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To Luther, conscience falls within the ethical, rather than the religious, sphere. And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one" see Jesus and the woman taken in adultery. In the Gospel of Luke 25—37 Jesus tells the story of how a despised and heretical Samaritan see Parable of the Good Samaritan who out of compassion and conscience helps an injured stranger beside a road, qualifies better for eternal life by loving his neighbor, than a priest who passes by on the other side. This dilemma of obedience in conscience to divine or state law, was demonstrated dramatically in Antigone 's defiance of King Creon 's order against burying her brother an alleged traitor, appealing to the " unwritten law " and to a "longer allegiance to the dead than to the living".

Catholic theology sees conscience as the last practical "judgment of reason which at the appropriate moment enjoins [a person] to do good and to avoid evil". Its voice, ever calling him to love and to do what is good and to avoid evil, tells him inwardly at the right movement: do this, shun that. For man has in his heart a law inscribed by God. His dignity lies in observing this law, and by it he will be judged.

There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths. It is the inner place of our relationship with Him, who speaks to our heart and helps us to discern, to understand the path we ought to take, and once the decision is made, to move forward, to remain faithful" [35] In terms of logic, conscience can be viewed as the practical conclusion of a moral syllogism whose major premise is an objective norm and whose minor premise is a particular case or situation to which the norm is applied. Thus, Catholics are taught to carefully educate themselves as to revealed norms and norms derived therefrom, so as to form a correct conscience.

Catholics are also to examine their conscience daily and with special care before confession. Catholic teaching holds that, "Man has the right to act according to his conscience and in freedom so as personally to make moral decisions. He must not be forced to act contrary to his conscience. Nor must he be prevented from acting according to his conscience, especially in religious matters".

A sincere conscience presumes one is diligently seeking moral truth from authentic sources, that is, seeking to conform oneself to that moral truth by listening to the authority established by Christ to teach it. Nevertheless, despite one's best effort, "[i]t can happen that moral conscience remains in ignorance and makes erroneous judgments about acts to be performed or already committed This ignorance can often be imputed to personal responsibility In such cases, the person is culpable for the wrong he commits.

One must first remove the source of error and do one's best to achieve a correct judgment. If, however, one is not aware of one's error or if, despite an honest and diligent effort one cannot remove the error by study or seeking advice, then one's conscience may be said to be invincibly erroneous. It binds since one has subjective certainty that one is correct. The act resulting from acting on the invincibly erroneous conscience is not good in itself, yet this deformed act or material sin against God's right order and the objective norm is not imputed to the person.

The formal obedience given to such a judgment of conscience is good. Some Catholics appeal to conscience in order to justify dissent, not on the level of conscience properly understood, but on the level of the principles and norms which are supposed to inform conscience. For example, some priests make on the use of the so-called internal forum solution which is not sanctioned by the Magisterium to justify actions or lifestyles incompatible with Church teaching, such as Christ's prohibition of remarriage after divorce or sexual activity outside marriage.

The Catholic Church has warned that "rejection of the Church's authority and her teaching Judaism arguably does not require uncompromising obedience to religious authority; the case has been made that throughout Jewish history rabbis have circumvented laws they found unconscionable, such as capital punishment. The secular approach to conscience includes psychological , physiological , sociological , humanitarian , and authoritarian views. Sigmund Freud regarded conscience as originating psychologically from the growth of civilisation , which periodically frustrated the external expression of aggression : this destructive impulse being forced to seek an alternative, healthy outlet, directed its energy as a superego against the person's own "ego" or selfishness often taking its cue in this regard from parents during childhood.

Antonio Damasio considers conscience an aspect of extended consciousness beyond survival-related dispositions and incorporating the search for truth and desire to build norms and ideals for behavior. Michel Glautier argues that conscience is one of the instincts and drives which enable people to form societies: groups of humans without these drives or in whom they are insufficient cannot form societies and do not reproduce their kind as successfully as those that do. Charles Darwin considered that conscience evolved in humans to resolve conflicts between competing natural impulses-some about self-preservation but others about safety of a family or community; the claim of conscience to moral authority emerged from the "greater duration of impression of social instincts" in the struggle for survival.

