Land use planning often leads to land use regulation, which typically encompasses zoning. Zoning regulates the types of activities that can be accommodated on a given piece of land, as well as the amount of space devoted to those activities, and the ways that buildings may be situated and shaped. Zoning in the US came about in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to protect the interests of property owners. The practice was found to be constitutionally sound by the Supreme Court decision of Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co.
Even so, the practice remains controversial today. The case of Dolan v. City of Tigard demonstrated the criteria that determine the threshold of what is considered taking. A deep-rooted anti-zoning sentiment exists in America, that no one has the right to tell another what he can or cannot do with his land. Ironically, although people are often averse to being told how to develop their own land, they tend to expect the government to intervene when a proposed land use is undesirable.
Conventional zoning has not typically regarded the manner in which buildings relate to one another or the public spaces around them, but rather has provided a pragmatic system for mapping jurisdictions according to permitted land use. This system, combined with the interstate highway system , widespread availability of mortgage loans , growth in the automobile industry, and the over-all post-World War II economic expansion , destroyed most of the character that gave distinctiveness to American cities.
The urban sprawl that most US cities began to experience in the mid-twentieth century was, in part, created by a flat approach to land use regulations. Zoning without planning created unnecessarily exclusive zones. Thoughtless mapping of these zones over large areas was a big part of the recipe for suburban sprawl. As America grew and sprawl was rampant, the much-loved America of the older towns, cities, or streetcar suburbs essentially became illegal through zoning. They strained commercial corridors and affected housing prices, causing citizens to fear a decline in the social, economic and environmental attributes that defined their quality of life.
Land use planning practices evolved as an attempt to overcome these challenges. It engages citizens and policy-makers to plan for development with more intention, foresight, and community focus than had been previously used. Land use planning is defined as: the process by which optimum forms of land use and management are indicated, considering the biophysical, technological, social, economic and political conditions of a particular territory. The objective of planning land use is to influence, control or direct changes in the use of land, so that it is dedicated to the most beneficial use, while maintaining the quality of the environment and promoting conservation of the land resources.
The territorial diagnosis and the generation of alternatives of management and environmental protection for the planning of the use of the land produces the indispensable knowledge necessary for the formulation of the policies of use, contributing to the search of competitive and sustainable productive and extractive activities and systems. The methodological process of land use planning contributes to: orienting the location of economic and social activities regarding the aptitude of the land and providing solutions to conflicts of use; indicate the base of natural resources that should remain and protected areas; point out the areas exposed to natural hazards and their management; identify sustainable productive and extractive activities and systems; guide the planning of land uses and indicate the areas that require land adaptation or recovery projects .
For this reason, the highlighted bodies have among other responsibilities the promotion of the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, establishing policies, criteria, tools and procedures of the most appropriate efficient and sustainable territorial order in coordination with any other relevant corresponding entities such as construction companies and the public.
In view of sustainable development , land use planning is seen as a political and technical-administrative decision-making process agreed with social, economic, political and technical factors, for orderly occupation and sustainable use of the land under development. On the other hand, it seeks regulation and promotion of the location and sustainable development of human settlements, economic and social activities, and spatial physical development, based on the identification of potentialities and limitations that consider environmental, economic, sociocultural, institutional and geopolitical criteria.
Indeed, based on the recommendations of the United Nations in its Habitat conference , land is assigned a high importance for the development of human life as it is the fundamental support for its permanence and development, this being the most important objective of the policy of human settlements. That is, the land resource is recognized as an essential element, which supports the social, political and economic formation of society. As mentioned earlier, the use of land refers to the occupation of a certain area according to its agrological capacity and therefore its development potential, it is classified according to its location as urban or rural, it represents a fundamental element for the development of the city and its inhabitants since it is from these that its urban structure is formed and therefore its functionality is defined.
For this reason, there is a need to ensure sustainability in order to ensure the we continue to enjoy the benefits that come from urban planning and to ensure that future generations will continue enjoying these benefits. To guarantee this, land use planning come into the fold. In a broader sense, this is a tool through which State defines the type of use land will have within a settlement, e.
Land use, in this case, is assigned on the basis on its physical and functional characteristics that they have in the urban structure, and with the aim of occupying the space in an orderly manner and according to their physical capacity occupation of areas suitable for urban development and environmental sustainability , which finally it translates into a harmonious growth of the city.
This tool is structured through a planning system at the national and local level, which establishes the general guidelines that should be taken into account for the development of urban development. Here, the authorities involved might formulate a number of restrictions to guarantee sustainability, for example, banning land development in riparian zones or in national parks.
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Basically, the goal here is to protect the environment. Various types of planning have emerged over the course of the 20th century. Below are the six main typologies of planning, as defined by David Walters in his book, Designing Communities :. Today, successful planning involves a balanced mix of analysis of the existing conditions and constraints; extensive public engagement; practical planning and design; and financially and politically feasible strategies for implementation.
