarnho e de maldizer were a powerful instrument of satire from which there was no escape. A hapless infanQon, slovenly in his ways, drew down upon himself the wit of D. But the implacable D. But the majority of these verses are not so '. He imitated both French and Provengal models, and, having learnt lightness of touch from them, would appear to have contented himself with writing cantigas de amigo besides cantigas de amor and escarnho without having recourse to the cossante.

There is life and poetical feeling as well as facility of technique in his poems. Pero Garcia de Burgos fl. He shows himself capable of deep feeling in his love songs, but speaks with two voices, descending to sad depths in his poems. His contemporary, the segrel Pero da Ponte, is an accomplished poet of love, in the even flow of his verse far more accomplished than Pero Garcia, and in his satirical poems wittier and, as a rule, more moderate.

He placed his of invective. To satire almost exclusively the powerful courtier of King Dinis' reign, Stevam Guarda, devoted his not inconsiderable talent, and the segrel Pedr' Amigo de Sevilha fi. Aqueste cantar da egoa que non andou na tregoa C. Joan Garcia de Guilhade. See C. Of most of the other singers we have far fewer poems. There is an engaging grace and spirit in the cantigas de amigo written in dancing rhythm by Fernan Rodriguez de Calheiros fi. Joan Lopez de Ulhoa, their contemporary.

Neither of these, however, possessed the poetical genius and versatility of the priest of Santiago, Airas Nunez second half are two cossantes C. Of Roy Queimado fl. Another of his poems C. Great importance has been attached to another C. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos has shown that it was written to commemorate a contemporary event, probably in The Cancioneiros contain poems by high and low, prince and, one would fain say, peasant, noble trohador and hnmhXe jogral, soldiers and civilians, priests and laymen, singers of Galicia, Portugal, and Spain, but more especially of Galicia and North Portugal.

As in the case of C. Lopez de Bayan [c. See p. See Randglosse xii. An incidental interest belongs to this poem of eighteen dodecasyllabic lines from the fact that in C. But indeed no further proofs are needed to show that, even had King Dinis never existed, the contents of the early Portuguese Cancioneiros would have been remarkable for their When Alfonso X died his grandson Dinis variety and beauty.

Plentifully educated by a Frenchman, Aymeric d'brard, afterwards Bishop of Coimbra, married to a foreign princess, Isabel of Aragon the Oueen-Saint of Portugal , profoundly impressed, no doubt, by the world-fame of Alfonso X, to whom he was sent on a diplomatic mission when not yet in his teens, he became nevertheless one of the most national of kings.

If he imitated Alfonso X in his love of literature, he showed himself a far abler and firmer sovereign, being more like a rock than like the sea, to which the poet compared Alfonso. Farsighted in the conception of his plans and vigorous in their execution, the Rei Lavrador,. Among his great and abiding services to his country was the foundation of the first Portuguese University in the year , and in the same spirit he ordered the translation of many notable books from the Spanish, Latin, and Arabic into Portuguese prose, including the celebrated works of the Learned.

He thus overlapped Dante's life by four years at either end. Craveiro, Compendio , cap. Diniz trouxe a idade de ouro a Portugal. The Dedaratio placed by Guiraut Riquier of Narbonne on the lips of that king in marked the coming instinct for popular themes,. It was owing to the personal encouragement of Dinis that the waning star of both Provengal and indigenous poetry continued to shine in Portugal for another half-century. The grandson of Alfonso X was the last hope of the trohadores and jograes of the Peninsula. From Leon and Castille and Aragon they came to reap an aftermath of song and panos at his Court, and after his death remained silent or unpaid C.

The poems of King Dinis are not only more numerous but far more various than those of any other trobador, with the exception of Alfonso X, and it may perhaps be doubted whether they are all the work of his own hand. In poetry's old age he might well wish to collect specimens of various kinds for his Livro de Trovas. Amigo fals' e desleal, and C. These include dar aos jograaees. Nunez de Learn translates joglar as iruao :.

And certainly, at least, his graciosas e dukes palavras well earned amor. A Semior das Sennores songs in honour of the writing began Por que a non loades? No trace or of Alfonso. Cronica del Rei D. Diniz, ed. Mandou hum livro delles escrito por sua mdo a seu avo It does not imply that the it is obviously the source of no. Can the book three or four fingers in height have been the Cane, da Ajuda millimetres from which a section of sacred poems may have been torn?

