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John de Courcy built a castle on what is now Castle Street in the city centre in the 12th century, but this was on a lesser scale and not as strategically important as Carrickfergus Castle to the north, built by de Courcy in ; the O'Neill clan had a presence in the area. Conn O'Neill of the Clannaboy O'Neills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, one remaining link being the Conn's Water river flowing through east Belfast.

Belfast became a substantial settlement in the 17th century after being established as a town by Sir Arthur Chichester , it was settled by Protestant English and Scottish migrants at the time of the Plantation of Ulster. Evidence of this period of Belfast's growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries.

Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries and became Ireland's pre-eminent industrial city. Industries thrived, including linen , rope-making , heavy engineering and shipbuilding, at the end of the 19th century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland; the Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, employing up to 35, workers.

In the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule. In —22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned. The accompanying conflict cost up to lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late s onwards. It is located 5 miles south south-west of Charing Cross. Tooting has been settled since pre-Saxon times; the name is of Anglo-Saxon origin but the meaning is disputed.

It could mean the people of Tota. Alternatively it could be derived from an old meaning of the verb to tout. There may have been a watchtower here on the road to London and hence the people of the look-out post; the Romans built a road, named Stane Street by the English, from London to Chichester , which passed through Tooting.

Tooting High Street is built on this road. In Saxon times and Streatham was given to the Abbey of Chertsey. Suene, believed to be a Viking , may have been given all or part of the land. In the Norman period, it came into the possession of the De Gravenel family, after whom it was named Tooting Graveney ; until minor changes in the 19th century it consisted of 2 km2.

Upper Tooting, or Tooting Bec , appears as a manor held by the Abbey of Hellouin Bec, in Normandy , thus acquiring the "Bec" in its name, its domesday assets were 5 hides. Some development occurred in the Edwardian era but another large spurt in growth happened during the s and 30s. A second storey was added in Since the parliamentary constituency of Tooting was founded, it has always been a seat held by the Labour Party. Tooting is positioned on the Northern line—with stations at the top and the bottom of the hill that slopes down the High Street, Tooting Bec and Tooting Broadway.

Tooting is served by National Rail at Tooting railway station providing a direct link south to Sutton via Wimbledon , north to Farringdon , St Pancras and on to Luton , it has several bus links, with routes to and from Central London , Croydon and Kingston amongst others. Tooting Broadway tube station is being considered by TfL as a stop on the future Crossrail 2 development. In addition to relieving congestion on the Northern Line , this would provide Tooting with a rapid and direct connection to major London stations such as Clapham Junction , Tottenham Court Road and Euston.

Tooting railway station Mitcham Eastfields railway station Balham railway station Haydons Road railway station Totterdown Fields estate was designated a conservation area, on the 19 September It was the first London County Council cottage estate built between and containing individual houses built over 38 acres. It was influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement. A large open area, popularly known as the Tooting Commons , lies at the northern end of Tooting ; this was two separate open spaces: Tooting Graveney Common, Tooting Bec Common.

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The commons are home to Tooting Bec Lido, AFC Wimbledon have plans to develop their new stadium there. Tooting has two indoor markets, with numbers of permanent stalls; the entrances of both are situated on Tooting High Street , only a few metres apart. They both have many types of outlets; the larger, The Broadway Market , is one of the largest of London's indoor markets, having more than ninety stalls, has been active since The markets tend to be animated on Saturdays, but are both open all the weekdays, except on public holidays. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and to the electorate; the office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State.

The current holder of the office, Theresa May , leader of the Conservative Party , was appointed by the Queen on 13 July ; the office is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as Prime Minister the person most to command the confidence of the House of Commons.

The position of Prime Minister was not created; the office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. Although the Sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and remained the head of government, politically it became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament.

By the s the Westminster system of government had emerged; the political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged. Prior to , the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords , provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons; however as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house.

As leader of the House of Commons , the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street , are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury; the status of the position as Prime Minister means that the incumbent is ranked as one of the most powerful and influential people in the world.

In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and commands a majority in the House of Commons; the incumbent wields both significant legislative and executive powers. Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity, the Prime Minister appoints all other Cabinet members and ministers, co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, the staff of the Civil Service.

The Prime Minister acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government , both at home and abroad.


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Upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, meaning that it is not set out in any single document. The British constitution consists of many documents and most for the evolution of the Office of the Prime Minister , it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice. In , Prime Minister H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs:In this country we live It is true that we have on the Statute-book great instruments like Magna Carta , the Petition of Right , the Bill of Rights which define and secure many of our rights and privileges, they rest on usage, convention of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, but which in the course of time received universal observance and respect.

The relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Minister's executive and legislative powers are royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the Sovereign, who remains the head of state. Despite its growing. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House ; the Commons is an elected body consisting of members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries.

Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act , the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance.

By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition.

Since , by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords. The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government.

The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch.

However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act , terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence. By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan , John Major , Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May.

In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons.

In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until , the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers. By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage.

Since , all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened. University of York The University of York is a collegiate plate glass research university, located in the city of York, England.

Established in , the campus university has expanded to more than thirty departments and centres, covering a wide range of subjects. Situated to the south-east of the city of York, the university campus is about acres in size; the original Heslington West campus incorporates the York Science Park and the National Science Learning Centre , its wildlife, campus lakes and greenery are prominent. In May the university was granted permission to build an extension to its main campus, on arable land just east of the nearby village of Heslington ; the second campus, known as Heslington East or Campus East, opened in and now hosts three colleges and three departments as well as conference spaces, a sports village and a business start-up'incubator'.

York is a collegiate university and every student is allocated to one of the university's nine colleges. There are plans to build two new colleges in the near future. In , York joined the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, it was ranked joint 12th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 24th for its Research Power in the Research Excellence Framework.

The national ranking of York is 22nd by The Times , 12th by The Guardian and 21st by The Complete University Guide ; the first petition for the establishment of a university in York was presented to James I in In a second petition was drawn up but was not delivered due to the English Civil War in A third petition was rejected by Parliament. In the s there were discussions about the founding of a university in York, but this did not come to fruition due to the founding of Durham University in In F.

Oliver Sheldon a director of Rowntree's and co-founder of York Civic Trust , was a driving force behind the campaign to found the university. Morell and the history of the foundations. In the university opened with undergraduates, 14 postgraduates , 28 academic and administrative staff; the university started with six departments: Economics, English, Mathematics , Politics. At the time, the university consisted of three buildings, principally the historic King's Manor in the city centre and Heslington Hall , which has Tudor foundations and is in the village of Heslington on the edge of York.

A year work began on purpose-built structures on the Heslington Campus, which now forms the main part of the university. Baron James of Rusholme , the university's first Vice-Chancellor , said of the University of York that "it must be collegiate in character, that it must deliberately seek to limit the number of subjects and that much of the teaching must be done via tutorials and seminars".

Due to the influence of Graeme Moodie , founding head of the Politics Department, students are involved in the governance of the university at all levels, his model has since been adopted. York's first two Colleges and Langwith, were founded in , were followed by Alcuin and Vanbrugh in and Goodricke in In this was followed by Wentworth College ; the university was noted for its inventive approach to teaching. It was known for its early adoption of joint honours degrees which were very broad such as history and biology, it took an innovative approach to social science introducing a five year long degree in the subject.

After the construction of Colleges ceased until with the foundation of James College. James was intended to be a postgraduate only college. However, the university began to expand in size doubling in size from 4, to 8, students. In , therefore it was decided; the expansion of student numbers resulted in the creation of more accommodation by the University, named'Halifax Court'. In , Halifax Court was renamed Halifax College. In , the university set out plans to create a campus for 5, additional students, to introduce a number of new subjects such as Law and Dentistry. In , plans were finalised for a hectare extension to the campus, provisionally called Heslington East, designed to mirror the existing Heslington West campus; the plans set out that the new campus would be built on arable land between Grimston Bar park and ride car park and Heslington village.

The land was removed from the green belt for the purpose of extending the university. After a lengthy consultation and a public inquiry into the proposals in , the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government gave the go-ahead in May From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British politician and life peer. The Right Honourable. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.


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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. The London Gazette. Captive Animals' Protection Society. Archived from the original on 20 November Ministers for Sport of the United Kingdom.

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It had a population of , as of Donegall Square in the early s. Shankill Road during the Troubles, s. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Cannon on Derry 's city walls. Scrabo Tower , County Down. Signing of the Ulster Covenant in in opposition to Home Rule. Opening of Stormont in The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom which has been described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists.

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Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. William Pitt the Younger addressing the Commons on the outbreak of the war with France ; painting by Anton Hickel. The essential features of Barry's design were preserved when the Chamber was rebuilt. In he returned to the trades unions as assistant general secretary of the Association of Broadcasting and Allied Staffs, where he remained until he became an MP in He was elected to the Greater London council for Hammersmith in and to Lambeth council - where he was a member with John Major and Ken Livingstone - in He subsequently represented Tooting on the GLC, until it was abolished by Margaret Thatcher, and was its last chairman from to The high point for him was as chairman of the arts committee from to During the Labour party's internal troubles in the s and early s he became a loyal supporter of Tony Benn and shortly after first being elected to the House of Commons in , when Mr Benn was defeated in Bristol, offered to stand down in his favour.

