I m going to get angry! How dare you speak to me in that tone of voice! That s the limit! Do you want to know what I think? How old are you? He s old enough to be my father! Has the boss given his blessing to the project? Don t you believe it! I m so happy I want to shout it from the rooftops! I m terribly sorry, but. I don t want any excuses! Excuse me, can I get past? Do you approve of the proposal? This calls for a celebration! I d like to make a toast! Let s open a bottle of wine to celebrate! Three cheers for Louis!
Are you sure it was him? Whose gloves are these? Who does this book belong to? Are they in possession of the necessary documents? When do you take possession of your new house? It s a tedious business collecting signatures! Ironing s such a chore! That s fair enough, but don t you think that…? Are you feeling confident? Could you tell me if the meeting is taking place? Are you quite sure he hasn t left yet? I owe you 20 euros, right? Am I right in thinking you re German? That s right! I told you so! Why don t you add some cream, you ll see how much better it ll taste!
Do you have any complaints about the company? Stop complaining all the time! I want to see the manager! I want my money back! What is she moaning about now? Stop whingeing or whining! Let s say you re right; why then didn t he say anything? Chin up! You ve got some cheek! Congratulations on your new job! Three cheers for Sarah! Well done! Happy birthday! Does it require you to explain, to debate, to support or to oppose? Make sure that your plan see points 4 and 5 ts the requirement. Brainstorm: nd 3 or 4 key phrases in the set question and write down ideas associated with each phrase.
Then draw a diagram or an image representing your thoughts. Readaroundyourtopic: read with pen and paper to make clear notes as you go. Read with a purpose: to enrich the writing that you are about to do. First read for the gist of the argument, then if the reading ts your purpose, read it again for detail. Go from the arguments you least support to those you most support. Choose a type of discourse: depending on point 1, choose the language of description check tenses and adverbs of space or time , debate use adverbs of cause and consequence or persuasion use declarative and modal verbs.
Write your conclusion: writing at least a draft version of this before the dissertation helps to keep you focused on the question. Include a a recapitulation of the arguments; b your position; c a widening out of the topic for future research. The body of the dissertation: carry out point 6 d , with your notes from points 2 and 3 in front of you. The key stages for writing a dissertation are as follows.
En introduction on annonce sa position. Boucler son essay. Then look up from the page and ask yourself what its 2 or 3 essential points are. Write these down. The look of the text on the page can help you to home in on its salient ideas. It may have headers, subheaders and captions. It may have di erent sections. It almost certainly has paragraphs. It may use di erent font types and sizes.
Look for clues like these before you start: they will guide you in the next step. Preparing to reduce the text. Paragraphs are parts of texts that hold self-contained ideas, so they are a good place to start the reduction process. Bearing in mind your notes from step 1 and your observations from step 2, write one sentence per paragraph, expressing its essence. If you have not been given any, aim to shrink the text by half. Reducing the text. Take a copy of your text and delete anything irrelevant to the main points already identi ed e. By now you will be left with a skeleton text.
All writing exercises, even summarizing, are much improved if you take the trouble to write out the plan of your text summary. Do this now, including the main ideas perhaps paragraph by paragraph and all the logical links between them. If you re-use the same vocabulary as in the original, you may struggle to keep to your target length.
Look for more generic synonyms which may convey the same idea as the detailed phrases in the text. However be careful not to accidentally eliminate important nuances in the process. Looking for economical grammatical structures. You may be able to nd more concise ways of expressing even the grammatical structures of the text.
Compound tenses can be turned into simple tenses, passives into actives, relative clauses into past participles, etc. Now carry out your nal word count and adjust accordingly. Finally, check your spelling. They do not retell the texts. Unless prescribed, length depends on the length and complexity of the original text. The main aim is to provide a balanced account of the points in bullet 4 below.
Read the text actively, jotting down your thoughts in words or in diagram form. Each successive reading should build up a picture of two or three salient features of the text that will be discussed in the commentaire. Read up on the period, and on any theme that links the text itself and its wider context. Collect relevant quotes by your author or from related texts.
By now you are ready to decide on how you will organise your commentaire. Write a plan including your chosen angles and notes about linking them. Write your introduction and conclusion first. Resist the temptation to leave the writing of the conclusion till the end. Decide where to insert any supporting quotes collected earlier. Reread your work making sure that you are not simply following the order of the text, nor giving your reader a paraphrase of the original.