If so the letters Rey Do Denis C. Identical phrases occur. At the Escorial he also examined an original manuscript of St. Augustine '. Sanchez, D. Pedro, Conde de Barcellos, long had a reputation as a poet almost equal to that of his father, owing to the association of his. It was as a prose-writer and editor of the Livro de Linhagens that he worthily carried on the literary tradition of. Latin chrysalis was in an advanced stage of development even prose as a literary instrument does not begin before the. The next two centuries redressed the balance in the favour of prose.

Portuguese is then uma lingua coherente, clara, um instrumento perfeito para a expressdo do pensamento, cuja maior plaslicidade dependerd apenas da cultura litteraria, F. Adolpho Coelho, A Lingua Portugiieza , p. King Dinis had encouraged translation was more national. The only edition that we have, Historia Geral de Hespanha , is cut short in the reign of King Ramiro cap. Joao Claro ti? The importance of these and other fragmentary versions of the Bible, in which there can rarely be a doubt as to the meaning of the words, is obvious.

Extracts from the Vida de Eufrosina and the Vida de Maria Egipcia, published in by Jules Cornu from the manuscripts formerly in the Monastery of Alcobaga, now in the Torre do Tombo, show that they were A Lenda dos written in vigorous if primitive prose 14th c. E persegujo as pias filhas de finees que Ihe aujd odio e o querid desherdar. The Vida de Santo Aleixo also exists in two codices belonging to the middle and beginning of the fifteenth century, and Dr. Esteves Percira, who published the latter, considers that the variants point to an earlier manuscript of the beginning, of the fourteenth or end of the To about the same period i4th-i5th c.

The Cronica da Ordem dos Frades Menores is a fifteenthcentury Portuguese translation of a fourteenth-century Latin chronicle,. Evora, Here at last was some one with will and power to make the dry bones live. Livro Velho is a jejune family register iith-i4th c. Pedro, represents the lost original of the Livro de Linhagens of D. Pedro, Conde de Barcellos The Nobiliario do Conde has been shown by Alexandre Herculano, who printed it from the manuscript in the Torre do Tombo, to be the work of various authors extending over more than a century i3th-i4th , the Conde de Barcellos being but one of them.

Pedro em seu livro is as natural as the mention of Innocencio da Silva in a later volume of his great dictionary. But it was. Many other allusions, both earlier and later, to the Breton cycle, Merlin,. Alvarez chose Galahad for his model, and came In as near realizing his ideal as may be given to mortal man. Gil Vicente's time the name Percival had already descended to. Whether they were incorporated in the Cancioneiro from a Portuguese Tristam earlier than the Spanish version ?

It was natural that they should undergo their influence earlier and more strongly than their more direct and more national neighbours the Castilians, whose clear, definite descriptions in the twelfth- century Poema del Cid would send those legends drifting back to the dim regions of their birth. Even to-day connexion with and sympathy for Ireland is far commoner in Galicia than in any other part of Spain. Unhappily, most of the early Portuguese versions of the Breton legends have been lost. The probability that these were written in Portuguese, not in Spanish, is increased by the survival of A Historia dos Cavalleiros da Mesa Redonda e da Demanda do Santo Graall, as yet only partially published from the manuscript in the Vienna Hofbibliothek.

It was written probably in the fourteenth century, perhaps at the end of the thirteenth, although the Vienna manuscript is more recent and belongs to the fifteenth century, in which the work was referred to by the poet Rodriguez de la Camara. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Cancioneiro da Ajuda, ii. This, in the same way as the. It was also known formerly as Destroygam de Jerusalem. Esteves Pereira believes that the Spanish Tennyson's revival of the Arthurian legend in England evoked no corresponding interest in Portugal in the nineteenth century, and the primitive and touching story as published in has left Sir Percival in the very middle of an adventure The descent of the Amadis romances for over a generation.


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The problem of the date and authorship has become more fascinating than the book. Champions for Spain and of. Henry Thomas holds the scales. The ground is thick with their arrows. And beneath them all lies the simple ingenuous story as retold by Garci Rodriguez de Montalvo in or immediately after and published in , still worth reading for its freshness and for its clear good style, which Braunfels, following up the praise in Juan de Valdes' Didlogo de la Lengua [c- , declared could not be a translation.

I, cap. He dedicated it to the molt illustre Princep Ferdinand of Portugal. Very probably the fame and origin of Amadis accounted for this 'English' original, as mythical as the Hungarian origin of Las Sergas de Esplandian, and for its alleged translation into Portuguese. The words in this Prdlogo of his Amadis , que hasta aqiii no es memoria de ninguno ser visto, refer not to the fourth book but to Montalvo's Sergas de Esplandian, which is conveniently replaced by dots in T.