Fundamental in this view of conscience is that humans consider some "other" as being in a social relationship. Thus, nationalism is invoked in conscience to quell tribal conflict and the notion of a Brotherhood of Man is invoked to quell national conflicts. Yet such crowd drives may not only overwhelm but redefine individual conscience. Friedrich Nietzsche stated: "communal solidarity is annihilated by the highest and strongest drives that, when they break out passionately, whip the individual far past the average low level of the 'herd-conscience.

Sir Arthur Keith in developed the Amity-enmity complex. We evolved as tribal groups surrounded by enemies; thus conscience evolved a dual role; the duty to save and protect members of the in-group , and the duty to show hatred and aggression towards any out-group. An interesting area of research in this context concerns the similarities between our relationships and those of animals , whether animals in human society pets , working animals , even animals grown for food or in the wild.

Contemporary scientists in evolutionary biology seek to explain conscience as a function of the brain that evolved to facilitate altruism within societies. He subsequently reinforced this idea through the lense of the gene-centered view of evolution , since the unit of natural selection is neither an individual organism nor a group, but rather the "selfish" gene , and these genes could ensure their own "selfish" survival by, inter alia , pushing individuals to act altruistically towards its kin.

Numerous case studies of brain damage have shown that damage to areas of the brain such as the anterior prefrontal cortex results in the reduction or elimination of inhibitions , with a corresponding radical change in behaviour. Attempts have been made by neuroscientists to locate the free will necessary for what is termed the 'veto' of conscience over unconscious mental processes see Neuroscience of free will and Benjamin Libet in a scientifically measurable awareness of an intention to carry out an act occurring — microseconds after the electrical discharge known as the 'readiness potential.

Jacques Pitrat claims that some kind of artificial conscience is beneficial in artificial intelligence systems to improve their long-term performance and direct their introspective processing. The word "conscience" derives etymologically from the Latin conscientia , meaning "privity of knowledge" [83] or "with-knowledge".

The English word implies internal awareness of a moral standard in the mind concerning the quality of one's motives, as well as a consciousness of our own actions. Conscience in this sense is not necessarily the product of a process of rational consideration of the moral features of a situation or the applicable normative principles, rules or laws and can arise from parental, peer group, religious, state or corporate indoctrination , which may or may not be presently consciously acceptable to the person "traditional conscience".

The medieval Persian philosopher and physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi believed in a close relationship between conscience or spiritual integrity and physical health; rather than being self-indulgent, man should pursue knowledge, use his intellect and apply justice in his life. Some medieval Christian scholastics such as Bonaventure made a distinction between conscience as a rational faculty of the mind practical reason and inner awareness, an intuitive "spark" to do good, called synderesis arising from a remnant appreciation of absolute good and when consciously denied for example to perform an evil act , becoming a source of inner torment.

By debating test cases applying such understanding conscience was trained and refined i. In the 13th century, St. Thomas Aquinas regarded conscience as the application of moral knowledge to a particular case S. Thus, conscience was considered an act or judgment of practical reason that began with synderesis , the structured development of our innate remnant awareness of absolute good which he categorised as involving the five primary precepts proposed in his theory of Natural Law into an acquired habit of applying moral principles.

Aquinas reasoned that acting contrary to conscience is an evil action but an errant conscience is only blameworthy if it is the result of culpable or vincible ignorance of factors that one has a duty to have knowledge of. Thomas A Kempis in the medieval contemplative classic The Imitation of Christ ca stated that the glory of a good man is the witness of a good conscience.

