Padova : Edizioni Messaggero, Tuesday June 16, , Lagos, Nigeria. From a royal family of Uromi in Edo State. His father belonged to the Esan ethnic group and his mother to the Yoruba. He began his education at the Holy Cross School; and later at Saint Patrick's Primary School, Sapele in present day Delta State; he had his secondary school education at Saint Gregory's College in Lagos, during which period he showed interest in the priestly vocation; he eventually transferred to Saint Theresa's Minor Seminary in Ibadan; after his training at the Minor Seminary, he went to Saints Peter and Paul Major Seminary, Ibadan philosophy and theology ; then, he was sent to the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, in , where he obtained a licentiate in theology in Incardinated in the archdiocese of Lagos; coadjutor of the cathedral parish; vicar economous of St.
Patrick's parish, Idumagbo; diocesan director of Catholic schools and of the Work of Vocations; in charge of the radio programs of National Radio-Television; he was also at the war front during the Nigeria Civil War counselling soldiers and broadcasting religious programs; professor of religion, King's College; member of the episcopal senate; member of the pastoral commission. Elected titular bishop of Mascula and appointed auxiliary of Oyo, June 5, His episcopal motto is Fides caritas fortitudo.
Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lagos, April 13, He was enthroned as archbishop of Lagos on June 17, President of the Christian Association of Nigeria CAN , at a time when the then military juntas were confronted with controversial policies over separation of state and religion. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, ; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, October 21, Took possession of his title on May 22, Some of the outstanding socio-political crusades of the cardinal that most Nigerians will remember him for include his offer to give life up in place of a Muslim woman who was condemned to death by stoning by an Islamic court for the crime of adultery.
Cardinal Okogie offered to pay the sentence imposed on the woman, Safiya Hussainii Tungar-Tudu, in the northern state of Sokoto in a case which created an international outcry. The woman was allowed to go free. Cardinal Okogie was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on Saturday August 4, Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on June 16, Ayeni, Victor Olanrewaju.
Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie : a voice crying in the wilderness. Archbishop Olubunmi Okogie Anthony Olubunmi Okogie: the People's Bishop. His baptismal name is Bernard-Louis-Auguste-Paul. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Albi. Elected titular bishop of Tibili and appointed auxiliary of Annecy, April 18, His episcopal motto was Parare viam Domini.
Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aix, November 30, Named coadjutor with right of succession of Marseille, August 24, Succeeded to the archbishopric of Marseille, see immediatamente soggeta to the Holy See, April 22, Metropolitan archbishop when Marseille was elevated to that rank, December 16, Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, ; received the red biretta and the title of S.
Gregorio Barbarigo alle Tre Fontane, October 21, He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor, Archbishop Georges Pontier, on June 11 November 12, , during the night, from pneumonia, at the hospital of Carpentras, Vaucluse, France. He had been ill for several years. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis sent Georges Pontier, archbishop of Marseille, a telegram of condolence.
The body of the late cardinal was buried in the crypt of the bishops in that cathedral 1. From the tribe Belanda Bviri from the south of the country. Initial studies at the primary schools in Mboro in ; and at Nyamlel, diocese of Wau from to ; attended intermediate school from to at St. Paul's National Major Seminary, Tore River, Yei; studied theology from to at the same seminary; later, studied theology at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, from to ; and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, from to , where he obtained a licentiate in pastoral theology in He speaks English, Italian and German.
In , he became vice-pastor in Kwajok; and at the same time, named inspector for the Christian Religious Education in the schools of the Gogrial District. Nine months after his priestly ordination, all the missionaries were expelled from Sudan and he became rector of the Minor Seminary of Wau.
Further studies in Rome from until From to , in the apostolic vicariate of Wau, he was procurator economous; vicar-delegate of Bishop Dud; and provincial commissary of the Scouts. Elected bishop of Wau, December 12, Consecrated, April 6, , metropolitan cathedral of St. His episcopal motto is The truth will set you free.
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Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Khartoum, October 30, Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Khartoum, October 10, Member of the Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialog from to ; and consultor of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples from to Atanasio a Via Tiburtina, October 21, He is the first Sudanese cardinal.