Braga, Questoes , p. Spanish translation, by Johan Garcia de Castrogeriz, of Egidio Colonna's De regimine principum, at the very time, that is, when the Spanish poet and chronicler, Pero Lopez de Ayala , was reading later, in. Pero Fcrrus in the Cancionero de Baena refers to Amadis as written in three books. This is one of the most definite early references to Amadis, but of course reference to the.

Spanish, and indeed some of the vaguer allusions references occur in the Cancionero de Baena, which. Because the Portuguese language was used throughout Spain in lyric poetry, it is sometimes argued as if the Portuguese had no prose, could only sing. The more real division was not between verse and prose but between the Portuguese lyrical love literature and the Spanish epic battle of Peninsular lyrics.

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The prose rubrics of the Portuguese Cancioneiros and the Poetica of the Cancioneiro literature,. His connexion with Portugal was not voluntary. It was probably when he was a prisoner after the battle of Aljubarrota that he wrote the Rimado de Palacio, in which st. We know that King Dinis encouraged not only lyric poetry but also translations into Portuguese prose, but all the early Portuguese prose works are assigned to the fourteenth, not the thirteenth century.

The Infante whom he here on the strength of the passage in Montalvo's Amadis identifies with the son of King Dinis, not with the earlier Prince Afonso [c. There is no means of deciding with certainty whether Lopez de Ayala and Ferrus read Amadis in Spanish or in Portuguese, but there are inherent probabilities in favour of Portuguese. No one without a thesis to support would deny that, generally, the. Conde D. Joao de Leite Ferreira agree with Zurara.

Soledad certainly occurs in the first three books more frequently than in other Spanish prose. The Portuguese atmosphere is altogether absent in Las Sergas. Livra d' Amadis, como quer que soomentc este fosse feito a prazer Cap. This passage is, however, absent in the earliest manuscript. The spelling cour. The obviou. Cronica de D.

Fernando, cap. The year of his death, given as , quite uncertain. Floruit tempore Fernandi Regis. Nicolds Antonio , Bib. Clarimundo in his youth. If he Hved on through the reigns of Pedro I and Fernando , and acquired new distinction in battle in the reign of the latter, this might account for Zurara's assertion that he wrote Amadis in the reign of Fernando.

But the chief obstacle to the authorship of Vasco is the existence in the Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti Nos. Amadis [lAh. II, cap. But does the existence of the poem entail that of a prose romance? The early mention of Tristan, e. Osiendere Gaula cuius laudes nos inter Anonymos curiose collegimus. The challenge in the last sentence is of interest, as coming in date between the two statements by Leite Ferreira and the Conde da Ericeira asserting the existence of the Portuguese text. There was a Canon of Santiago of this name in , and he may have come to the Portuguese Court on business concerning certain privileges of the Chapter which King Dinis confirmed in Amadis that of the father, this Joao de Lobeira, written in the time of King Dinis a long-lived race these Lobeiras!

The threefold authorship of this family heirloom is even more cruu of :. Moreover, if the tance to nohiliarios and Portuguese adaptation of an Anglo-French legend had been even remotely as developed as the form in which we now have the Infante Afonso must have seen at once that the faithit, But fulness of Amadis was absolutely essential to the story. Leonoreta poem belongs to a Spanish Amadis in prose. But although the priority and relations of early Portuguese and Spanish prose works are intricate and have not yet been thoroughly studied, it is clear that in many cases versions have been more carefully preserved in conservative Spain, while the Portuguese through neglect, fire, and earthquake have perished, and also that the natural tendency and development of prose, in view of.

In the document the only son mentioned is named Gon9alo. According to D. Portuguese, was from Portuguese to Spanish, not from Spanish to Portuguese. Nor would the Portuguese, for all their familiarity with the story and topography of the Breton cycle, be likely to compose original works dealing with Vindilisora Windsor or Bristoya Bristol. Unhappily, however deep may be our Bretagna. Portuguese, it has now ceased to belong to Portuguese literature another instance, if we may beg the originally ;. Portuguese history, with its heroic achievements such as the conquest of Algarve, seems to have begun just too late to be the subject of great anonymous epics, or rather the temperament of the Portuguese people eschewed them.

Of five poems, long believed to be the earliest examples. Cava or da Perda de Espanha was an infant prodigy indeed, it was supposed to have been written in oitavas in the eighth century. Cronica de Cister, Bk. VI, cap. It has been several times reprinted cf. Barreto, Orlografia , p. Minotaur, and must be the echo of some Algarvian song. Its simple repetitions have a haunting rhythm, but they are perhaps a Httle too emphatic. One early epic poem Portugal undoubtedly possessed, Poema da Batalha do Salado, by Afonso Giraldez, who himself probably took part in the battle The subject of the poem is the same as that of the Spanish Poema de Alfonso Onceno, but whether its treatment was similar we cannot say, as only forty lines of the Galician-Portuguese poem survive.