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He also became a confidante of John Smith. His career might have prospered more if Smith had lived. As it was, Banks was too principled to stay long anywhere. Tony Blair made him minister of sport in but he was never very happy in that post, despite his interest in the subject. He was loyal to the prime minister, who recognised his values.

Banks knew he was often too hasty in his judgments and witticisms - suggesting William Hague resembled a foetus was one that was often decried.

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But he was a genuinely funny man. In a debate on organ transplants shortly after the Tory minister Cecil Parkinson had been involved in a sex scandal, he asked: "May I put in a bid for Cecil's plonker - one careful owner," and he said about himself: "Good taste was never one of my qualifications".

He volunteered his resignation from the Blair government to lead what proved to be the unsuccessful British bid to host the next football World Cup in London. The capital city was one of his passions and he claimed to be the first person to suggest it should have a directly elected mayor. At one stage he was anxious to be Labour's "stop Ken" candidate in the first round of the mayoral election, but prime ministerial prevarication prevented it. He subsequently stood for selection as the Labour candidate for the second round, before Mr Livingstone was re-admitted to party membership, but Banks was defeated by Nicky Gavron.

He is survived by his wife, Sally. Tessa Jowell writes: London's successful bid for the Olympics owes a great deal to the earlier failure to bring the World Cup to Wembley. Tony Banks, first as sports minister, then as the prime minister's special representative, was the prime mover in that bid and the energy, passion and determination he put into that gruelling process hasn't been fully recognised.

Although the bid failed, we learned important lessons that shaped the Olympic bid. With typical generosity Tony shared his invaluable insights and experiences with me and the rest of the Olympic bid team. He rejoiced with us at the prospect of bringing the games to the capital. His passion for sport in general and Chelsea in particular are well known. It is less well known that he was an art expert of growing reputation. One of his happiest periods was as chairman of arts and leisure on the old GLC, and he drew great satisfaction from his role as chair of the House of Commons Arts committee.

As minister for women, I was also conscious of Tony's commitment to the advancement of women. It was typical of him that when he decided to stand down as MP for West Ham he did all he could to ensure that his successor was selected from an all-women shortlist. His wife, Sally, was shopping with a friend when he collapsed. Figures from across the political spectrum paid tribute last night to Mr Banks, whose quick wit and sharp tongue won him friends and adversaries in equal measure. Tony Blair said that he would be remembered as a man of the people, who supported animal rights with the same enthusiasm with which he supported Chelsea FC.

He was someone who said what they thought and was loved by people for it. He delighted in living up to the old parliamentary convention that whatever was said in the chamber you would be friends outside of it. He was deeply committed, articulate and inspiring to work with. He was a true football fan. Even colleagues who felt the rough edge of his tongue mostly regarded him as a good thing, a valuable part of the rich tapestry of House of Commons life.

That kind of watchful eye was never needed more than under new Labour, when ministers and their teams of smooth-talking advisers often seemed set on cutting corners with the democratic process. Banks was never a new Labour man. His interventions in the House would have been admired by members of the awkward squads in any parliamentary Labour Party at any time during the 20th century. He believed, of course, in abolishing the House of Lords.

He was not the first member of the awkward squad to accept a life peerage, for his own excellent reasons, when he himself retired from the Commons last year, taking the title of Lord Stratford after an historic section of East London that had once been part of his constituency. The desire to be awkward marked his career. He had been arrested at least once for demonstrating outside South Africa House in Trafalgar Square in the days when that was the focus of the politically correct. His name was ever to be found on Commons motions to get the troops out of Northern Ireland, to denounce some right-wing Latin-American dictator, to expose Freemasonry in the police force, to prohibit war toys, to decriminalise the smoking of cannabis or to criminalise fox hunting.

Unlike many of the anti-hunters, as it happened, he had a consistent record on animal welfare. His charm was that he was much less boring than most of the people who champion such causes, even if some of his searing phrases could not be quoted in polite society. He always came high up in the league tables showing which MPs are most popular with their own colleagues. He also came near the top of the tables showing the number of parliamentary questions asked by MPs. Quantity may be no guarantee of quality, but he had admirers on all sides of the House who recognised that there was usually a sound point to his many campaigns.

Of course, there was a socialist twist to it. The future Lord Stratford had little sympathy for the kind of opera-lovers who enjoyed subsidised seats for which they could well afford to pay the market price. As a Londoner — although not a true Cockney because he had been born in Belfast — he had strong views on the absurdity of the peculiar way London is governed. He agitated for having a Mayor of London, and would have liked the job himself, only to see it go to Ken Livingstone.

