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III 2. III 3. III 4. III The Joke 3. III The Bird 4. III How do you do? III Dream 6. III La grenouille. III The Razor 3. The expansion of register in the development is complete when, following a rapid thinning of texture during the piano passage in bars 45—6, the first violin abruptly regains the register of the end of the exposition by means of an octave leap to e 3 bar Significantly, there is no corresponding move downwards to the low register at this point; indeed the cello remains in a high register until the retransition.
This avoidance of the low register and notably the E contributes greatly to the affective power of what follows. Unusually for Haydn, the retransition closely recalls the transition to the second group bars 15—16 , and the open C in particular, which had not been heard since then Ex. Haydn subtly varies the disposition of the inner parts, extending the passage by one bar.
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The leading note, sounded in the lowest register, now guides the listener through the movement's second strikingly oblique transition to the opening theme bars 55—6; compare bars 6—7 , which this time marks the recapitulation. This remarkable passage provides just one example of many in which Haydn makes strategic use of the quartet's lowest registral limit.
The passage conveys a sense of troubled reminiscence, a character tendency that contemporaries associated with the melancholy mode. This movement also typifies Haydn's substantial recomposition of exposition material in the recapitulation and, his use of register to this end. Bars 7—14 are recapitulated literally, while bars 1—6 are omitted. The recapitulation of the second group is truncated by the omission of material from bars 15— The first violin gradually descends from this register only to regain the d 3 in further passagework, which leads to the final descent in the structural top voice and the structural cadence bars 72—3 ; the latter is articulated by the cello's low D.
Throughout the movement, then, harmonic reference points emanate from the cello's low register. This contributes to coherence overall while also creating dramatic tension: as in the case of the retransition, it is not always the expected structural notes or anticipated harmonic goals that are projected through the lowest register.
Here, as elsewhere in Haydn's quartets, the notes projected in the highest register registral top voice do not directly coincide with the background descent of a Schenkerian analysis structural top voice. The quartets of Op. This correlates with his treatment of the cello as a melody instrument first heard as such in the final movement of Op. The cello's versatility and distinctive timbral qualities comes to the fore, as Donald Francis Tovey noted:.
Haydn had in fact earlier made the sonorous discovery to which Tovey referred, as can be heard in the Adagio Cantabile from Op. As Tovey found, the important innovation in Op. Indeed, registral exploration, expansion and more specifically the manner in which register relates to instrumental function can be considered the primary subjects in this movement. In other words, here Haydn foregrounds register itself as a musical topic. The movement opens with a paragraph divided into two overlapping phrases bars 1—7 [ Ex. At the outset the parts are crossed, and the overall range is small.
As in Op. The opening cello solo in the tenor register defines an octave bounded above by g 1 , while the second violin moves mainly in thirds below and the viola provides the bass within the octave c—c 1. These registral bounds are exceeded in bar 6 with the move upwards to the dominant and the first violin's overlapped entry on c 2. Significantly, Haydn chooses to deploy a tonal rather than a real answer here, so as to preserve the emphasis on and even though this yields a dissonant effect.
The first violin now assumes control of the melody, establishing and prolonging g 2 as the structural headnote. The entire first violin line is given in Ex. The movement's second paragraph explores the implications of this interchange of instrumental function and the initial narrow registral range. The second violin enters with the melody in the octave above the cello's initial statement bar 14 , while the viola assumes the second violin's role. The first violin adopts the viola bass line from bars 1—2 but is immediately interrupted by the cello's arpeggios; these start on the lowest note and span two octaves bars 16— It is also notable that the first violin leaps to a higher register at this juncture, just as the viola had done in bar 12, thus reasserting a distinction of register and role.
String Quartet No in D Minor 'Quinten', qyjywolu.tk Op No.2 by J. Haydn on MusicaNeo
The g 3 of bar 18 introduces a new high point, and completes the movement's process of registral expansion. By this stage, a descent has already commenced in the structural top voice: — — in bars 19—21 see Ex. Nevertheless, the remarkable timbre of these passages — a consequence of their unusually tight registral disposition — gives the music a tension that serves to draw the listener's attention to these modal shifts such shifts will become a significant feature of the work as a whole.