He narrowly escaped an assassination attempt during mass celebrating the feast day of Saint Daniel Comboni, on October 10, , when a man identified as Hamdan Mohamed Abdurrahman rose during the Glory and rushed toward the prelate with a knife, but was stopped by the cardinal's master of ceremonies. The cardinal has frequently complained about the growth of Islamic fundamentalism in the country and criticized Arab groups for their anti-Black violence.
Throughout more than two decades of conflict, the cardinal has been a constant voice of reason, calling for peace, mercy, and forgiveness in a land scarred by war. Nearly three million lost their lives as Sudan bounced from one war to another. Yet the cardinal's consistent message has been one of reconciliation. He is passionate about music, especially for liturgical celebrations.
His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Khartoum was accepted on December 9, Photograph and biography , in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography , in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography , in English, archdiocese of Khartoum; photograph and brief biographical data , in English, archdiocese of Khartoum; photographs and biography , in Italian, Santi e Beati; his photograph and episcopal motto , Araldica Vaticana. Zubeir Wako would be named its first bishop. August 23, , Medina de Rioseco, archdiocese of Valladolid, Spain.
Studied philosophy in Rome; and at the Central University of Madrid he studied psychology. Further studies, Rome. In Madrid, pastoral ministry; further studies; professor of philosophy of science and anthropology in different educational centers. Provincial of the Franciscan province of Santiago, Elected archbishop of Tanger, Morocco, December 17, His episcopal motto is Gratia et pax. In several occasions acted as mediator to solve conflicts between the countries of Magreb Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia and Spain. Transferred to metropolitan see of Seville, May 22, ; received the pallium from Antonio Innocenti, titular archbishop of Eclano, nuncio in Spain, on June 29, during the installation mass at the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla.
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Maria in Montserrato degli Spagnoli, October 21, On June 4, , the pope named him special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Jubilar Year of the th anniversary of the canonical erection of the first ecclesiastical circumscriptions in America: Santo Domingo and La Vega, Dominican Republic; and San Juan de Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, programmed for August 7 and 8, On September 22, , the pope named him special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the fifth centennial of the arrival in Puerto Rico of the first bishop, Don Alonso Manso, which took place in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, on November 19, Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on August 23, Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45 , p.
He is the youngest of the seven children of Henry A. Rigali and Frances Irene White. One of his sisters is a nun; and a brother is a Jesuit priest. Baptized in the parish of the Holy Cross, Los Angeles. John's College and St. Besides his native English, speaks correctly French, Italian and Spanish. Ordained, April 25, , metropolitan cathedral of St. Further studies, Rome, Assistant priest at the patriarchal Vatican basilica during the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, and Associate pastor, St.
Madeleine's parish, Pomona, archdiocese of Los Angeles, summer of Started service at the English language section of the Vatican secretariat of State, November 25, Chaplain of His Holiness, July 11, Returned to Rome, February 11, , and was appointed director of the English-language Section of the Secretariat of State. Chaplain to the cloistered Carmelite nuns of the Monastery of Saint Joseph in Rome for several years. Faculty member, Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Counselor of nunciature, July 1, Prelate of honor of His Holiness, April 19, Member of the Order of the Knights of Malta, October 25, Elected titular archbishop of Bolsena and appointed president of Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, June 8, His episcopal motto is Verbum caro factum est.
Secretary of Congregation for Bishops, December 21, Secretary of College of Cardinals, January 2, Pastoral ministry in several Roman parishes and seminaries. Transferred to metropolitan see of St. Louis, United States of America, January 25, Transferred to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia, July 15, Prisca, October 21, Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the bicentennial of the birth of Saint John Nepomucene Neumann, which took place in Prachatice, Czech Republic, on June 18, The pope named Charles Joseph Chaput, O.
Cardinal Rigali was apostolic administrator of Philadelphia until the installation of his successor on September 8, He then went to reside in Knoxville, Tennessee. On July 26, , he was named special papal envoy to the solemn eucharistic celebration planned in the new cathedral of Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America, on August 24, , on the occasion of the th anniversary of the foundation of the homonymous city. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on April 19, Eldest of the two sons of Mark O'Brien and his wife, Alice.
