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Hydrogen is an embedded or external membrane[13] or with open alternative to clean energy. Infect, due to economic and architecture [14] are described. In other cases, molten salts environmental benefits, hydrogen can be used in the future are used as heat transfer fluid using solar energy and as an energy source and from environmental prospective is improving the thermal efficiency of the process[14, 15]: it is the most promising solution to reduce the emissions. Infect, natural gas steam reforming reaction, hydrogen has more attention in the recent years, infect the for hydrogen production is strongly endothermic, hence, simultaneous presence of reaction and separation determines requires a large amount of reaction heat.

To this purpose, recently, metallic and ceramic membranes. The most important parameters comparing foam catalysts a porous metal inside which many pores are membranes are: perm-selectivity, the flux and the formed with high thermal conductivity, uniform thermal temperature range at which the membrane can be applied. These catalyst supports, then, are increasing the heat and Dense metal and ceramic membranes mainly palladium mass transfer. Also the reticulated structure of foam alloys are currently the most used materials due to the high materials cell provides high activity for unit volume.

Open selectivity to produce hydrogen whit high purity. Pd—alloys or closed cells can be presented in the structure of the foam are used to decrease the embrittlement and poisoning due to [37, 38]. Closed cell-type foam has pores that are not H2S and CO problems[18, 19]. Several researches are interconnected, while the open cell-type foam has pores that carried out to study the separation characteristics of Pd are interconnected, so a fluid can pass easily through the membranes: palladium membrane has high permeability and cells.

As a catalyst support, metallic foams e. Ceramic foams e. The used in reactors with molten salts [42, 43, 44]. The selectivity can be improved in processes as carbon dioxide reforming, Fisher-Tropshc composite membranes that consist of a thin membrane layer synthesis, catalytic combustion of methane and methane deposited into a porous support via electrodes plating or steam reforming [31, 44, 45, 46]. In this membranes, higher hydrogen permeability, reaction mechanism of steam reforming and several increased mechanical resistance, lower cost respect to reactions have to be considered for a proper description of unsupported membranes are achieved as described by the process [47].

According the Xu and Froment kinetic the Anzelmo et al. However, the model is very on methane conversion, hydrogen recovery and hydrogen complex and other researches follow the work of Xu and permeate purity. Froment proposing their own mechanism for the simplified kinetic model of this reaction [48] as the Numaguchi kinetic The reaction system to produce hydrogen uses catalysts that [27].

The selection of catalyst is Studies about design and rating of membrane reactors are important for the process and should be considered from present in literature [1, 45, 49, 50]. The operation of natural catalytic and economic aspect. Ni-based catalysts are the gas reformer is related to its structure parameters, operating most common used catalysts due to their high activity and conditions, heat transfer: it is an important aspect in the low costs, however Ni can promote carbon deposition on design of steam reforming reactor.

CO,Fe and noble metals, such as Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Ru are also used as catalysts being more active Few works are present in literature about the simulation of and more resistance to coke deposition compared to non- integrated membrane reactor for hydrogen production: noble metals [30, 31, 32, 33]. Ru instead of Ni, can except for Sarvar-Amini et al.

Publications, Reports & Research

Various supports as [53, 54]. However, the production from natural gas steam reforming is not present. In this research a rating for natural gas steam reforming is carried out founding the correct heat transfer coefficient of Catalytic support materials also have significant effects on the reactor.

It is the first integrated membrane reactor in catalyst performances: the widely used pellet supports show Europe at pilot plant that use a ceramic foam catalyst as low thermal dispersion because due to low thermal support, to produce hydrogen by natural gas steam conductivity. Cold or hot spots are formed on the catalyst reforming. A simulation is modeled in Aspen Plus software surface during reforming, particularly as the reformer scale using the correlations presented in literature for the catalyst is increased.