Even though the exposition resolves tonally with two structural cadences bars 43—4, and 45—6 , the discourse can be understood to remain unresolved in registral terms. Haydn continues to explore the relationship between registral range and instrumental function in the development section, further suggesting that the subject of this movement is register itself. The first D minor passage beginning in bar 61 includes a remarkable thematic exchange: the walking bass from the opening theme moves swiftly from second violin to first violin to cello, while the melody is passed from viola its first statement of the theme to second violin to first violin.
As we shall see, this registral descent differs from that of the structural top voice. As I have argued, the absence of the low register in the subsequent bars allows the D minor cadence at bar 61 to be heard as a parenthesis. Two further soundings of the low A in bars 64 and 76 underscore the move to A minor.
In bar 64, this is reinforced by the descent in the uppermost register to the third scale degree, e 3 locally of A minor. My Schenkerian graph of this movement see Ex.
String Quartet No.61 in D Minor 'Quinten', Hob.III/76 Op.76 No.2
As we have seen, the descent of the structural top voice in the exposition and transition to the second group precedes that of the registral top voice. This interplay can be charted further in the substantially recomposed recapitulation, which once again involves significant registral events and, as in Op. Again low cello notes articulate important harmonic events: a perfect cadence in bar 88 and a pedal on V in bars 91—2. The c 3 is also reached in bar 86 and is then rearticulated as a high point in bar 95 during another passage of close chord spacing and high cello tessitura, this time tonicising the tonic minor.
As in the exposition, tonal resolution follows immediately: structural cadences are sounded in the low register at bars —3 and —5.
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Yet registral resolution is delayed once again, thereby maintaining the registral tension to the finish: the listener is denied the cello's open C last heard in bar 29 in the exposition until the very end, when the violins have finished their witty play on the closing figure. It is evident that register is a primary compositional element in this movement. The question arises as to whether this is true of Op. The form unfolds freely, with passages of forte unison, dotted declamation alternating with accompanied piano bass declamation and tragic, rhapsodic rhetoric in the first violin.
At the outset the range is narrow, as in the first movement. The agitation in the first violin's solo entry bar 8 is conveyed in part by its arpeggiated ascent through two octaves to c 3. A further burst of unison forte arpeggiation drives the first violin alone up to bar The first violin's leap of a diminished seventh in bar 16, for example, extends the range to as 6 of minor.
Instability of harmony is enhanced by instability of register Ex. In this opening section of the movement, register is associated with dynamics: an increase in range results in a fall in dynamics. On the other hand, register and instrumental voice are not clearly delineated; indeed, the registral merging of the various voices enhances the evocation of troubled and extravagant emotions by contrast, the uncoupling of register and instrumental voice in the first movement yielded witty play.
Following a dramatic drop in register bar 18 , the forte homorhythmic declamation returns; this unison voice now expands in range to enter the solo violin's register bar Of these several voices, only the accompanied bass declamation bars 26—8 sits within a compact range. The violin soloist resumes its tale of woe in bar 30; its instability is encapsulated in the figurations of bars 31—2, which outline an augmented fourth c 3 —. The is an enharmonic reinterpretation of the of bars 16—17 Ex.
The second half of this movement from bar 34 is a case in point. The movement's g 3 high point in bar 36 resolves the of the tritone in bars 31—2 and indeed the of bars 16— There now follows a gradual descent in register towards a temporary plateau on in bar 46; this pitch is first heard as of , then reinterpreted as of F minor in bars 51—2. Another procedure from the first movement is recalled at this point: role switching, here involving first and second violin. Now the first violin regains c 3 bars 52—4; locally of F minor before moving downwards to the lowest register and incorporating the open g of the overall tonic, C minor as a pedal in the sextuplet figuration bars 60— The first two movements are thus connected by means of shared high and low points; moreover, the respective high points are further related through motivic associations see Table 1.
Like the earlier movements, the Minuet is characterised by close chord spacing at the outset. The first violin reaches a new high point, the b 3 in bar 18, then drops three octaves to a unison close Ex. The first violin now returns once more to its high register, leaping from g 3 to c 4 in bars 44 and This c 4 , which is the highest note in the entire work, connects with the b 3 of bar 18 Ex.