The other son is Terry. He was vicar cooperator in Holy Cross, Edinburgh from to Between and , he was employed by Fife County Council as a teacher of mathematics and science, while, at the same time, he was chaplain to Saint Columba's Secondary School, initially in Cowdenbeath and later in Dunfermline, teaching mathematics; and assisting in Saint Bride's parish, Cowdenbeath.
Full time ministry at Saint Patrick's parish, Kilsyth, from until ; and at Saint Mary's parish, Bathgate, from until Spiritual director of Saint Andrew's College, Drygrange, from until ; and rector, Saint Mary's College, the junior seminary at Blairs, Aberdeen from until Elected archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, May 30, His episcopal motto was Serve the Lord with gladness.
President of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland. Grand cross and conventual chaplain of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Argyll and the Isles from to In , he was named grand prior of the Scottish Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem; and in , appointed knight grand cross.
Gioacchino ed Anna al Tuscolano, October 21, In , he was granted an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Saint Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada; an honorary degree of doctor of divinity from the University of Saint Andrews; and an honorary degree of doctor of divinity from the University of Edinburgh. Named bailiff grand cross of honor and devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in Special papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of the foundation of the church of Long Tower, in the city of Derry, Ireland, which took place on June 9, Did not participate in the conclave of March 12 to 13, , which elected Pope Francis, for personal reasons.
On March 20, , his resignation from the rights and privileges of a Cardinal, expressed in canons , and of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted by Pope Francis; accordingly, at that time he lost the right to participate in a conclave although he had not yet reached eighty. He reached that age on March 17, March 19, , at 1 a. He had been in the care of the Little Sisters of the Poor in Newcastle, but was hospitalized after a fall in February.
The funeral took place in the Church of St. Michael in Newcastle on Thursday April 5 before the burial the following day at 1 p. According to the late Cardinal's wishes, he was to be placed to rest beside his mother and father. He relinquished pastoral governance of the Archdiocese on 25th February He was baptized on December 16, Bonifacio ed Alessio, October 21, Ceased as ordinary for Catholic faithful of Oriental rite resident in Brazil who do not have their own ordinary, July 28, Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on December 8, After completing his middle and ginnasiali studies at the Episcopal Seminary of Todi, he attende the Lyceum of the Regional Seminary of Assisi; then, his bishop sent him to Rome as student at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; and completed his philosophical and theological formation at the Pontifical Lateran University; later, he studied at the State University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in classical letters.
Ordained, April 2, , cathedral of S. Maria Assunta, Todi, by Ilario Alcini, titular archbishop of Nicea, visitor of the Italian seminaries; incardinated in the diocese of Todi. Professor, vice-rector and rector of the Seminary of Perugia. Professor of dogmatic theology in the Regional Seminary of Assisi from to ; professor of art history in the Superior Institutes of Assisi and Deruta; ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic "Laureati" and pastor.
Elected bishop of Gubbio, May 25, His episcopal motto is Voluntas Dei pax nostra. Secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, Transferred to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 21, ; occupied the see until June 7, Andrea delle Fratte October 21, On June 7, , he was appointed president of the Pontifical Council for the Family.
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Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of Florence from June 7, until the installation of his successor. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, , in Malta. Named member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on September 15, Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, On March 19, , he was named special papal envoy to the commemorative celebration of the 70th anniversary of the destruction-reconstruction of the Abbey of Montecassino, programmed for March 21, On July 19, , he was named special papal envoy to the consecration of the new Shrine of San Gabriele dell'Addolorata, Teramo, Italy, programmed for September 21, Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 18, December 2, , parish of Ss.
The fifth of the eight children of Pietro Bertone and Pierina Borio. His father was a farmer. He was baptized in that parish on December 9, His baptismal name is Tarcisio Pietro Evasio. Entered the Society of St. Francis de Sales of St. Salesian Theological Faculty, Turin licentiate in theology with a dissertation on tolerance and religious freedom ; Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Rome licentiate in theology; doctorate in canon law; dissertation: Il governo della Chiesa nel pensiero di Benedetto XIV - Papa Lambertini, ; the relator of his dissertation was Canonist Alfons Maria Stickler, S.