Reread your commentaire again, to ensure that you have mentioned the form language as well as the content at appropriate points throughout. Old English, also called Anglo-Saxon, was a West Germanic language spoken in parts of England and the south of Scotland between around the middle of the 5th c. It was a language unusually rich in literature. In particular, the epic poem Beowulf has taken on national emblematic status. Les origines de la langue anglaise.
Latin, the administrative language of Europe. English, Norman, Latin. Written in Latin, it laid down a number of rights and principles and is considered to be one of the most important documents in the history of democracy. Anglais, normand, latin. Middle English.
Le moyen anglais. Transcript of notes 12th c. Transcription de notes XIIe s. King John signing Magna Carta La signature de la Magna Carta par le roi Jean sans Terre A miniature taken from a 15th c. As the most frequently quoted writer in the English-speaking world, his influence cannot be over-stated. La Renaissance. Second only to Shakespeare in terms of impact on the language is the King James Bible. Its power and poetry have become part of the fabric of the language. La Bible du roi Jacques. English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, Samuel Pepys — was a man of great culture and insatiable curiosity.
Endlessly vivid, the diary provides the best account available of London during the Great Plague and the Great Fire that destroyed much of the City of London. Le plus grand chroniqueur anglais. Modern lexicography. One of the intellectual giants of the 18th century, Samuel Johnson was poet, essayist, philosopher, biographer, literary critic — and, last but not least, lexicographer. Perhaps his best known work, A Dictionary of the English Language was astonishingly written single-handed between and La lexicographie moderne.
English literature saw a veritable explosion of experimentation in language and form. Notable figures are James Joyce, T. William Shakespeare, as depicted by Louis Coblitz — William Shakespeare, peint par Louis Coblitz — Frontispiece to the King James Version of the Bible Frontispice de la Bible du roi Jacques Samuel Pepys Esquire, English Diarist.
Samuel Pepys Esquire, chroniqueur anglais. Samuel Johnson — , the father of modern lexicography. James Joyce — , Irish writer, best known as the author of the revolutionary novels Ulysses and Finnegans Wake In , Charles the Bald and Louis the Germanic swore an oath of alliance.
For the love of God, the salvation of the Christian people and that of us both. Norman French in England. Le franco-normand des Anglais. French as a literary language. Latin, the language of the university. Here, a Parisian teacher delivers a commented reading of a text. Le latin, langue universitaire. Portrait of John Calvin by an anonymous artist. Portrait anonyme de Jean Calvin. French during the Reformation. Cardinal Richelieu founded the French Academy in He assigned to it the task of systematizing the language and producing a dictionary and a grammar. One single French language. In , Jules Ferry put forward legislation establishing free, compulsory primary education.
French replaced regional dialects, which from then on were spoken only in the home. Reading chart used in primary schools c. Reading for all. In contrast to the Greco-Roman aesthetic, there were moves towards formal stylization and a strong tendency towards decorative abstraction. Bracelet celte entre et av. In Britain it was interrupted by the Roman invasion but emerged again subsequently and went on until the Romanesque period. In sculpture and silversmithing, forms are generally highly stylized and non-representational though it is thought that reference is made to symbols of religious significance.
Bronze plaque — , Merovingian dynasty. In the words of the chronicler Raoul Glaber died c. Even before the Conquest, Norman masons had been working in Britain, notably on Westminster Abbey, the first Romanesque building in England. Later came the great cathedrals of Ely, Durham, Peterborough and Winchester as well as hundreds of parish churches, many of which have survived to the present day.
By the end of the 12th century, the new style of architecture had already spread well beyond regional boundaries into Picardy, Champagne, Burgundy — and even England. In the course of the 13th century, the Gothic style imposed itself throughout the greater part of the Western world whilst taking on a particular local colour in each country. For three splendid centuries, Gothic art flourished in every branch of the arts. Le diptyque de Wilton v.
Nowadays we think of the Renaissance first and foremost as a period of extraordinary intellectual activity, linked to humanism, which questioned all the old accepted values and set to creating new approaches to form and visual representation. Italy was the birthplace of the Renaissance.
Une demeure de style Tudor dans le Suffolk. A very noticeable change in this period is the use of brick instead of stone. With the burning of coal for domestic heating came a need for chimneys to evacuate the smoke and it is to this that we owe the tall, decorative chimneys of the Tudor era. Typical too are the tall graceful oriel windows such as that over the entrance to Hampton Court Palace. See box at the.
