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It was evident even when expressed as per capita GDP—that is, factoring in a population growth that in most countries was accelerating, because death rates had finally begun to fall sharply while birth rates remained high. In the s in much of Latin America the annual rate of population increase came to exceed 3 percent. But there were clear differences in economic performance among countries. Brazil, with a diversified economic base and much the largest internal market , and Panama , with its canal-based service economy, posted the best records, their GDP per capita doubling between and ; Mexico and Venezuela did almost as well, as did Costa Rica.

But the Argentine economy seemed to stagnate, and few countries scored significant gains. Moreover, the conviction eventually grew in countries where ISI had been vigorously pushed that the easy gains in replacement of imports were coming to an end and that, to maintain adequate growth, it would be necessary to renew emphasis on exports as well.

“Pax Americana”: the United States and the transformation of the 20th century’s global order

World market conditions were favourable for a revival of export promotion; indeed, international trade had begun a rapid expansion at the very time that inward-directed growth was gaining converts in Latin America. The promotion of industrial exports was slow to appear.

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Brazil was the most successful, selling automobiles and automotive parts mainly to other less-developed countries but at times even to the industrial world. In other instances Latin Americans tried to develop new, nontraditional primary commodity exports.

It also assumed a leading role in the illicit narcotics trade. Continued advances in public health were the principal basis for the explosion of population growth, which in turn made more difficult the provision of other social services. Nevertheless, educational coverage continued to expand, and state schools increased their share of students at the expense of private often church-affiliated institutions. Social security systems were introduced in countries that previously had none and expanded where they already existed.


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Yet such benefits chiefly went to organized urban workers and members of the middle sectors so that the net effect was often to increase, rather than lessen, social inequality. Moreover, structural land reform received more lip service than actual implementation. Print Email this Page. Search this Section.

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Applicants Online form Phone: Expertise Summary My basic area of expertise is that of US foreign relations during the twentieth century and the domestic, cultural, transnational and global interconnections that have influenced the US role in the world. A perfect free-market world?


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Editors: Sewell , B. Some categorisations of US power have long governed analyses of American foreign policy - concepts such as 'empire', 'decline', 'superpower', 'the Cold War' and 'the War on Terror' - and have led to a distortion that sees US policy measured by broad labels, rather than on its own terms. This fresh new approach seeks to challenge these terms.

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