B, future cardinal. Further studies in Turin and Rome. In the community of Pontifical Salesian University of Rome, director of theologians, ; dean of the Faculty of Canon Law, ; vice-rector, Pastoral ministry in several Roman parishes and in the promotion of the laity in the Centers of Theological and Apostolic Formation, especially with intervention on subjects of social morality and the relation between faith and politics. Collaborated in the final phase of the revision of the Code of Canon Law and promoted its reception in the local churches.
Directed the work group that translated the Code into Italian for the Italian Episcopal Conference and visited a hundred of Italian and foreign dioceses to present the "grand discipline of the Church". Since the s, consultor in several dicasteries of the Roman Curia, especially in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in matters theologico-juridical. Elected archbishop of Vercelli, June 4, His episcopal motto is Fides custodiare Concordiam servare.
Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 13, Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, June 13, Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, December 10, United to the see of Genoa are the posts of abbot perpetuo of S. Siro, of S. Maria Immacolata, and of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, October 21, Special papal envoy to the funeral of Suor Lucia de Jesus dos Santos, the last survivor of the three shepherds to whom the Blessed Virgin of Fatima appeared for the first time on May 13, The funeral mass was celebrated on Tuesday, February 15, , at p.
Ceased as metropolitan archbishop of Genoa, August 29, Became secretary of State on September 15, Given the award "Gaudium et Spes" by the Order of the Knights of Columbus on August 6, , Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America during the celebration of the th anniversary of the order 1. Papal legate to the solemn closing celebrations of the 90th anniversary of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Fatima, Portugal, which took place on October 12 and 13, Promoted to the order of cardinal bishops and the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 10, Confirmed as secretary of State, January 15, Pontifical legate to the celebration of the Eucharistic Congress of Slovenia, which took place in Celje on June 13, Received a doctorate honoris causa in jurisprudence from the University "Magna Grecia" of Catanzaro on April 21, On March 16, , the new pope confirmed him as secretary of State donec aliter provideatur.
On August 11, , the commune of Introd, in Valle d'Aosta, Italy, granted him the honorary citizenship. On August 31, , Pope Francis, in accordance to canon of the Code of Canon Law, accepted his resignation from the office of secretary of State, asking him to remain in office until October 15, , with all the faculties proper to the office. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on December 2, On December 20, , he ceased as camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
Bertone, Tarcisio. La diplomazia pontificia in un mondo globalizzato. Prefazione di Papa Francesco. Arms, photograph, biography and bibliography , in Italian, archdiocese of Genoa; biography , in Italian, diocese of Frascati; photograph and biography , in Italian, Sala stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography , in English, Holy See Press Office; his photograph and arms , Araldica Vaticana; and another image of his arms , archdiocese of Genoa; Interventi del Segretario di Stato S. The Gaudium et Spes Award is awarded only in special circumstances and only to individuals of exceptional merit.
The award was first given in , when the late Mother Theresa of Calcutta was named as the first recipient. The award recognizes individuals for their exemplary contributions to the realization of the message of faith and service in the spirit of Christ as articulated in the document for which it is named. His father was a Catholic and his mother a Methodist; she became a Catholic after marriage. He is the fourth of ten children; he now has 30 nephews and nieces, the children of eight of his brothers and sisters one brother died in a plane crash some years ago.
His African name, Kodwo, means "Monday" in his native language; the local tradition is to name each child by the day of the week he or she is born on; since there were ten children in the family and seven days in a week, two of the children are named Friday and three are named Sunday; the cardinal is the only Monday. Studied at St. Teresa's Minor Seminary, Amisano; at St. Professor in St. Teresa's Minor Seminary, Further studies in Rome Peter's Major Seminary, Pedu; pastoral ministry in a parish annexed to the seminary. Further studies in Rome, Elected archbishop of Cape Coast, October 6, His episcopal motto is Vivere Christus est.
