Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are: Meta-ethics, concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, and how their truth values if any can be determined Normative ethics, concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of action Applied ethics, concerning what a person is obligated or permitted to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action Definin. Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT is a psycho-social intervention that aims to improve mental health. Originally, it was designed to treat depression, but its uses have been expanded to include treatment of a number of mental health conditions, including anxiety.
Instead, CBT is a "problem-focused" and "action-oriented" form of therapy, meaning it is used to treat specific problems related to a diagnosed mental disorder. The therapist. Having laid a foundation in the knowledge of divine truth in the first book, he goes on in the Paedagogus to develop a Christian ethic. His design does not prevent him from taking a large part of his material from the Stoic Musonius Rufus, the master of Epictetus; but for Clement the real instructor is the incarnate Logos. The first book deals with the religious basis of Christian morality, the second and third with the individual cases of conduct.
As with Epictetus, true virtue shows itself with him in its external evidences by a natural, simple, and moderate way of living. Archived on Look up enchiridion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Some notable enchiridia include: Enchiridion of Epictetus, a short manual of Stoic ethical advice compiled by Arrian 2nd century The Enchiridion de metris of Hephaestion, the only complete surviving ancient treatise on poetic meters 2nd century Enchiridion of Sextus Pomponius, a collection of Roman law by Sextus Pomponius 2nd century Enchiridion of Augustine, a compact treatise on Christian piety Enchiridion of Byrhtferth c.
For example; 'My character is literally proposing marriage to their partner of 6 months' 2 The "Want": What does one character ultimately want the other character to say or do. For example; 'I want the other character to accept my marriage proposal" 3 The "Essential Action": A universal human desire that relates to the specific and essential nature of what your character wants within the scene. In this step, you must distill the given circ. Hermes was the emissary and messenger of the gods. His attributes and symbols include the herma, the rooster, the tortoise, satchel or pouch, winged sandals, and winged cap.
His main symbol is the Greek kerykeion or Latin caduceus, which appears.
Look up discourse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Discourse is a use of written or spoken communication. Discourse or discourses may also refer to: Domain of discourse, the collection of objects being discussed in a specific discourse Discourse linguistics , approaches to study written, vocal, or sign language use Conversation, interactive, spontaneous communication between two or more people Literature Discourses Meher Baba , a book by Indian religious teacher Meher Baba Discourses, a series of books by Greek historian of the Roman Empire Dio Chrysostom c.
A beard is the collection of hair that grows on the chin, upper lip, cheeks and neck of humans and some non-human animals. In humans, usually only pubescent or adult males are able to grow beards. However, women with hirsutism, a hormonal condition of excessive hairiness, may develop a beard. Throughout the course of history, societal attitudes toward male beards have varied widely depending on factors such as prevailing cultural-religious traditions and the current era's fashion trends.
Some religions such as Islam and Sikhism have considered a full beard to be absolutely essential for all males able to grow one, and mandate it as part of their official dogma. Other cultures, even while not officially mandating it, view a beard as central to a man's virility, exemplifying such virtues as wisdom, strength, sexual prowess and high social status. However, in cultures where facial hair is uncommon or currently out of fashion , beards may be associated with poor hygiene or a "savage," uncivilized, or even dan.
Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, was likely implicated in Claudius' death and Nero's nomination as emperor. She dominated Nero's early life and decisions until he cast her off. Five years into his reign, he had her murdered. As time passed, he started to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy.
During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Ic. Geography The Achelous River separates Aetolia from Acarnania to the west; on the north it had boundaries with Epirus and Thessaly; on the east with the Ozolian Locrians; and on the south the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf defined the limits of Aetolia.
The country has a level and fruitful coastal region, but an unproductive and mountainous interior. The mountains contained many wild beasts, and acquired fame in Greek mythology as the scene o. It is Holiday's fifth book and Hanselman's debut as an author. It is organized temporally and thematically across the twelve months of the year.
Person "giving the middle finger" In Western culture, the finger or the middle finger as in giving someone the middle finger or the bird or flipping someone off  is an obscene hand gesture. It is performed by showing the back of a hand that has only the middle finger extended upwards, though in some locales, the thumb is extended. Extending the finger is considered a symbol of contempt in several cultures, especially in the Western World.
Many cultures use similar gestures to display their disrespect, although others use it to express pointing without intentional disrespect. The gesture is usually used to express contempt but can also be used humorously or playfully. The gesture dates back to ancient Greece and it was also used in ancient Rome. Historically, it represented the phallus. In the early s, it gained incre. It was written in and published in in his first volume of poems, Book of Verses, in the section Life and Death Echoes. Hamilton Bruce — " I. Demography encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging, and death.
As a very general science, it can analyze any kind of dynamic living population, i. Demographics are quantifiable characteristics of a given population. Demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion, and ethnicity. Educational institutions usually treat demography as a field of sociology, though there are a number of independent demography departments.
Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta is a collection by Hans von Arnim of fragments and testimonia of the earlier Stoics, published in — as part of the Bibliotheca Teubneriana. It includes the fragments and testimonia of Zeno of Citium, Chrysippus and their immediate followers. At first the work consisted of three volumes, to which Maximilian Adler in added a fourth, containing general indices. Teubner reprinted the whole work in Politics of Practical Reasoning. New York: Lexington. Retrieved 7 February Among the earliest accounts of the sage begin with Empedocles' Sphairos.
Horace describes the Sphairos as "Completely within itself, well-rounded and spherical, so that nothing extraneous can adhere to it, because of its smooth and polished surface. Karl Ludwig Michelet wrote that "Greek religion culminated with its true god, the sage"; Pierre Hadot develops this idea, stating that "the moment philosophers achieve a rational conception of God based on the model of the sage, Greece surpasses its mythical representation of its gods. Originally a boxer, he came to Athens where he took up philosophy, listening to Zeno's lectures.
He supported himself by working as a water-carrier at night. After the death of Zeno, c. Cleanthes successfully preserved and developed Zeno's doctrines. He originated new ideas in Stoic physics, and developed Stoicism in accordance with the principles of materialism and pantheism. Among the fragments of Cleanthes' writings which have come down to us, the largest is a Hymn to Zeus. His pupil was Chrysippus who became one of the most important Stoic thinkers.
With but four drachmae in h. Plautius Lateranus executed AD 65 was a Roman senator of the 1st century. He was a member of the gens Plautia, and the son of Quintus Plautius, consul in 36, and an unknown mother. Fortunately, Claudius held Aulus Plautius in high esteem.
Tacitus says that Lateranus joined from no personal grudge against Nero, but out of patriotism alone.
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He then spent several years wandering "in a state of deep bliss" before becoming a spiritual teacher. He moved to Vancouver, British Columbia in  and currently divides his time between Canada and California. He taught philosophy in Rome during the reign of Nero, as consequence of which he was sent into exile in 65 AD, only returning to Rome under Galba. He was allowed to stay in Rome when Vespasian banished all the other philosophers from the city in 71 AD, although he was eventually banished anyway, only returning after Vespasian's death.
A collection of extracts from his lectures still survives. He is also remembered for being the teacher of Epictetus. By the time of Nero, he was already famous in Rome, where he taught Stoic philosophy. He was associated with the Stoic Opposition against the perceived tyranny of Nero. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about BC.
Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue in accordance with Nature. It proved very popular, and flourished as one of the major schools of philosophy from the Hellenistic period through to the Roman era. Life Zeno was born c. Diogenes reports that Zeno's interest in philosophy began when "he consulted the oracle to know what he should do to attain the best life, and that the god's response was that he should take on the complexion of the dead.
Whereupon, pe. Year CI was a common year starting on Friday link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Traianus and Paetus or, less frequently, year Ab urbe condita. The denomination for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. The Second Battle of Tapae is fought.
Epictetus writes and publishes The Discourses. Births Herodes Atticus, Greek rhetoritician d. It shows left to right a thraex fighting a murmillo, a hoplomachus standing with another murmillo who is signaling his defeat to the referee , and one of a matched pair. A gladiator Latin: gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword" was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their lives and their legal and social standing by appearing in the arena. Most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions, socially marginalized, and segregated even in death. Irrespective of their origin, gladiators offered spectators an example of Rome's martial ethics and, in fighting or dying well, they could inspire admiration and popular acclaim.
They were celebrated in high and low art, and their value as entertainers was commemorated in precious and commonplace. The concept is distinct from those of an adage, brocard, chiasmus, epigram, maxim legal or philosophical , principle, proverb, and saying; some of these concepts are species of aphorism. History The word was first used in the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, a long series of propositions concerning the symptoms and diagnosis of disease and the art of healing and medicine. This aphorism was later applied or adapted to physical science and then morphed into multifarious aphorisms of philosophy, morality, and literature.
Currently an aphorism is generally understood to be a concise. He was most notable for logic innovations, including his master argument formulated in response to Aristotle's discussion of future contingents. Life Diodorus was a son of Ameinias of Iasus in Caria. He lived at the court of Alexandria in the reign of Ptolemy I Soter, who is said to have given him the surname of Cronus "old fogey" on account of his inability to solve at once some dialectic problem proposed by Stilpo, when the two philosophers were dining with the king.
Diodorus is said to have taken that disgrace so much to heart that after his return from the meal, and writing a treatise on the problem, he died in despair. Diodorus is thought to have died around BC; his date of birth is unknown. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalising the work of Evangelista Torricelli.
Pascal also wrote in defence of the scientific method. In , while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. After three years of effort and 50 prototypes, he built 20 finished machines called Pascal's calculators and later Pascalines over the following 10 years, establishing him as one of the first two inventors of the mechanical calculator. History of the Peloponnesian War. Richard Talbert, ed. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World.