A quiet conscience can endure much, and remains joyful in all trouble, but an evil conscience is always fearful and uneasy. Benedict de Spinoza in his Ethics , published after his death in , argued that most people, even those that consider themselves to exercise free will , make moral decisions on the basis of imperfect sensory information, inadequate understanding of their mind and will, as well as emotions which are both outcomes of their contingent physical existence and forms of thought defective from being chiefly impelled by self-preservation.

As the sacred texts of ancient Hindu and Buddhist philosophy became available in German translations in the 18th and 19th centuries, they influenced philosophers such as Schopenhauer to hold that in a healthy mind only deeds oppress our conscience , not wishes and thoughts; "for it is only our deeds that hold us up to the mirror of our will"; the good conscience , thought Schopenhauer, we experience after every disinterested deed arises from direct recognition of our own inner being in the phenomenon of another, it affords us the verification "that our true self exists not only in our own person, this particular manifestation, but in everything that lives.

By this the heart feels itself enlarged, as by egotism it is contracted. Immanuel Kant , a central figure of the Age of Enlightenment , likewise claimed that two things filled his mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the oftener and more steadily they were reflected on: "the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me John Plamenatz in his critical examination of Rousseau 's work considered that conscience was there defined as the feeling that urges us, in spite of contrary passions, towards two harmonies: the one within our minds and between our passions, and the other within society and between its members; "the weakest can appeal to it in the strongest, and the appeal, though often unsuccessful, is always disturbing.

However, corrupted by power or wealth we may be, either as possessors of them or as victims, there is something in us serving to remind us that this corruption is against nature. Other philosophers expressed a more sceptical and pragmatic view of the operation of "conscience" in society.

Josiah Royce — built on the transcendental idealism view of conscience, viewing it as the ideal of life which constitutes our moral personality, our plan of being ourself, of making common sense ethical decisions.

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But, he thought, this was only true insofar as our conscience also required loyalty to "a mysterious higher or deeper self. It protests against a doing which imperils the unity of this being with itself. As Hannah Arendt pointed out, however, following the utilitarian John Stuart Mill on this point : a bad conscience does not necessarily signify a bad character; in fact only those who affirm a commitment to applying moral standards will be troubled with remorse, guilt or shame by a bad conscience and their need to regain integrity and wholeness of the self.

One reason, she held, was that conscience , as we understand it in moral or legal matters, is supposedly always present within us, just like consciousness : "and this conscience is also supposed to tell us what to do and what to repent; before it became the lumen naturale or Kant 's practical reason, it was the voice of God. Albert Einstein , as a self-professed adherent of humanism and rationalism , likewise viewed an enlightened religious person as one whose conscience reflects that he "has, to the best of his ability, liberated himself from the fetters of his selfish desires and is preoccupied with thoughts, feelings and aspirations to which he clings because of their super-personal value.

But an inner voice tells me that it is not the real thing. The theory produces a good deal but hardly brings one closer to the secrets of the Old One. I am at all events convinced that He does not play dice. Simone Weil who fought for the French resistance the Maquis argued in her final book The Need for Roots : Prelude to a Declaration of Duties Towards Mankind that for society to become more just and protective of liberty, obligations should take precedence over rights in moral and political philosophy and a spiritual awakening should occur in the conscience of most citizens, so that social obligations are viewed as fundamentally having a transcendent origin and a beneficent impact on human character when fulfilled.

For, having incorporated the rules into their own being, the prohibited possibilities no longer present themselves to the mind, and have not to be rejected. Alternatives to such metaphysical and idealist opinions about conscience arose from realist and materialist perspectives such as those of Charles Darwin. Darwin suggested that "any animal whatever, endowed with well-marked social instincts, the parental and filial affections being here included, would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well, or as nearly as well developed, as in man.

Such an inquiry, he believed, fell wholly within the scope of the existing social sciences. For others, however, an action seems to be properly termed 'internally right', merely because they have previously regarded it as right, the idea of 'rightness' being present in some way to his or her mind, but not necessarily among his or her deliberately constructed motives. A Very Easy Death. Penguin Books. Michael Walzer claimed that the growth of religious toleration in Western nations arose amongst other things, from the general recognition that private conscience signified some inner divine presence regardless of the religious faith professed and from the general respectability, piety, self-limitation, and sectarian discipline which marked most of the men who claimed the rights of conscience.