Current processes include a combination of strategic and environmental planning. Here, the authorities involved might formulate a number of restrictions to guarantee sustainability, for example, banning land development in riparian zones or in national parks. Basically, the goal here is to protect the environment. Various types of planning have emerged over the course of the 20th century.
Below are the six main typologies of planning, as defined by David Walters in his book, Designing Communities :. Today, successful planning involves a balanced mix of analysis of the existing conditions and constraints; extensive public engagement; practical planning and design; and financially and politically feasible strategies for implementation. Current processes include a combination of strategic and environmental planning. It is becoming more widely understood that any sector of land has a certain capacity for supporting human, animal, and vegetative life in harmony, and that upsetting this balance has dire consequences on the environment.
Planners and citizens often take on an advocacy role during the planning process in an attempt to influence public policy. For example, whilst most of the urban planners suggest the distance from the landfill that a housing estate should be built, they must also take wind direction into consideration . Smart growth supports the integration of mixed land uses into communities as a critical component of achieving better places to live. Putting uses in close proximity to one another has benefits for transportation alternatives to driving, security, community cohesiveness, local economies, and general quality of life issues.
Smart growth strives to provide a means for communities to alter the planning context which currently renders mixed land uses illegal in most of the country. Professional planners work in the public sector for governmental and non-profit agencies, and in the private sector for businesses related to land, community, and economic development. Through research, design, and analysis of data, a planner's work is to create a plan for some aspect of a community.
This process typically involves gathering public input to develop the vision and goals for the community.
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A charrette is a facilitated planning workshop often used by professional planners to gather information from their clients and the public about the project at hand. Charettes involve a diverse set of stakeholders in the planning process, to ensure that the final plan comprehensively addresses the study area. It uses aerial photography to show land parcels, topography, street names, and other pertinent information. GIS systems contain layers of graphic information and their relational databases that may be projected into maps that allow the user to view a composite of a specific area, adding an array of graphically oriented decision making tools to the planning process.
A transect , as used in planning, is a hierarchical scale of environmental zones that define a land area by its character, ranging from rural, preserved land to urban centers. As a planning methodology, the transect is used as a tool for managing growth and sustainability by planning land use around the physical character of the land.
This allows a community to plan for growth while preserving the natural and historical nature of their environment. Natural ecology and historical identity of the city are matched to its topography in the Urban Landscape System approach that intends to mitigate effects of climate change and improve city branding through the ontology of place. Police power is the basis for land use planning authority in the United States. This authority is usually delegated by state governments to local governments, including counties and cities.
It is these local governments that most frequently exercise police power in land use planning matters. The regulation of land use based on police power is distinct from the taking of private property by the government through the power of eminent domain. If the regulation of land use is done under the authority of the police power, the private property owner isn't typically entitled to compensation as they would be if property was taken under the power of eminent domain.
The Ecological Basis of Conservation
The court decision in the case Commonwealth v. Alger was related to land use planning and dealt with the construction of a wharf on privately owned tidelands around Boston Harbor. Milan city is located in northern Italy. It is the second most populous city in the country after Rome with a population of over 4 million The CBD and its metropolitan Boroughs. Every area in Milan is a segment that starts from the center and reaches the city limits, so that central areas and peripheral areas are part of the same area.
In Milan, zones are not identified by names but numbers. The city hall area 1 of Milan includes the entire historical center, starting from the geographical center of Milan in Piazza Duomo up to the Cerchia dei Bastioni. The town hall 6 goes from the Darsena, up to Barona, Lorenteggio and Giambellino. And lastly, the town hall area 9 goes from Porta Nuova to Niguarda and Bovisa. The idea here, is to allow members of the nine zones to get easy access to the CBD.
Effective measures have been put in place to limit the impact of human activates on the many water bodies in this city such as restricting land development in riparian areas. In fact, the drive for the establishment of the city on the land where it stands was easy accessibility to water.
It should be the main goal to carry out upper-scale planning studies at a level whereby the balance between urban sprawl and the natural ecosystem can be achieved, make them widespread, and turn them into a state policy. At this point, when the legal regulations in the planning hierarchy are considered, there is no doubt that the confusion of authority among the institutions which results from empowering several institutions to make certain plans will soon give rise to various problems as well, although the developments about upper-scale planning in particular are promising.
The actual problem in the continuation of the chaos experienced in the legal process is experienced in the process following the completion of these plans. The fact that naturalists are not included in the team in these projects that are predominantly prepared for the objective of using natural and cultural resources by conserving them causes these plans, which are made in some way, to fail to attain their target in practice Demirel, Besides, various professional disciplines about the matter e.
Geographer and Biologist should also have a say in decisions and implementations when taking planning decisions and preparing plans. One of the most important and negative results of urbanization is the continuous increase in the need for new urban areas. The generally pursued urbanization policies pit economy and ecology against each other, and this event culminates in the destruction of the natural environment.