Princeton University Press. Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. He was among the pagan philosophers persecuted by Justinian in the early 6th century, and was forced for a time to seek refuge in the Persian court, before being allowed back into the empire. He wrote extensively on the works of Aristotle.
Although his writings are all commentaries on Aristotle and other authors, rather than original compositions, his intelligent and prodigious learning makes him the last great philosopher of pagan antiquity. His works have preserved much information about earlier philosophers which would have otherwise been lost.
R. Sharples, R. Dobbin, Epictetus: Discourses, book 1, Oxford: Clarendon Press, - PhilPapers
Life Simplicius was a disciple of Ammonius Hermiae, and Damascius, and was consequently one of the last members of the Neoplatonist school. The school had its headquarters in Athens. It became the centre of the last efforts to maintain Hellenistic religion against the encroachments of Christi. Elif Batuman born is an American author, academic, and journalist. She graduated from Harvard College, and received her doctorate in comparative literature from Stanford University.
Her dissertation, The Windmill and the Giant: Double-Entry Bookkeeping in the Novel, is about the process of social research and solitary construction undertaken by novelists. Rational emotive behavior therapy REBT , previously called rational therapy and rational emotive therapy, is an active-directive, philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy, the aim of which is to resolve emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and to help people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives.
Psychology Today noted, "No individual—not even Freud himself—has had a greater impact on modern psychotherapy. The Daily S.
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James Bond Stockdale December 23, — July 5, was a United States Navy vice admiral and aviator awarded the Medal of Honor in the Vietnam War, during which he was a prisoner of war for over seven years. Commander Stockdale was the senior naval officer held captive in Hanoi, North Vietnam.
Stockdale held this position from to Stockdale was a candidate for Vice President of the United States in the presidential election, on Ross Perot's independent ticket. Early life and education Stockdal. Elizabeth Carter pen name Eliza; 16 December — 19 February was an English poet, classicist, writer, translator, linguist, and polymath. As one of the Bluestocking Circle that surrounded Elizabeth Montagu. Most of her other literary output took the form of correspondence to family and friends.
Anne Hunter, a minor poet and socialite, and Mary Delany were also noted as close friends. Nicolas Carter, perpetual curate of Deal, and his first wife, Margaret died c. Roman-era ruins at Nicopolis. An eighteenth century engraving of Epictetus. Prisoner of war James Stockdale receiving the Medal of Honor from American president Gerald Ford ; Stockdale was able to retain his sanity during capture by relying on the philosophy of Epictetus. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge UP, Graver, Margaret.
In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. His year of birth is uncertain. He was born a slave. He must have been old enough to teach philosophy by the time Domitian banished all philosophers from Rome c. D, because he was among those who left the city. He also describes himself as an old man to Arrian c.
Discourses , i. Epaphroditus , livius. Epictetus, Discourses , i. Origen, Contra Celcus. Simplicius, Commentary on the Enchiridion, Douglas J. Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights, xv. Philologus  — Epictetus, Discourses , prologue. Historia Augusta, Hadrian , There is also a joke at Epictetus' expense in Lucian's Life of Demonax about the fact that he had no family. He may have married her, but Simplicius' language is ambiguous. Lucian, Demoxan, c.
Marcus Aurelius born A. Lucian, Remarks to an illiterate book-lover. Photius , Bibliotheca, states that there were eight books. Epictetus, Discourses, ii. Everyman Epictetus, Discourses, i. Epictetus, Enchiridion, 1 Epictetus, Discourses, iii. Thoughts of a philosophical fighter pilot. Stanford, Calif. Marcus Aurelius, i. William O. Stephens, Ph. Ian Campbell Ross Oxford Univ. Press, , p. The New Yorker. Schatzman, Morton The Independent. Archived from the original on Burkeman, Oliver The Guardian.
Cynicism philosophy topic Statue of an unknown Cynic philosopher from the Capitoline Museums in Rome. Epictetus Database Client topic Epictetus was a free cross-platform multi-database administration tool that used JVM to run. Meditation topic Various depictions of meditation. Amor fati topic Amor fati lit. He declared himself a cosmopolitan and a citizen of the worl Folders related to Diogenes: Founders of philosophical traditions Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Philosophers of economics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Ascetics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Discourses Book I. Translated with an Introduction and Commentary by Robert F. Clarendon Later Ancient Philosophers. New York: Oxford University Press, Epictetus has made a comeback, among scholars on account of the resurgence of interest in Stoicism and among a broader reading audience on account of folks as divergent as Vice-Admiral James Stockdale and Tom Wolfe See J. And because the ninety-five extant Discourses of Epictetus follow upon each other in no obvious order and frequently exhort without explaining, a guide to their contents is urgently needed.
Unfortunately, neither work fully addresses the needs of scholars or of fresh students. In Discourses 1. Stephens, original pagination.
But a close analysis of Discourses 1. Epictetus says that we do consult our character 1. This comes up short of saying that we should consult our character and that it should make a huge difference. Access options available:. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.