A good life need not be an especially reflective one; most of the best lives are just lived rather than studied. But there are moments that cry out for self-assertion, when a passive bowing to fate or a mechanical decision out of deference or convenience is treachery, because it forfeits dignity for ease. The philosopher Peter Singer considers that usually when we describe an action as conscientious in the critical sense we do so in order to deny either that the relevant agent was motivated by selfish desires, like greed or ambition, or that he acted on whim or impulse.

Moral anti-realists debate whether the moral facts necessary to activate conscience supervene on natural facts with a posteriori necessity; or arise a priori because moral facts have a primary intension and naturally identical worlds may be presumed morally identical. John Ralston Saul expressed the view in The Unconscious Civilization that in contemporary developed nations many people have acquiesced in turning over their sense of right and wrong, their critical conscience , to technical experts; willingly restricting their moral freedom of choice to limited consumer actions ruled by the ideology of the free market, while citizen participation in public affairs is limited to the isolated act of voting and private-interest lobbying turns even elected representatives against the public interest.

Some argue on religious or philosophical grounds that it is blameworthy to act against conscience , even if the judgement of conscience is likely to be erroneous say because it is inadequately informed about the facts, or prevailing moral humanist or religious , professional ethical, legal and human rights norms. English humanist lawyers in the 16th and 17th centuries interpreted conscience as a collection of universal principles given to man by god at creation to be applied by reason; this gradually reforming the medieval Roman law -based system with forms of action, written pleadings, use of juries and patterns of litigation such as Demurrer and Assumpsit that displayed an increased concern for elements of right and wrong on the actual facts.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching. It has been argued that these articles provide international legal obligations protecting conscientious objectors from service in the military. John Rawls in his A Theory of Justice defines a conscientious objector as an individual prepared to undertake, in public and often despite widespread condemnation , an action of civil disobedience to a legal rule justifying it also in public by reference to contrary foundational social virtues such as justice as liberty or fairness and the principles of morality and law derived from them.

Civil Disobedience.

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In the Second World War , Great Britain granted conscientious-objection status not just to complete pacifists , but to those who objected to fighting in that particular war; this was done partly out of genuine respect, but also to avoid the disgraceful and futile persecutions of conscientious objectors that occurred during the First World War.

Amnesty International organises campaigns to protect those arrested and or incarcerated as a prisoner of conscience because of their conscientious beliefs, particularly concerning intellectual, political and artistic freedom of expression and association. In legislation, a conscience clause is a provision in a statute that excuses a health professional from complying with the law for example legalising surgical or pharmaceutical abortion if it is incompatible with religious or conscientious beliefs. Many conscientious objectors are so for religious reasons—notably, members of the historic peace churches are pacifist by doctrine.

Other objections can stem from a deep sense of responsibility toward humanity as a whole, or from the conviction that even acceptance of work under military orders acknowledges the principle of conscription that should be everywhere condemned before the world can ever become safe for real democracy. Conscience , according to Johnson, was nothing more than a conviction felt by ourselves of something to be done or something to be avoided; in questions of simple unperplexed morality, conscience is very often a guide that may be trusted.

Civil disobedience as non-violent protest or civil resistance are also acts of conscience, but are designed by those who undertake them chiefly to change, by appealing to the majority and democratic processes, laws or government policies perceived to be incoherent with fundamental social virtues and principles such as justice, equality or respect for intrinsic human dignity. Hansen , environmental leader Phil Radford and Professor Bill McKibben were arrested for opposing a tar sands oil pipeline [] [] and Canadian renewable energy professor Mark Jaccard was arrested for opposing mountain-top coal mining; [] in his book Storms of my Grandchildren Hansen calls for similar civil resistance on a global scale to help replace the 'business-as-usual' Kyoto Protocol cap and trade system, with a progressive carbon tax at emission source on the oil, gas and coal industries — revenue being paid as dividends to low carbon footprint families.