Hot spots can damage the catalyst and cold foam, Sieverts' law and Numaguchi kinetic. Length of tube mm Number of tube series 1 Future works should optimize the operation of the integrated GHSV h-1 membrane reactor to ensure a higher hydrogen production. Number of baffle 10 Length of membrane mm 2. In the Gibbs reactor model, reaction zone.

The system allows to produce hydrogen with Gibbs free energy minimization is performed to determine high purity, increasing the conversion despite the relatively the product composition. During the simulation, the reactor low operating temperatures. Methane, in natural gas, and is divided into multi plug flow sub-reactors, reaching the steam are continuously feeded into the reaction zone at a thermodynamic equilibrium locally. The maximum temperature of the process is equal dispersion.

The membrane reaction. This innovative calculations: the pressure in both sides of membrane is kept system allows the mismatch between the fluctuating solar at constant. Steady-state operation is assumed during the source and the operation of the process. Table 1 and 2 show simulations. Fig-1 Section of the integrated membrane reactor Table 1: Dimensions of the integrated membrane reactor Fig-2 a Scheme of the integrated membrane reactor; b Internal External Scheme of the integrated membrane reactor in Aspen Plus diameter diameter environment mm mm Membrane support 10 14 2.

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The reactions that are involved in the natural gas steam Catalyst 16 40 reforming or known as methane steam reforming are the endothermic steam reforming reactions and the exothermic Shell reactor The third reaction is a linear combination of other reactions. The kinetic rate of the system is described by the hybrid equation of Langmuir- Hinshelwood according a power law, assuming that the For the methane and the carbon dioxide, result See eq. The assumptions, reported in koS 8.

Table 5: Heat transfer parameters of the integrated membrane reactor calculated in rating mode Reynoldof salt Prandtlof salt 3. Also a rating mode is Density at inlet of reactor 2. Density average 2. Physical data are Porosity 15 ppi update in the model of the integrated membrane reactor. Degree of vacuum 0.

Membrane reactors for hydrogen production processes (eBook, ) []

In particular, Fig. In Properties of molten salt addition, the reactor can exchange the imposed duty, so the verification is satisfied. Heat capacity 0. The heat transfer coefficient of gas is calculated according Retentate model Permeate model the correlationsof foam reported by Lu et al. Infect in general, two different models can be used to describe the Retentate experimental data Permeate experimental data heat transfer in a porous medium: the one-equation equilibrium model or the two-equation non-equilibrium Fig-4 Hydrogen partial pressure in the retentate and model [58].

Temperatures of molten salts at the inlet and permeate side of the integrated membrane reactor data outlet of the reactor are set equal to K and K model: continuous line; experimental data: points respectively. Methane conversion increases faster near the inlet of the reactor, but decrease Table 6: Material and energy balances of the integrated along the length: an equilibrium between the changes of membrane reactor obtained by the simulation in Aspen Plus reaction rate and variations of species concentration is Feed Retentate Permeate achieved [59].

The membrane permeability has a Hydrogen 0. In the feed there is kinetic: with the increase of the temperature, the hydrogen 0. The hydrogen recovery [61]. For this reason, hydrocarbons methane reforming determines a reduction of the as propane, butane, pentane are not present in the feed: they temperature in the remaining length. After 0. Table 6 shows that the reactor length, the system seems to be isothermal with composition of hydrogen in the permeate stream is equal to temperature near to K [62].

In the initial portion of the 0. After the minimum sensitivity analysis. The thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved. The membrane temperature of gases in the retentate is equal to K, a permeability has a negative effect on temperature, however, higher value of temperature respect to feed and permeate the permeability has a mild effect on the maximum respectively equal to K and K. Also, 0. A sensitivity temperature difference between the region near the wall and analysis is carried out to study the process: the effect of the region near the membrane.

Moreover, the maximum membrane permeability is analyzed for methane conversion, temperature drop that occurs near the inlet of the reactor is rector temperature, partial pressure of hydrogen, hydrogen significantly smaller, an important parameter in order to recovery versus the reactor length. The positive effect is higher at higher value of permeability. At 30 Nm3hbar0. Comparing Fig. In the same conditions the membrane permeability hydrogen recovery will increase.