Since the authorship of the Spanish poem is doubtful and its rhymes run more naturally theory has arisen, in Galician. It is perhaps more extraordinary that both should have. Since the battle was fought in Spain it would be considered in Brandao's day a proper subject for a romance, but would be noticeable as being written in Galician. Castilian was throughout the Peninsula regarded as the fitting the epic, just '. SeeGrundriss, p. Fitzmau rice- Kelly, Litterature Espagnole, ed. Duardos the Cavalheiro dc Oliveira fessed to have found it. It is therefore surprising to find in Portugal a large number of romances.

Had the romances been elaborated in the same way as in Spain, we might have expected a large number of anonymous Portuguese romances dealing with the Breton cycle, and indeed with early Portuguese history, so rich in heroic incidents. The fact that this is not the case and the number of romances collected in Tras-os-Montes alike point to their Spanish origin, while their frequency in the Azores denotes how popular they became later in Portugal. In the sixteenth century their Spanish character was recognized. The poor escudeiro in Eufrosina is.

The partiality for Spanish applied to poetry of other kinds, and Manuel de Galhegos says that it is a bold venture to publish poetry in Portuguese. It is therefore noteworthy that the nurse in Gil Vicente sings romances in Spanish. Theophilo Braga, who considers Spanish influence on the romances in Cf. Rodriguez Lobo, Primavera ed. Romance he poesia propria de Hespanha, but Hespanha and Portugal and he instances G6ngora and Rodriguez ed. Spanish romances. True historical romances the Portufor their.

Ill, cap. Vicente, Os Almocreves Hei os de todos grosar Ainda que sejam velhos. Antigo may similarly mean antiquated ' rather than ancient. Barros, Grammatica, ed. Renins, the lines are Polos campos do Mondego Cavaleiros vi somar. The second edition of Dr. Theophilo Braga's Romanceiro runs to nearly two thousand pages.

The first two volumes contain over romances together with numerous variants. Of these 5 belong to the Carolingian, 8 to the Arthurian cycle, of the best. In the third volume are reprinted romances composed by well-known Portuguese authors of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It must be admitted that Spain generously repaid to Portugal the loan of the Galician language for lyrical composition although in each case it was.

But even after the birth of the romance Spain continued to cultivate the Galician lyric, until the second half of the fifteenth century. The last instance is sup-. One name dominates the period. The love and tragic fate of.

PEÇA AMOR POR ANEXINS - ARTUR DE AZEVEDO (COMÉDIA)

Joan Soarez de Paiva in the preceding century. Of his story we know definitely nothing, but some lines in one of his poems. En men of D. In later Portuguese his name was often written Mansias. In an older version, that of the Constable D. Pedro in his Satira de felice e infelice vida, he. Enrique de Villena , who was perhaps only six when Macias died.

Juan de Mena in Spain. But there were other poets whose verse was probably not inferior in-law as a Court poet corresponding to Nobleza de Andalvzia , ii, f. In his farewell poem A Deus Amor, a Deus el Ret, which Cervantes perhaps remembered, he bids good bye to the trohadores con quen trobei, and in a quaint humorous testament he mentions a number of friends and relatives, two of whom, at least, his cousin Pedro de Valcacer or Valcarcel and Lope de Porto Carreiro, also wrote verse. In the last of the sixteen stanzas [ahhacca] of this testamento the Archdeacon appoints his namesake Gongalo Rodriguez de Sousa and Fernan Rodriguez to be his executors.

He may have been alive in , for a Doctor Gongalo Rodriguez, Archdeacon of Almazan, is mentioned as one of the witnesses to the oath taken by the city ;. Burgos to the Infante Maria in that year. King Juan I's dancing girls [una juglara in the belief that she was rich, he repented when he found que non tenia nada. He next became a hermit near Gerena, and, this not proving more congenial than married poverty, he embarked ostensibly for the Holy Land, but in fact landed at Malaga with his wife and of.

The name was a common one. Madrid, , p. There was also a fourteenth-century poet called Ruiz de Toro. He wrote to order and was considered the crown and king of all the poetas e trovadores who had ever existed in the whole of Spain '. This extravagant subservient ingly,. Cancionero de Baena has preserved over twenty. He writes in varying metres with unfailing ease and harmony, rarely sinks into mere verbal dexterity, and well deserves to be considered the best of these later Galician poets.