Chancellor of the Catholic University College of Ghana. Liborio, October 21, He is the first cardinal from Ghana. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on June 12, On September 24, , he was confirmed by the pope as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitita et Pax until the end of the current quiquennium October 24, He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, On December 8, , he was named special papal envoy to the official ceremony in memory of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, former president of South Africa, which took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, on Tuesday December 10, On January 1, , he ceased as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax , which was suppressed on that date, and became prefect of the new Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development.
On March 8, , the Pope named him member of the pre-synodal Council which will collaborate with the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops in the preparation of that Assembly. Turkson, Peter Kodwo Appiah. With Vittorio V.
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Milano : Rizzoli, Turkson: visita del Papa a Lesbo per interpellare le coscienze , Radio Vaticana, ; Cardinal Turkson addresses peacebuilding conference , Vatican Radio, ; Vatican official backs Obama on climate change by Ines San Martin, Crux, April 12, ; Cardinal Turkson: Sustainable Finance and Care in the light of Laudato si' , Vatican Radio, ; Turkson a Lusaka: contro la fame, serve economia sostenibile , Radio Vaticana, ; Il cardinale Turkson parla di occupazione e sviluppo sostenibile - Quale futuro per il lavoro , L'Osservatore Romano, ; Turkson in Sud Sudan con un messaggio del Papa: basta guerra!
Il cardinale Turkson per la giornata mondiale di settembre , L'Osservatore Romano, 01 agosto ; Card. Turkson per Giornata mondiale turismo: tempo di vacanza non sia irresponsabile by Roberta Gisotti, Radio Vaticana, ; Il card. Peter Turkson insieme al Papa contro la corruzione , vaticannews. Turkson: turismo, nuove tecnologie accompagnino attenzione a persona by Giada Aquilino, vaticannews. Turkson urges limiting emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance by Robin Gomes, vaticannews. October 15, , Chainpur, diocese of Gumla, India.
He was the eighth of the ten children of Ambrose Toppo and Sofia Xalxo. Xavier's College, Ranchi English honours, ; at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome licentiate in theology ; and at the University of Ranchi master's in history. Professor and assistant to the director of St. Joseph's High School, Torpa. Rector of the Minor Seminary of Ranchi from Founder of an apostolic school for the candidates to the priesthood from the Munda Tribe.
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Elected bishop of Dumka, June 8, Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Ranchi, November 8, Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Ranchi, August 7, As an Oraon, of the Kurukh tribe, he is the first adivasi , or tribal cardinal of India. On June 24, , the Pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Ranchi for reason of age. To succeed him, the Pope named Felix Toppo, S.
Areas in the north of the zone were not fully occupied until July Afterwards he worked at a venereal disease clinic, then at a local health insurance body in Berlin, before emigrating to Paris in Like Joseph Rovan, who made a similar journey, he made influential contacts in Paris and later within the Resistance. His son thought that only his medical skills saved him from deportation. He escaped, joined the Resistance, and lived illegally until the liberation of France in June It seems that he converted to Catholicism after divorcing his Jewish wife and marrying a Roman Catholic.
An old colleague, Jacques Soustelle, just appointed minister for the colonies in de Gaulle's provisional government, recommended Falkenburger to General Koelz, who called him in for an interview. The two men noted that they had fought at the same locations during the First World War, on opposite sides.
He worked there for four years, before becoming head of the health service of the French high commissioner in Germany. Falkenburger's acceptability was helped by the fact that he had been educated in France, was bilingual, and fully naturalized. In he arranged a job for his son, Paul Falkenburger, as a public education officer in Freiburg. The French zone had suffered considerably less war damage than the others, particularly the Soviet and British zones. An article in The Times observed, almost jealously, that the French had been lucky: they had a small area, largely rural, with only a handful of towns, and, by German standards, little physical destruction.
In addition, only a small proportion of the great flood of German expellees from the east headed there. Citing German data, he noted that towns with more than , inhabitants, had been hit proportionately harder in the French zone: in such towns in the Soviet zone only 23 per cent, and in the British and American zones 33 per cent, of buildings, had been completely destroyed, but in the French zone it was 44 per cent.