See also f. MUS la m. MUS [string] de la 2. Ba de la menuiserie 2. A-bomb abbr of atom bomb n bombe A f. MED avorter 3. MED avorter. Toutefois, les emplois de ces formes ne se recouvrent pas toujours. Je peux conduire. Je sais conduire. We were able to play tennis. Nous avons pu jouer au tennis. We could play tennis. Nous pouvions jouer au tennis. Ashley was able to open the jar. Ashley was unable to open the jar. Interdiction de fumer. Ces constructions ont toutefois chacune un sens qui leur est propre.
MIL faire un demi-tour 2. POL revirement m. MUS [in pitch] au-dessus de. MUS [in pitch] : the note above un ton plus haut or au-dessus. TECH user par abrasion or par frottement 2. TECH abrasion f 2. TECH abrasif 2. CHEM [alcohol] absolu, anhydre 7. U [cruel treatment] mauvais traitements mpl 4. See the entry for details. UK abbr of athletics club 2.
Academy Award n oscar m. LAW complice. MUS accidentel. CULIN accompagnement m, garniture f 3. EX jour m de liquidation. FIN [of capital] accroissement m ; [of interest] accumulation f. GRAM accusatif 2. LAW [system] accusatoire. CHEM acide. LAW acquittement m 3. THEAT [part of play] acte m 5. CIN silence, on tourne! PHYS rendre radioactif. PHYS actif, radioactif. MED [of illness] violence f 5.
ADC n 1. US [to house] annexe f. UK POL [message to sovereign] adresse f 5. When you are talking about addressing a problem, an issue, etc. MATH adjacent. See box on next page. These pink flowers are absolutely beautiful. Comment les ordonner? MUS ad libitum. LAW [of evidence] acceptation f, admission f. RELIG adorer 2. BOT adventice. Ah, moi aussi! I thought I would succeed easily; in the end it was rather difficult, though. Je ne suis pas vraiment au courant de cette affaire. Do you usually drink tea or coffee? She quietly left the room. I totally agree with you. We must absolutely find a solution.
Nous devons absolument trouver une solution. This is extremely disturbing. He drives pretty fast. This party is so cool! SCOT [barrister] avocat m plaidant , avocate f plaidante.
Quand j'entends le mot culture — Éloge de la transmission
AFB n abbr of air force base. Babillage, s. Babiller, v. Babilleur, s. Babouche, s. Bacchanal, s. Bacchus, s. Bachelier, s. Bachot, s. Badaud, s. Badin, s. Badinage, s. Badine, s. Badiner, r. Badinerie, s. Bafouer, v. Bagarre, s. Bagatelle, s. Bague, s. Baguer, v. Baguette, s. Baie, s.
Baigner, v, bagna. Baignoire, s. Bail, s. Bailler, p. Bain, s. Bain-marie, s. Baiser, v. Baiser, s. Baisse, s. Baisser, v. Baisure, s. Bal, s. Baladin, s. Balai, s. Balance, s. Balancement, s. Balancer, V. Balayage, s. Balayer, p. Balayures, s. Balbutiement, s. Balcon, s. Baldaquin, s. Baleine, s.
Baliveau, s. Ballet, 8,in. Ballon, s. Ballonner, r. Ballot, s. Ballotage, s. Balotter, r. Balourd, s. Balsamique, s. Balustrade, s. Balustre, s. Bambin, s. Bambocbe, s. Bambocheur, s. Bambou, s. Ban, s. Banane, s. Bananier, s. Banc, s m. Bandage, s. Bande, s. Bandeau, s. Bandelette, s. Bander, o. Bandereau, s. Banderole, s. Bandit, s. Banne, s. Banque, sf. Banqueroute, s.
Banquette, s. Banquier, s. Baptiser, c batea. Baquet, s. Baraque, s. Baratte, s. Barbarement, adv. Barbaresque, a. Barbarie, s. Bar barisme,s. Barbe de bouc, s. Barbier, s. Barbon, s. Barboter, v. Barbouillage, s. Barbouiller, v. Barbu, a. Bard, s. Bardeau, s.
Quand j'entends le mot culture...
Baril, s. Barillat, s. Barillet, s. Barnabite, s. Baron, s. Baronne, s. Baronnie, s. Barque, s. Barquerolle, s. Barrage, s. Barre, s. Barreau, s. Barrer, v, bara.
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Barricade, s. Baricader, r. Baryton, s. Bas, s. Bascule , s. Base, s. Baser, v. Basilic, s. Basin, s. Basque, s. Basse, s. Basse-cour, s.