Notable historical examples of conscientious noncompliance in a different professional context included the manipulation of the visa process in by Japanese Consul-General Chiune Sugihara in Kaunas the temporary capital of Lithuania between Germany and the Soviet Union and by Raoul Wallenberg in Hungary in [] to allow Jews to escape almost certain death. We are your bad conscience. The White Rose will not leave you in peace! World conscience is the universalist idea that with ready global communication, all people on earth will no longer be morally estranged from one another, whether it be culturally, ethnically, or geographically; instead they will conceive ethics from the utopian point of view of the universe , eternity or infinity , rather than have their duties and obligations defined by forces arising solely within the restrictive boundaries of 'blood and territory.

Often this derives from a spiritual or natural law perspective, that for world peace to be achieved, conscience , properly understood, should be generally considered as not necessarily linked often destructively to fundamentalist religious ideologies, but as an aspect of universal consciousness , access to which is the common heritage of humanity. Edward O Wilson has developed the idea of consilience to encourage coherence of global moral and scientific knowledge supporting the premise that "only unified learning, universally shared, makes accurate foresight and wise choice possible".

The microcredit initiatives of Nobel Peace Prize winner Muhammad Yunus have been described as inspiring a "war on poverty that blends social conscience and business savvy". The American cardiologist Bernard Lown and the Russian cardiologist Yevgeniy Chazov were motivated in conscience through studying the catastrophic public health consequences of nuclear war in establishing International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War IPPNW which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in and continues to work to "heal an ailing planet". A challenge to world conscience was provided by an influential article by Garrett Hardin that critically analyzed the dilemma in which multiple individuals, acting independently after rationally consulting self-interest and, he claimed, the apparently low 'survival-of-the-fittest' value of conscience -led actions ultimately destroy a shared limited resource, even though each acknowledges such an outcome is not in anyone's long-term interest.

The philosopher Peter Singer has argued that the United Nations Millennium Development Goals represent the emergence of an ethics based not on national boundaries but on the idea of one world. Noam Chomsky has argued that forces opposing the development of such a world conscience include free market ideologies that valorise corporate greed in nominal electoral democracies where advertising , shopping malls and indebtedness, shape citizens into apathetic consumers in relation to information and access necessary for democratic participation.

We have produced one firearm for every ten inhabitants of this planet, and yet we have not bothered to end hunger when such a feat is well within our reach. This is not a necessary or inevitable state of affairs.

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It is a deliberate choice" see Campaign Against Arms Trade. In a notable contemporary act of conscience, Christian bushwalker Brenda Hean protested against the flooding of Lake Pedder despite threats and that ultimately lead to her death. Conscience played a major role in the actions by anaesthetist Stephen Bolsin to whistleblow see list of whistleblowers on incompetent paediatric cardiac surgeons at the Bristol Royal Infirmary.

Climate Change Science Program, blew the whistle on a White House official who ignored majority scientific opinion to edit a climate change report "Our Changing Planet" to reflect the Bush administration 's view that the problem was unlikely to exist. At the awards ceremony for the metres at the Summer Olympics in Mexico City John Carlos , Tommie Smith and Peter Norman ignored death threats and official warnings to take part in an anti- racism protest [] that destroyed their respective careers.

Mark Felt an agent of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation who retired in as the Bureau's Associate Director, acted on conscience to provide reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein with information that resulted in the Watergate scandal. After being ordered to fire warning shots from her 50 calibre machinegun to make the boat turn back she saw it beginning to break up and sink with a father on board holding out his young daughter that she might be saved see Children Overboard Affair.