Only 11 per cent of buildings remained intact in these larger French towns, compared to 39 per cent in the Soviet zone, 21 per cent in the British, and 19 per cent in the American zone. French troops noticed that conditions changed radically as they crossed to the eastern bank of the Rhine. The cities near the targets of the Allied bombs were eerily empty, while undamaged towns and villages nearby overflowed with people seeking shelter.
When the French authorities began to take population censuses in spring , Baden-Baden contained 15, refugees, and Konstanz's population of 70, was double its normal size. In the autumn of Carl Welty, an ornithologist from Indiana, led a Quaker relief team in the French zone, and thought that conditions were still dire. It is a terrific desolation of gutted architecture. Towns like Koblenz were in a grim state, but the most shocking reports came from French officers in Berlin.
The French sector of the city, like the zone, had been carved out of parts initially allocated to the British and Americans. Passersby are used to this spectacle as if they were in a normal city. They are dirty, badly dressed, and always loaded with a sack of potatoes or a bundle of dead branches. She wrote that underground tunnels and rivers were littered with corpses, and their nauseating smell pervaded everything. French health teams were as concerned about epidemics and public health disasters as those in the other zones. Given their zone's close proximity to France, these concerns were heightened when, in March , the first cases of typhus were verified west of the Rhine.
French health officers were also alarmed by rising rates of venereal diseases. All in all, the French zone had a similar range of infectious diseases and public health concerns as elsewhere. First reports from Berlin's health officials to their French superiors noted an alarmingly high rate of dysentery in the French sector, particularly in the inner-city district of Wedding. The situation had been made worse because not nearly enough drugs and medical supplies were available to limit the spread. Hospitals were forced to send away all but the most acute of the infectious cases.
Freiburg's centre, reduced to rubble by an RAF bombing raid in November , had all the ingredients for a health crisis. When the French troops arrived, over 1, corpses were reported to be still buried under the rubble. The French instructed the city's university medical faculty to survey the health situation. They identified, apart from problems such as the destruction of buildings, pipes, hospitals, and laboratories, one particular area of concern: food shortages.
Since the end of the war official daily rations had decreased from 1, to just calories per person per day. Although shortages could be alleviated with surpluses from adjacent rural areas, the lack of transport and military security regulations often made this impossible. Despite these problems, comparatively speaking, physical and demographic conditions were more favourable than those in the rest of Germany.
Most communities east of the Rhine, one report stated, had at least an embryonic health organization of a doctor and several registered nurses or midwives. Because it was much smaller than the other three, both in area and population, the French authorities also had to deal with a smaller share of the overall burden. The two French districts had to accommodate and feed by far the smallest share of newly arriving German refugees: by November fewer than 2, refugees lived in the French sector, compared with almost 6, in the American, almost 9, in the British, and over 10, in the Soviet sector.
Comparisons of physical conditions indicate that the immediate public health challenges were less severe in the French zone, but they do not take into account the material, political, or conceptual resources at the disposal of public health officers. Health work everywhere in Germany was shaped by shortages, but they were of different scales, and dealt with differently, in each occupation zone.
In the French zone confrontations over supply shortages plagued the relationship between the occupation authorities, and the German doctors and general population, for years. At the same time, personnel shortages were negotiated by a series of modifications to initial plans and directives. As far as medical personnel was concerned, health teams argued that initial staffing allocations had underestimated requirements.
This was despite the fact that the density of military government personnel was highest of all in the French zone, since the policy of decentralization required personnel for all technical fields at even the local level. The Times reported in December after demobilization had begun to reduce the size of all four military governments that the French had a density of 18 French officials to every 10, Germans; the British had a density of 10; and the Americans of only 3 officials in their respective zones.
The French authorities delegated fewer responsibilities to the Germans than the other occupiers, and German authorities had fewer powers than their counterparts in the other zones. But because of financial pressure from Paris, demobilization began early in the French zone and proceeded quickly—from around , in autumn , to , in January , 75, in May , and only 53, soldiers in May Demobilization brought into sharp focus the lack of qualified, and politically acceptable, German medical personnel. Many old and retired individuals had been used during the war: in , over practising German doctors were older than 80 years, and 3, were older than 70 years of age, but many of them would not be able to continue for much longer.