These extreme high points also create a delightful foil to the registrally confined drone passages, contributing to the movement's witty rhetoric. The Minuet closes with a sudden fall in register and the first perfect cadence since the end of the first movement to utilise the cello's bottom C. This strengthens the impression that the inner movements work together as a unit. If the quartet's overall registral climax is achieved in the Minuet, then in the finale the first violin's range is more contained, as perhaps befits a fugue: its high point is the e 3 in bar Previous analysts have emphasised the function of register as an agent of stability.
Miller's contribution, too, has been to explore register's stabilising function, especially at the level of the entire work. Table 2 summarises these various stabilising functions of register and the structural levels at which they operate. At a local level, registral events help to articulate the quartet discourse by delineating phrases and paragraphs. As we have already seen, these low points can often be correlated with progressions in the registral top voice.
Over the course of a movement, this voice may describe a coherent descending line after an initial expansion in register, as in the first movements of Op. The high register may also serve as a frame, as in the finale of Op. As the analysis of Op. Haydn uses register not only to achieve resolution, but also to undermine, prolong, and dramatise that achievement. Indeed, registral shifts at the phrase level play a crucial role in the process of motivic development. In Op. Haydn's String Quartet in D major, Op. As the allegro progresses, it becomes wilder and more registrally disjunct.
While the pitch level rises overall, the phrase structure undergoes a course of elision and expansion, with the result that the stability of three successive structural cadences bars —7, —14 and —21 is undercut Ex. The movement closes with the texture dividing into dizzying contrary motion. This is the case in Op. The emphasis on at the end of its first movement serves to prepare the shift to the remote key of the following Largo, major, whose high point is, appropriately, sounded forte in bar In the first movement, is also marked as the goal of the registrally shifted and truncated version of the opening theme bars 78, 80, 97 and 99 , as well as the starting point for scalar descents bars and Also notable is Haydn's avoidance of the high register in much of the remainder of the quartet, which renders the two instances in the finale all the more significant.
String Quartet in A minor, D.804 (Schubert, Franz)
The shrill high register and the abrupt deployment of this sonic space towards the end of the exposition and recapitulation Exs. Registral destabilisation — the paradoxical agent of coherence — can sometimes become an end in itself, the subject of the discourse. The String Quartet in F major, Op. The passage is in fact the climax of a series of shocking registral shifts, the first of which occurs in the exposition.
Once again, this register is being held in reserve, to be deployed strategically and dramatically. The cello's low register is first heard articulating the transition to second group material pedal F, bars 35—8 , and later marks the preparation of a cadence in the dominant pedal on G, bar 60, 62—4 and 66—9. Precisely at the point of cadence, however, Haydn dramatically subverts listener expectations by changing practically every compositional parameter: mode, dynamics, texture and, perhaps most notably, register bars 78— All four instruments play in their lowest registers, and the cello's open C is heard for the first time since the conclusion of the third movement Exs.
The low register is then abruptly abandoned as cello and violin drop out, after which the tessitura remains relatively high until the exposition concludes. This registrally disruptive passage recurs in the development in D minor bars —38 , where the effect of destabilisation is heightened by the downward chromatic slide of the cello's D pedal to the open C bars — As in the exposition, this is followed by further registral disjunction.
This time the three lower instruments drop out, leaving the first violin to provide a solo link to the recapitulation in the high register bars —6. The literal recapitulation of the opening thematic material and the low register tonic pedal in bars —82 now help to stabilise the discourse. Yet this apparent resolution renders the subsequent events all the more unsettling.
As with the C major quartet, Op. A basic difference is that in Op. In this context, the tonal, timbral and resonant qualities of open C conspire to create a different kind of coherence altogether, based on prolonged instability. Not until the concluding bars of the finale is the open C resolved to F. The finale's registral procedures are anticipated in the preceding movements.
In the first movement, Haydn exploits the open C to enhance the local registral destabilisation at the end of the introduction bars 7—8 , during the second group bars 68, 70 and 80 and in the development bar Most striking, however, is the intrusion of the open C as a pedal during the recapitulation at the point where the listener expects a reprise of the second group bars —14, see Ex. Registral interplay also pervades the slow movement and Menuetto, culminating, in the latter, in a series of destabilising phrase extensions involving the open C bars 28, 30 and 35; see Ex.
The finale thus takes the subject of registral destabilisation to its logical conclusion. The wide chronological distribution of the works that I have considered, and the small size of the sample, raise two interrelated questions: is this sample typical of Haydn's treatment of register, and does this treatment change across Haydn's compositional career?