Whittle jumped without a life vest 12 metres into the sea to help save the refugees from drowning thinking "this isn't right; this isn't how things should be. The ancient epic of the Indian subcontinent, the Mahabharata of Vyasa , contains two pivotal moments of conscience. The first occurs when the warrior Arjuna being overcome with compassion against killing his opposing relatives in war, receives counsel see Bhagavad-Gita from Krishna about his spiritual duty "work as though you are performing a sacrifice for the general good".

Our great and glorious masterpiece is to live properly". The critic A. Bradley discusses the central problem of Shakespeare 's tragic character Hamlet as one where conscience in the form of moral scruples deters the young Prince with his "great anxiety to do right" from obeying his father's hell-bound ghost and murdering the usurping King "is't not perfect conscience to quit him with this arm? Bradley develops a theory about Hamlet's moral agony relating to a conflict between "traditional" and "critical" conscience: "The conventional moral ideas of his time, which he shared with the Ghost, told him plainly that he ought to avenge his father; but a deeper conscience in him, which was in advance of his time, contended with these explicit conventional ideas.

It is because this deeper conscience remains below the surface that he fails to recognise it, and fancies he is hindered by cowardice or sloth or passion or what not; but it emerges into light in that speech to Horatio. And it is just because he has this nobler moral nature in him that we admire and love him". Riding Westward : "Let man's soul be a sphere, and then, in this, Th' intelligence that moves, devotion is;" [].

Anton Chekhov in his plays The Seagull , Uncle Vanya and Three Sisters describes the tortured emotional states of doctors who at some point in their careers have turned their back on conscience. A promiscuous student, for example, in The Fit describes it as a "dull pain, indefinite, vague; it was like anguish and the most acute fear and despair As Irina Ratushinskaya writes in the introduction to that work: "Abandoning everything, he travelled to the distant island of Sakhalin , the most feared place of exile and forced labour in Russia at that time. One cannot help but wonder why?

Simply, because the lot of the people there was a bitter one, because nobody really knew about the lives and deaths of the exiles, because he felt that they stood in greater need of help that anyone else. A strange reason, maybe, but not for a writer who was the epitome of all the best traditions of a Russian man of letters. Russian literature has always focused on questions of conscience and was, therefore, a powerful force in the moulding of public opinion.

Carr writes of Dostoevsky 's character the young student Raskolnikov in the novel Crime and Punishment who decides to murder a 'vile and loathsome' old woman money lender on the principle of transcending conventional morals: "the sequel reveals to us not the pangs of a stricken conscience which a less subtle writer would have given us but the tragic and fruitless struggle of a powerful intellect to maintain a conviction which is incompatible with the essential nature of man. Hermann Hesse wrote his Siddhartha to describe how a young man in the time of the Buddha follows his conscience on a journey to discover a transcendent inner space where all things could be unified and simply understood, ending up discovering that personal truth through selfless service as a ferryman.

Tolkien in his epic The Lord of the Rings describes how only the hobbit Frodo is pure enough in conscience to carry the ring of power through war-torn Middle-earth to destruction in the Cracks of Doom , Frodo determining at the end to journey without weapons, and being saved from failure by his earlier decision to spare the life of the creature Gollum.

But we create human nature. Men are infinitely malleable". A tapestry copy of Picasso 's Guernica depicting a massacre of innocent women and children during the Spanish civil war is displayed on the wall of the United Nations building in New York City , at the entrance to the Security Council room, demonstrably as a spur to the conscience of representatives from the nation states. The impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh wrote in a letter to his brother Theo in that "one must never let the fire in one's soul die, for the time will inevitably come when it will be needed.

And he who chooses poverty for himself and loves it possesses a great treasure and will hear the voice of his conscience address him every more clearly. He who hears that voice, which is God's greatest gift, in his innermost being and follows it, finds in it a friend at last, and he is never alone!

That is what all great men have acknowledged in their works, all those who have thought a little more deeply and searched and worked and loved a little more than the rest, who have plumbed the depths of the sea of life. The Ingmar Bergman film Seventh Seal portrays the journey of a medieval knight Max von Sydow returning disillusioned from the crusades "what is going to happen to those of us who want to believe, but aren't able to? Johann Sebastian Bach wrote his last great choral composition the Mass in B minor BWV to express the alternating emotions of loneliness, despair, joy and rapture that arise as conscience reflects on a departed human life.