The health authorities in Berlin pointed out that the ratio of German doctors to inhabitants was persistently most unfavourable in the French sector: in the autumn of the British sector had 1. By November , the French districts were still short of medical personnel. The Berlin health office calculated a minimum need of 8 doctors per 10, inhabitants, and lamented the unbalanced distribution: the Soviet sector had a shortage of doctors, and the French a shortage of At the same time, the American sector had an excess of , and the British an excess of Such personnel shortages, when fears about epidemic crises were at their most acute, led to a series of compromises, above all in denazification.
In the British, American, and even Soviet zones, these compromises involved a recognition of the irreconcilable gaps between what had been planned and what now seemed feasible. In the French zone, although the denazification compromises produced similar results, they took a different form, as Anglo-American policies, acquired by default, were abandoned and replaced with French approaches. Using questionnaires and blacklists compiled by the Americans, they attempted to categorize individuals into one of five categories of guilt. But from the start there was significant opposition to the questionnaires and the inflexible categories they generated.
The new procedure involved individual assessment of Germans by Germans, using local testimony and evaluation.
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Where until then an individual's non- membership of the NSDAP and dates of joining was sufficient evidence, now local and provincial German denazification commissions were to consider a range of evidence available in each case, so as to determine the degree of complicity or guilt. The commissions would be constituted from members of the same profession as the accused, and representatives from political parties, trade unions, and former victims of the Nazi regime.
They would have the power to impose sanctions, such as forced retirement, demotion, or dismissals without pension but the French governors could veto their decisions or demand further investigations. Soon, French denazification procedure differed from that in the other zones in three main points: first, it rejected party membership as a sufficient sign of guilt and, conversely, non-membership as a sign of innocence; second, it insisted on examining individual cases on their merits, instead of using predetermined categories; and third, it prescribed that the process had to be run by the Germans themselves, under French direction.
A report from November explained that the Germans should take over denazification for both psychological and political reasons. There were also political calculations. Nonetheless, the report went on, the French occupation authorities would still ultimately be in charge: they would select and approve the members of the German commissions, and would monitor and if necessary, veto proposed sanctions.
That, at least, was the idea. In practice, the old SHAEF system and the new French procedure ran parallel for some time, creating confusion and inconsistencies. New commissions were being created where possible, but they were limited—of course—by personnel shortages. Any differences of opinion could usually be resolved by the deputies of the German provincial administrations, who had specific responsibility for denazification matters. Apart from an unrealistic time schedule, denazification in the French zone was also criticized for significant regional variation, as each decentralized Land authority developed its own procedures.
Even at the local level there was significant variation, and different commissions reacted differently to similar evidence. The Germans, one memorandum noted, often did not know what to do and needed further guidance, in particular where medical staff was concerned. Denazification was strictest in the field of education, where fewer than 50 per cent of the old elementary and secondary school teachers were kept on, and the police, but far fewer proportions were punished among those who worked in industry, public works, science, and above all medicine. The procedure was different from the other zones, but the results—at least as far as they concerned the medical profession and health offices—were very similar.
Just as in the other zones, politically suspect specialists deemed to be indispensable were widely tolerated and exempted from cleansing procedures. That was the case even though in the French zone, too, the staff of the medical faculties, health offices, and health professions contained high percentages of formerly active, loyal Nazis. Faced with warnings that medical care and training were threatened by strict denazification, French officials initially responded by attempting to find replacements.
It should be possible to eliminate the most dangerous elements while still providing care to the civilian population, one note from September maintained. Next came the decision to make temporary allowances which broke the rules. These compromises mirrored those that took place in the other three zones. If anything, the flexibility of the French zone's system made them happen earlier.
Members of the medical profession, in particular, benefited from a system of hearings before German denazification commissions. Doctors and health officers were well-respected authority figures, and able to defend themselves in front of their neighbours and colleagues. And many managed to argue, consistently and convincingly, that doctors by their nature were above politics. They were treated more leniently by the commissions than other professions, and often cleared on the spot. In , an account of the work of the Health Directorate during the occupation observed that the public health picture had improved quickly after the initial months of chaos: by the summer of , no epidemics were in evidence in French occupied territory, and the mortality rate was low and far exceeded by births.