Alfonso upbraids Garci Ferrandez for renouncing the Christian faith and leaguing himself with the Devil [gannaste C. Five fragmentary poems belong to the Infante D. Pedro , Constable of Portugal. There are, besides his three short Portuguese poems in the Cancioneiro de Resende, only fortyone lines in all, for while Galician, already separated from her twin sister of Portugal, went to sleep a sleep of nearly four. As a transition be mentioned here before his father D.

Pedro, Coimbra, since his prose works, which would naturally. His life of thirty-seven years was thus as full of wandering adventure as that of any troubadour of old. To him Santillana addressed his celebrated letter on the development of poetry, and his own influence on Portuguese literature was important, for he introduced not only at Alfarrobeira he escaped.

Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos years after Queen Isabel's death. His longest and most important poem, in octaves,. Coimbra - his Portuguese poems were also wrongly ascribed to King Peter I of Portugal, through confusion with the later King Peter, of Aragon , it was incorporated in the Cancioneiro de Resende, which appeared half of.

Another sister, D. Philippa de Lencastre , lived in retirement convent of Odivellas near Lisbon, and as a dedicatory poem to her translation of the Gospels wrote the simple, impressive lines beginning Non vos sirvo, nnn vos amo, '. Ribeiro dos Santos, Obras MS. Pedro, In reality he was not gifted with greater poetical filho do Snr. Rev D. Jodo I Cf.

He had himself seen Nun' Alvarez as a young man and the heroes who had fought in a hundred fights to free their country from a foreign yoke, and he had father of Portuguese history, c. His work at the Torre do Tombo covered a period of over thirty years. He won and kept as prince. The last document signed by Lopez as official is dated in July he seems to have resigned his position at least temporarily, and on June 6, , he was definitely superseded by Zurara as being so old and ; '. It appears from a document presented by Dr. Pedro de Azevedo at a meeting of the Sociedade Portnguesa de Estudos Historicos in July that his wife's niece was married to a shoe.

Joam, cap. Needless to say, no English translation of Lopez exists. Joam I. The latter is but a brief sketch, and lacks the unity which the subject-matter gives to the other two. His :. Whatever sources he utilized, Latin, Spanish, or Portuguese, he stamped his work with his '. Keenly alive to the dignity and responsibilities historians, See A. Braamcamp Freire, ibid. V arias Antigvidades de Portugal , cap.

Goes, Cron. Manuel, iv. Joam, Prologo.

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Lopez' preface to his Cr. Joam Oo com quamto cuidado e diltgemfia vimos gramdes vollumes de livros, de desvairadas lingtiagees e terras ; e isso meesmo pubricas escprituras de muitos cartarios e otitros logares nas quaaes depois de longas vegilias e gramdes trabalhos mais ertidom aver nom podemos da contheuda em esta obra 19 15 ed. Da Guerra see Zurara, Cr. Mello refused the governorship of captured Ceuta in 5. A work on a similar subject, Tratado da Milicia, is ascribed to Zurara's friend and patron. King Afonso V Barbosa Machado, i. Fernam Lopez, as in the account of the murder of the Infante Fradique, which Lopez copies very closely although abbreviating it as really foreign to occasionally rises to the height of his history ,.

Joam, Certo he que quaaesquer estorias muito melhor se entemdem 5 ed. The words apply more accurately to Fernam Lopez. Ines' murthe murder of D. Maria Tellez and with skilful care the character of the actors, pleasure-loving King Ferdinand, cunning, audacious, and accomplished Queen Lianor Tellez, wise and noble Queen Philippa, even morose Juan I, and principally the popular Mestre d'Avis and his great Constable, Nun' Alvarez Pereira.

And the Portuguese people is delineated both collectively and derers,. That Lopez paid attention to his is proved by his modest disclaimer bidding the reader e. Esteves Pereira and Snr. Joam, at which he was working in Braamcamp Freire, Cr. Joam 5 , Inirodufdo, p. Joam it. A single age does not produce two Fernam Lopez any more than it produces two Montaignes or two Malorys. Those who read the continuation of the Cronica de D. Joam e. Xenophon, a motley company, mourn the death of Queen Philippa cap. Sermons extend over whole chapters, although, as he into Lopez' is.

Philosophy had been graciously woven but here it stands in solid icebergs interrupting the story. And if he wishes to say that memory fails in old he must quote St. Jerome often age a date could not be given. Roberto Correia Pinto Livro da Guerra de :. Ceuta Ceuta had been captured so swiftly that many had left the corn of their fields stored in their granaries and returned in time for the vintage '. The whole description of the expedition against Ceuta and the attack and sack of the city are extremely clear.