In addition to membrane permeability, pressure has a 1. When the pressure increases, both methane conversion and hydrogen recovery increase: a high reaction 1. The correct heat transfer coefficients are found by adequate foam correlations and rating procedure.

Scale-Up Analysis of Photo-Catalytic Water Splitting for Hydrogen Production

Fig-7 Hydrogen partial pressure versus adimensional length Material and energy balances are imposed considering that of the reactor and membrane permeability molten salts are used to exchange heat from solar energy. Numaguchi kinetic is used to describe the process. A inlet of the reactor due to the permeation of hydrogen before sensitivity study of methane conversion, hydrogen recovery, that the gas enters in the reaction zone.

After the reaction temperature of reactor, hydrogen partial pressure versus zone, the hydrogen recovery reaches its maximum value at reactor length and membrane permeability is performed. As effect on methane conversion and hydrogen recovery. For the magnitude of the driving force decreases, the hydrogen the other parameters the effect is negative. De Falco, D. Barba, S. Cosenza, G. Iaquaniello, L. Marrelli, Reformer and membrane modules plant powered [1] H.

Butcher, C. Quenzel, L. Breziner, J. Mettes, B. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. International Journal of Hydrogen 20 Simakov and M. Sheintuch, Experimental [2] W. Yu, T. Ohmoria, S. Kataokaa, T. Yamamotoa, A. Nakaiwaa, N. Itoh, A comparative simulation membrane reformer for hydrogen generation. Industrial and study of methane steam reforming in a porous ceramic Engineering Chemistry Research. Giaconia, L. Turchetti, G. Monteleone, B. Morico, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Iaquaniello, K. Shabtai, et al. Development of a solar Dasa, T.

ChemEng Trans. International Journal of [18] M. Falco, V. Piemonte, Solar enriched methane Hydrogen Energy. Int J [4] B. Ewan, R. Allen, A figure of merit Hydrogen Energy. International Journal [19] A. Augustine, Y. Ma, N. Kazantzis, High of Hydrogen Energy.

Chein, Y. Chen, Y. Sheng Lin, J. Chung, temperature wateregas shift reaction. International Journal Experimental study on the hydrogen production of of Hydrogen Energy. Sanz, J. Calles, D. Alique, L. Furones, S.

Bibliographic Information

International Journal of Thermal Sciences. Preparation, testing and modelling Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering. Sheintuch, D. Simakov, Alkanes Tong, Y. Matsumura, Pure hydrogen production by editors. Membrane reactors for hydrogen production methane steam reforming with hydrogen-permeable processes. Catalysis Today. Saric, Y. Sumbharaju, D. Meyer, A. Yun, S. Oyama, Correlations in palladium de Groot, Steam reforming of methane in a bench-scale membranes for hydrogen separation: a review. J Memb Sci. Catalysis Hao, D.

Sholl, Computational prediction of durable [9] B. Bej, N. Pradhan, S. Neogi, Production of hydrogen amorphous metal membranes for H2 purification. Ozdogan, J. El Hawa, S. Paglieri, C. Morris, A. Harale, adsorption on niobium-and copper-doped palladium J. Way, Application of a Pd—Ru composite membrane to surfaces. Sonwane, J. Wilcox, Y. Ma, Solubility of reactor. Lin, S. Liu, C. Chuang, Y. Chu, Effect functional theory. Tong, L. Su, K. Haraya, H. Suda, Thin and defect- experimental and modeling, Catal. Today 82 — free Pd-based composite membrane without any interlayer Matsumura, H.

Suda, K. Haraya, inorganic process.