Diseases such as typhus, cholera, and dysentery, which continued to plague those parts of the country flooded with refugees, were in sharp decline. Diphtheria rates were declining as a result of the systematic vaccination programmes. The number of hospital beds appeared to be sufficient to cope with demands even if the rate occupancy was very high , and continued to rise.
Even the numbers of beds in tuberculosis sanatoria had increased, from only just over 2, in to over 6, in , once some of the requisitioned beds had been returned. But this benign official picture of public health progress obscures significant tensions. There were contradictions in all zones: between different sections of the occupation authorities, and between occupiers and the occupied population. A number of them centred around, and impacted upon, public health.
In the French zone, some of these tensions became more acute and crippling than elsewhere because they were fuelled by the widespread unpopularity of the occupiers. They were disliked not just by the Germans. Public health work was influenced by the tendency of the Germans to look beyond their zone, and to compare their lot with that of other parts of the country.
The non-fraternization rule was one of the SHAEF directives the French authorities had inherited after joining the occupying powers. Paul Falkenburger, the young French public education officer, remembered that one of the few specific instructions before taking up his job in Freiburg, was not to fraternize with the occupied population. In practice, he found it easy to circumvent the rules. Like most of his colleagues he went to work in civilian clothes, and his superior—the military governor of Baden—was happy enough to relax the rules. Once the ban was lifted, Laffon and his staff actively encouraged contact.
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Fraternization at cultural, religious, and musical events was desirable in principle, Laffon declared, even if some French officers regrettably showed little discretion and had relations with former Nazis. For too many Frenchmen the Germans are slaves who do not have the right even to elementary politeness. By early contacts and relations had normalized and prospered, particularly once increasing numbers of French officers had brought their families to settle in the zone, Laffon was relieved to convey.
Exchange trips, conferences, and other shared events were an immediately visible feature of this policy. Paul Falkenburger fondly remembered initiatives such as a meeting of French and German students in Titisee in the Black Forest, which resulted in a number of Franco-German marriages. Strauss toured the American and French occupation zones in spring It is important that the Germans should realise that the French care for the arts and sciences as much as themselves.
Upon his return, Dr Bloss gave lectures and talks to his colleagues about what he had learned, and repeatedly emphasized the friendly, cooperative, and accommodating treatment he had received in Paris. However, the parties need to use the last day of the month 30 September as a reference date for calculating the purchase price. This would have led to legal uncertainty. The only other alternative to the requested extension would have been to close the transaction one month earlier which, however, would have caused other difficulties. The FCO accepted the reasoning of the parties and thus granted the extension.
Thus, the basic purpose of the remedy, i. One simple takeaway from this decision is that the transaction parties should always try to agree with the FCO that the commitment decision included an explicit provision allowing for the extension of deadlines or the adoption of other technical changes to the original commitment decision. Further, the decision highlights that any change to the commitment decision, even one which may be regarded as obviously insignificant such as the extension of disinvestment deadlines by one-two days, is not made lightly by the FCO and always requires substantive reasons.
Accordingly, parties need to be careful when drafting a remedy proposal since both too strict rules as well as ambiguous language may cause additional problems once rectification is sought. This shall serve reducing the number of notifications, particularly concerning macro-economically unimportant transactions which usually also do not raise any competition concerns at all. The coalition agreement between the Christian Democratic Party and the Social Democratic Party, the parties forming the Federal Government, proposes further changes concerning mergers between co-operative societies Genossenschaften.
Some of the contemplated changes to the rules prohibiting the abuse of a dominant market position may indirectly also have an effect on the substantive appraisal of corporate transactions. A first draft by the ministry is expected for Depending on the scope and significance of the amendments contained in this first draft, parliamentary discussions of the draft may extend well into , or even beyond.
It remains to be seen whether the Federal Government and the legislative bodies of Bundestag and Bundesrat can find agreement well before the next elections on federal level which will have to take place at the latest in Fall Federal Cartel Office, Case Summary, file no. The content of this website is for general information purposes only and does not purport to provide comprehensive full legal or other advice.
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