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Bassesse, s. Bassin, s. Bassinet, s. Bassinoire, s. Bastion, s m. Bastonnade, s. Bas-ventre, s. Bataille, s. Batailler, v. Bataillon, s. Batonner, v. Battant, s. Batte, s. Batterie, s. Battoir, s. Battre, v. Baume, s. Bavard, a cialabron. Bavarder, o. Bavarderie, s. Bave, s. Bavette, s. Baveux, a,, bavos. Bavolei, s. Bazar, s. Beau, a. Beaucoup, ado. Beau-fils, s. Bec, 8, m. Becfigue, sm. Becqueter, v. Bedeau, s. Belle, s. Bel le-fille,s. Benjamin, s.
Bercail, s. Berceau, s m. Berceau de vigne , s. Bercer, v. Bergamotte, s. Besace, s. Besoin, s. Bestial, a. BIE Bestialement, adv. Bestiaux, s. Bestiole, s. Bette, s. Betterave, s. Beugler, v. Beurre, s. Beurrer, v. Bej, s. Biais, a. Biche, s. Bicoque, s f. Bidon, s. Bielle, s. Bien, adv. Bienfaisance , s. Bienfait, s. Bienfaiteur, s.
Bienheureux, a. Bionviel lance, s. Bifteck, s m bistech. Bigarade, s. Bijou, s. Bijouterie, s. Bijoutier, s. Bilan, s. Bile, s. Bilieux, a. Bille, s. Billet, s. Biquet, s. Bis, adv. Bisaieul, s. Biscotin, s. Biscuit, s. Bise, s. Bissac, 9. Bitume, s. Bitumineux, a. Bivac, s. Bizarre, a. Blague, s. Blaguer, v. Blanc, a. Blanc-bec, s. Blanchaille, s. Blancheur, s. Blanchiment, s. Blanchir, r. Blanchissage, s. Blanchisseuse, s. Blesser, v.
Blessure, s. Bleu, a. Bloc, s. Blocus, s m. Blond, a. Blottir, V. Blouse, s. Bluette, s. Bluteau, s. Bluter, V ,seassa. Blutoir, s. Bobine, s. Bobiner, v. Bobo, s. Bocage, s. Bocal, s. Boire, v. Bois, s. Boisage, s. Boisseau, s. Boisson, s m. Boiter, P. Bombance, s. Bombarde, s. Bombarder, v. Bombardier, s. Bombe, s. Bon, a. Bon, g. Bon, int. Bonace, s. Bonasse, a. Bonbon, s. Bonde, s. Bonheur s. Bonhomie, s. Bonhomme, s. Bonification, s. Bonifier, v. Bonjour, s. Bonne, s. Bonnement, ado.
Bonnet de nuit, s. Bord, s.
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Border, v, borda. Bordereau, s. Bordure, s. Borgne, a. Bornage, s. Borne, s. Borner, v. Bosquet, s. Bosse, s. Bossu, a. Botanique, s. Botaniste, s. Botte, s. Bottir, 0. Bottine s. Bouc, s. Boucaut, s. Boucherie, s. Bouche, s. Boucher, v. Boucher, s. Bouchon, s. Bouche- trou, s. Boucle, s. Boucler, v. Boudin, s. Boue, s. Boueux, a. Bouffer, v. Bouffe tte, s. Bouffir, V. Bouffissure, s. Bouffon, s. Bouffonnerie, s. Bouger, o. Bougie, s. Bouiller, v.
Bouillie, s. Bouillir, v. Bouillon, s. Bouillonner, v. Boulanger, s. Boulangerie, s f, bolangeria Boule, s. Boulet, sj, bala. Boulette, s f, baleta.
Bouleverser, o. Boulon, s. Bouquet, s,w. Bourbe, 8,f. Bourbier, s. Bourbillon, s. Bourde, s. Bourdon, s. Bourdon faux , s. Bourdonner, o. Bourg, s.
Bourgeois, s. Bourgeoisie, s. Bourgeon, s. Bourgeonner, v. Bourrache, s.
Bourrade, s. Bourrasque, s. Bourre, s. Bourreau, s. Bourrer, v, bora. Bourrique, s. Bourriquet, s. Bourse, s. Boursier, s. Bouse, s. Bonsilleur, s. Bout, s m. Boute- feu, s. Boutehors, s. Even today, the spread of disease inspires moralizing discourse and the ostracism of groups thought responsible for contagion; the fear of illness and the desire to make sense of it are demonstrated in the current preoccupation with HIV, SARS, 'mad cow' disease, West Nile virus and avian flu, to cite but a few contemporary examples.
Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe explores the nature of understanding when humanity is faced with threats to its well-being, if not to its very survival. England Europe Renaissance resistance. Editors and affiliations. Carlin 1 1. University of Victoria Canada.