Economic concerns are remarkable as the primary factors in the opening of fertile agricultural lands to development. Especially the problem of opening fertile agricultural lands to development is because the professional disciplines that are specialized in the subject do not take part in the teams which prepare all these planning approaches and these plans.
Even though in the law it seems that the improper use of agricultural lands is prevented, the law actually contains various clear expressions on the facilitation of using these lands for other purposes. In fact, the first thing to do in such laws should be to determine the fundamental principles to encourage the use of agricultural land for agricultural purposes and make this widespread but not to determine the fundamental principles for the improper use of agricultural land.
It is an inevitable outcome that the phenomena of house and industry are always in front of agriculture in the urban growth patterns due to their economic yield. The conservation of natural areas before all depends on the use of land in a way which is suitable for the nature.
This is indeed a sound approach for the conservation of national territories and for utilizing them more accurately. Previously made by the Directorates General of Village Services, these plans have not been made for long years. Upon the establishment of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in , it was expressed that studies such as land planning and soil classification would be carried out by the Department of Agricultural Land Utilization of the Directorate General of Agricultural Reform that was affiliated to this ministry.
The ecological basis of planning.
Nevertheless, the problems occurring in practice and their outcomes are more important than the making of such plans by the institutions concerned. That is, the articles on. It is possible to multiply such examples in the law. It is obvious that it is not enough to enact laws for an efficient implementation and a successful outcome on this matter. In conclusion, the laws and regulations on the matter are inadequate and open to exploitation to the same extent.
In order for urban formation to survive, there is a need for radical change in the vision of urban planning. Especially the planning studies which remain only on the urban scale are stuck at some point and remain inadequate to produce the expected solutions. The true implementation of ecological planning is only possible within a planning system that continues systematically from the highest rank to the lowest rank and that will take place on an integrated scale.
On the other hand, the ecological planning studies considered within a narrow scope by ignoring the integrated scale serve the process of postponing the problem rather than a solution. Losses of natural areas will continue increasingly as long as urban planning decisions are defined independently of upper-scale plans and as long as upper-scale plans are not included in the planning hierarchy. Basins define the natural boundaries required for the conservation of the water cycle and the natural resources depending on it.
Basin-based planning is an important stage of the planning understanding for the conservation of natural resources.
The basin-based planning understanding has not been included in any planning rank yet. In conclusion, the running out of natural resources is striking as one of the most serious ecological problems at the present. A wrong understanding of city planning is expressed as one of the most fundamental causes of this problem, for the selection of locations for the ways of land use in the present city planning is done without considering the existence of natural resources.
However, although a period of nine years passed, there have not been any constructive studies that support the convention either in the plan hierarchy or in laws and regulations. This is saddening in terms of the development of the process concerned and worrisome in terms of the timeout experienced. The fact that ecological conservation now remains merely in theory postpones the solution process, and more concrete approaches are needed at this point. As Turan also states, the conditions of the European Landscape Convention and the infrastructures brought about by the conditions such as laws and regulations and institutions should be interpreted very carefully at the current stage and materialized rapidly.
In this context, the requirements of the convention should be formulated with landscape architects, city planners, jurists, and the other disciplines concerned, and they should take their part on the regional scale. The prevention of improper land uses for new development areas in particular and the endeavors on the matter by local governments stand out at this point.
Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Murat Ozyavuz. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Introduction Irregular and unsound urban development is the common problem of all urban settlements today. Improper land use The importance attached, and the priority given, to the environment and to urban ecological planning varies by society.
Planning and the planning hierarchy in Turkey With a wide variety of definitions, planning is an integrated system which involves a series of chaotic cases in theory and practice and which depends on various laws and regulations besides being a multidirectional and comprehensive concept. Table 2 The existing planning hierarchy in our country adapted from Ersoy, Table 3 Distribution of the losses of fertile agricultural lands in the areas with a development plan in the first period. Table 4 Distribution of the losses of fertile agricultural lands in the areas with a development plan in the second period.
Table 5 Distribution of the losses of fertile agricultural lands in the areas with a development plan in the third period. Table 6 Distribution of the losses of fertile agricultural lands in the areas with a development plan in the fourth period. Table 7 Distribution of the losses of fertile agricultural lands in the areas with a development plan in the fifth period.
Table 9 Improper land uses. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard. Cite this chapter Copy to clipboard A. Esra Cengiz July 1st Available from:. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions. More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications.
Access personal reporting. More about us. Types of Plans for General Purposes. Types of Plans for Special Purposes. Upper-Scale Plans. The Development Plan for Conservation , and , The Physical Plan of the Country A five-year development plan. The Development Plan for Tourism , and , The Development Plan for Rehabilitation , and , The Metropolitan Master Plan , The Village Settlement Plan , The Environmental Order Plan , The Forestland Development Plan.
The Master Plan , The Coastal Development Plan. The Implementation Development Plan , Complementary plans which bring change. Planning in Agricultural Lands. The Partial Development Plan. National Park Planning.
An Amendment to the Plan. Planning in Water Basins. Name of the Plan.