This damaged an old friendship that went back to their early days in local government together. While working as a researcher with a trade union he got himself elected to the Greater London Council and then to Lambeth Borough Council. Many of his generation of left-wing councillors came to be disillusioned by what they regarded as the timidity of the Labour leadership at Westminster and saw local politics as a means of flourishing the red flag.

Much of what they did could be criticised as mere symbolism. The frustration of left-wing Labour councillors was aggravated when Margaret Thatcher came to power. Within a year or two, daggers were drawn between her and people like Banks at the GLC, whom she regarded as a serious threat to her ambitions to free the whole of the country from socialism. Invigorated by victory in the Falklands, she simply legislated to abolish the GLC.

Banks was the last chairman of the GLC before this happened. Up until the end of his time in the Commons, Banks continued advocating all sorts of worthy projects: he believed, for example, in a national scheme of community service for young people. As the election approached he decided, although only in his early 60s, not to stand again. He suffered a serious stroke while on holiday in Florida.

The outspoken former MP, who became Lord Stratford when he accepted a peerage last year, was being moved to a hospice when he died. He had collapsed during lunch on Thursday on Sanibel Island, Florida, where he and his wife Sally had been staying with friends. He was taken to Fort Myers hospital, but doctors had warned that his condition was "bleak". Tony Blair led the tributes to the peer last night, describing him as "one of the most charismatic politicians in Britain" and "a true man of the people". The Prime Minister said: "Whether he was campaigning for the regeneration of East London, fighting for animal welfare or expressing his enthusiasm for Chelsea football club he was someone who said what they thought and was loved by people for it.

His friend, David Mellor, the former Conservative MP, said he was "immensely popular" and would be missed by politicians from all parties. As Labour MP for West Ham for 22 years, he became a parliamentary character, known for his readiness to speak his mind.

This Is Love - TONY BANKS covered by OON N FRIENDS Band (Malang-Indonesia)

While he started out on the far Left, he moderated his views enough to become a minister under Mr Blair. After two years as a minister he resigned to campaign for England's unsuccessful bid to host the World Cup. He was passionate about animal rights and was a vocal campaigner for the ban on hunting with dogs. Lord Stratford was renowned for his sharp tongue. He said he was stepping down because dealing with constituents' problems was "intellectually numbing and tedious in the extreme". This is The Telegraph's obituary Tony Banks The Lord Stratford, formerly Tony Banks MP, who has died aged 62, was the controversial and outspoken Minister of Sport and Heritage in Tony Blair's first government after Labour's victory in the General Election of ; a fanatical football fan with a talent for publicity, he was in some ways highly qualified for the job, although as a former leading member of the "loony left" Greater London Council GLC under Ken Livingstone, he was no champion of New Labour.

Rebellious, hyperactive and a passionate vegetarian dedicated to the anti-hunting lobby, Banks's political image owed as much to the music hall as it did to the hard Left. Although delighted at his ministerial appointment, he had been unable to contain his surprise. Having announced that "to be offered the Minister for Sport by the Prime Minister was rather like being offered a place in heaven without having to die first", he lost little time in promoting his favourite causes.

But his time in office was dominated by gaffes and minor acts of rebellion. A staunch republican, he was forced to say that he had only crossed his fingers "for luck" when he took his oath of allegiance to the Queen. When he was a few months into the job there were calls for his resignation after he joked at the party conference in Brighton that William Hague resembled a foetus. On one occasion he suggested that darts should become an Olympic sport. Two years after his appointment, Banks resigned his post and became the Prime Minister's envoy for England's bid to host the World Cup.

The bid failed and, suffering the fate of most sports ministers, he failed to achieve further promotion and returned to the back benches, where, perhaps, he was happiest. In he made a failed bid to become Labour's candidate for London mayor, after which he devoted his energies to animal rights and the campaign to ban hunting with dogs. At the end of , shortly after achieving his goal of a ban on hunting, Banks announced that he would be standing down as MP for West Ham at the next election.

He explained that his interest in constituency work had waned, and he now found it "intellectually numbing" and "tedious in the extreme". And it's dispiriting. The same problems come round time after time, and yes, however much you care, it's bloody tedious. His father, an engineering fitter and Sergeant Major in the 8th Army who later became First Secretary in the postwar Warsaw Embassy, was an active member of the Labour party and a stern disciplinarian. There he acquired an early reputation as a trouble-maker, and he was regularly beaten for talking back to his teachers.