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The foreign support for the nationalist, the new front that opened on the border with Mozambique, and the duration of the war, combined to eventually cripple the Rhodesian government's war effort. The two insurgent groups were able to acquire vast support in the countryside and native areas because of their placement of land reform as their top priority. The white administration, realizing it was vastly outnumbered by the natives, combined with the reluctance to continue fighting a costly war, decided to come to the negotiating table.

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The United Kingdom also feeling backlash over events in Rhodesia, brokered the negotiations. Debate in Zimbabwe circles after the war revolved around socialism and egalitarianism. They saw land as the primary symbol of their struggle Sachikonye Nowhere else in Africa had the natives been deprived of so much of this crucial resource Sachikonye Bishop Abel Muzorewa would become the first black prime minister of Rhodesia in Gregory Despite the reform, alongside a more representative government, the sanctions that were placed on the country would not be removed immediately.

This forced the Muzorewa administration to rely on the still Apartheid South Africa for economic assistance Gregory The new president also inherited the mostly white Rhodesian armed forces Gregory Both of these factors alienated the president from his initial African nationalists backers. Abel Muzorewa would not last long as president of the country. Later that year, the British, Rhodesian Government, and African Nationalist came together for negotiations. It would be the first time all three would meet Gregory Under the terms of the agreement, land ownership inequities were acknowledged, but transactions could only take place on willing buyer, willing seller terms, which slowed the process Palmer Under the agreement, whites who wished to keep their land could do so, and could not be forced out.

The British would pay for half of the cost of the resettlement program, and only lands that were considered underutilized were to be acquired by the natives.

In a rushed amendment, the parties agreed that the currency used to compensate the farmers had to be remittable in foreign currency Palmer Black peasant farmers had been resilient under the Rhodesian administration despite their condition. They produced maize, which was mainly consumed by the home market, while the white farmers grew more export crops such as tobacco Palmer With this, the white farmers shifted their production to the home market, thus undercutting the small-crop black farmers Palmer This made the white farmers and even more important component to the economy of the new Zimbabwe.

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That advice appeared to be heeded at first, but was eventually ignored. By , only about 2 million acres of land were acquired by the Zimbabwean government, only 19 percent of which was considered of prime agricultural quality PBS Overall, land transfers were slow, with the Government blaming the restrictions in the Lancaster House Agreement Sachikonye Land prices skyrocketed during the post-independence period of the s, and it was doubtful that the Zimbabwean government would have been able to fulfill its duties of resettlement funding Sachikonye The government first was in the middle of eliminating its political rivals in the north of the country, on the path to achieving its stated objective of a one party state Krieger Both of these campaigns dried up funds for land reform Kreiger The government missed out on prime opportunities to make meaningful land transfers.

Under legislation, farmers in Zimbabwe who wished to sell their land had to give the government the first option Krieger Of the 1, properties that were available between and , the government would purchase less than a third of them Krieger There was also little political will for land reform in this period. With the opposition parties at this time were divided, the ruling government had little incentive for substantial action.

1 Introduction

Privatization and trade liberalization would take place in Zimbabwe in the 90s. Sachikonye This initially brought promise of increased prosperity for the black population, but instead became the context for endemic corruption at the top of the Zimbabwean Government. In , citizens, especially war veterans of the Bush War i. Several laws were passed in the veteran's favor, including the War Victims Compensation Act. However, the administering of these payouts were tainted by corruption, with several high ranking party officials suspected of taking the payments for themselves Human Rights Watch The program envisioned the acquisition and transfer of 50, of the , sq.

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