  1. Sherlock Holmes Collection (Italian Edition).
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Experimental study of steam reforming of methane in a thin [27] S. Tosti, L. Bettinali, S. Castelli, F. Sarto, S. Violante, Sputtered, electroless, and rolledpalladium- 44 — De Falco, G. Iaquaniello, A. Salladini, Experimental [28] G. Leonzio, Mathematical modeling of integrated tests on steam reforming of natural gas in a reformer and membrane reactor for methane steam reforming. Journal of Membrane International of hydrogen energy. International Journal of Science. Research in Engineering and Technology. The integration of IGCC with membrane technology could be realized either as an open architecture OA where hydrogen separation ceramic modules are located before and after the WGSR or as an integral WGSR membrane reactor closed architecture CA where reaction and separation happen in a single step.

The first part discusses mathematical modelling of this more complex, but perhaps more efficient, integral WGSR membrane reactor. A techno-economic analysis comparing the conventional technology with membrane-assisted WGSR developed around OA, considered the first step towards commercial realization, is discussed in the second part of this chapter.

Hydrogen sulphide H 2 S has potentially high economic value if converted to sulphur and hydrogen. Various technical approaches to achieving this goal are reviewed. Open reactor architecture OA is presented, where the coupling of reaction and hydrogen separation are achieved in the series of the consecutive conventional catalytic reactors CRs , each followed by a membrane separator MS. It is proposed to supply the required process heat by inserting CR tubes inside the conventional Claus reactor where the unconverted H 2 S feed is disposed.

This configuration radically improves the commercial outlook for H 2 S decomposition technology and allows hydrogen production without CO 2 emissions. Alkenes olefins production by the catalytic dehydrogenation of light alkanes paraffins is an alternative to conventional heavy hydrocarbons cracking. Alkenes are important intermediate materials for a variety of applications and the catalytic alkanes dehydrogenation allows for their production from low-cost feedstocks, such as natural gas.

The dehydrogenation is endothermic in nature and limited by the thermodynamic equilibrium, therefore, it is performed at elevated temperatures. However, operation at high temperatures results in side reactions e. Consequently, the catalytic membrane reactor concept is a logical choice for improvement and the dehydrogenation process performance. Hydrogen can be continuously separated by a hydrogen perm-selective membrane, increasing the conversion due to the shift of the equilibrium toward the alkene production. This in turn will allow operation at lower temperatures, preventing thermal cracking reactions, and coking.

In addition, hydrogen, which is a valuable by-product, is generated. Design and optimization of dehydrogenation processes requires a choice of membrane, catalysts, thermal regimes, flow regime, and other issues that are discussed below.

Pd—Ag-supported membranes are very selective and can be purchased off-the-shelf, their cost may still be prohibitive. The catalysts employed are those used in regular DH processes; there is a need for catalysts that show high activity and stability at low hydrogen pressures. New ideas are required in order to develop a reliable thermally independent process. A major benefit of the proposed RMM configuration is the shift of conversion beyond equilibrium value by removing the hydrogen produced at high temperature, thanks to the integration of highly selective Pd-based membranes.

Moreover, a noble metal catalyst supported on SiC foam catalyst is used in order to enhance thermal transport inside the catalytic tube. This chapter reports together with preliminary operational data, the plant design criteria, the process scheme, the construction of reformers and membrane units, and the control system implemented to maximize experimental outputs. Four types of Pd-based membranes, three tubular and one planar shaped, are installed in order to compare the performance in terms of hydrogen flux permeated.

The ranges of operating conditions investigated reaction temperatures and pressures, separation temperatures and pressures, flow-rates, and sweeping gas flows are defined; plant performance and preliminary experimental data are also reported and assessed. The potential of membrane reactors is enormous.

In particular, they could play a key role with endothermic reversible reactions because of the high reactant conversion at low temperature. The membrane geometry can be either flat or tubular: flat membranes can easily be stacked onto one another by a proper design, making simpler their manufacturing. The issue is to better understand how much surface can be accommodated in a module based on flat membranes. Print ISBN Electronic ISBN