Ludwig van Beethoven 's meditations on illness, conscience and mortality in the Late String Quartets led to his dedicating the third movement of String Quartet in A Minor Op. The American Society of Journalists and Authors ASJA presents the Conscience-in-Media Award to journalists whom the society deems worthy of recognition for demonstrating "singular commitment to the highest principles of journalism at notable personal cost or sacrifice".

The Ambassador of Conscience Award , Amnesty International 's most prestigious human rights award, takes its inspiration from a poem written by Irish Nobel prize -winning poet Seamus Heaney called "The Republic of Conscience. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Conscience disambiguation. For other uses, see scruple disambiguation. Not to be confused with consciousness.

The Nature of Consciousness, Rupert Spira

Further information: Origins of morality and Morality. Further information: Religious belief , Philosophy of religion , and Spirituality. Further information: Psychology and Sociology.


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Further information: Free will , Compatibilism and incompatibilism , Determinism , Libertarianism metaphysics , Theory of justification , Virtue ethics , Metaethics , Moral motivation , and Normative ethics. We might still have come to an understanding if, instead of asking everybody to pray for my soul, she had given me a little confidence and sympathy.

I know now what prevented her from doing so: she had too much to pay back, too many wounds to salve, to put herself in another's place. In actual doing she made every sacrifice, but her feelings did not take her out of herself. Besides, how could she have tried to understand me since she avoided looking into her own heart?

As for discovering an attitude that would not have set us apart, nothing in her life had ever prepared her for such a thing: the unexpected sent her into a panic, because she had been taught never to think, act or feel except in a ready-made framework. Further information: Conscientious objector , Civil disobedience , Natural law , Natural rights , Nonviolence , Nonviolent resistance , Protest , Prisoner of conscience , and Keeper of the King's Conscience. A man has not everything to do but something; and because he cannot do everything , it is not necessary that he should do something wrong It is for no particular item in the tax bill that I refuse to pay it.

I simply wish to refuse allegiance to the State, to withdraw and stand aloof from it effectually. I do not care to trace the course of my dollar if I could, till it buys a man, or a musket to shoot one with—the dollar is innocent—but I am concerned to trace the effects of my allegiance Must the citizen ever for a moment, or in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator?


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Why has every man a conscience, then? Further information: Comparative religion , Universalism , World government , Cosmopolitanism , and Common heritage of humanity. Further information: List of nonviolence scholars and leaders and List of whistleblowers. Further information: Philosophy and literature. Cambridge University Press.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Futility is Resistance! Conference paper. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. In: Selected Writings, ed. Mark Poster. This begins to explain the present excitement around an evolving framework for studying and measuring consciousness called the Integrated Information Theory. Created by Univ. Of Wisconsin psychiatrist and neuroscientist Giulio Tononi in , IIT is an evolving system and calculus for studying and quantifying consciousness. A unique blend of phenomenology and information theory, it is strikingly Cartesian in how it approaches the problem.

The IIT that emerges from that work is a detailed, complex system that describes how consciousness behaves and is organized. Phi is based on the number and quality of interconnections a given entity has between bits of information. The resulting number — the Phi score — corresponds directly to how conscious it is. And as critics point out and Tononi himself concedes, PHI and its correlates are exceedingly difficult to calculate. In , Adenauer Casali and colleagues completed a study that showed it was possible to use the IIT framework within an EEG paradigm for measuring consciousness in some patients.

IIT tenets easily comprehend findings regarding why the cerebral cortex and thalamus are more critical to consciousness than the more neutron-rich cerebellum. The cerebral cortex, fMRI data reveals, contains elaborate interconnections and connections with the thalamus. The field of consciousness research is contentious, though.