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Triluri, triluri: Idolores. Trilling, trilling: Idolores. Who's in the Tink cried to bronze in pity. Chemare jinduind stins Longindying call. Soft word. But look! The Ademenitoare. O rose! Notes Dulci cuvinte. Stelele chirruping answer. The luminoase se sting. Note morn is breaking. Jingle jingle jaunted jingling. Coin rang. Clock clacked. I could. Not leave thee.
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Pocnet cloche! Thigh smack. Plici La Warm. Sweetheart, goodbye! Iubita mea, adio. Boomed crashing chords. When love absorbs. The Bum pe coarde disonante. A sail! A veil awave upon the waves. Throstle fluted. All is lost now. Totul e pierdut acum. When first he saw. Full tup. Full throb.
Ah, lure! O, ademenire. Goodgod henev erheard inall. Deaf bald Pat brought pad knife Clapclop. O chemare-n miez de noapte, clar de Listen! Have you the? Pearls: when she. Liszt's rhapsodies. Ai Hissss. You don't? With a cock with a carra. Perle: unde ea. Rapsodiile lui Liszt. Do, Ben, do. Nu crezi? Wait while you wait. Hee hee. Nu am; nu, nu; cred; Lidlyd. Wait while you hee.
Cu un coc cu un caro. But wait! Low in dark middle earth. Embedded ore. Hi hi. All gone. All fallen. To, fro. A baton cool protruding. Old Bloom. One rapped, one tapped with a carra, Amin! Pray, good people! His gouty fingers nakkering. Big Benaben. Big Benben. Little wind piped wee. True men. Lid Ker Cow De and Doll. Like you men. Will lift your cu co. Where bronze from anear? Where hoofs? Then, not till then. My eppripfftaph. Joyce Pihi. Ba, da. Oameni ca voi. Unde-i bronzul de-aproape? Unde-i aur de departe? Unde-s copitele-n trap? Si eppripfftappful. Joyce The primary concern of translators is to communicate meanings.
In order to do so, they have to decode the units and structures that impart messages. Apart from the intellectual, theoretical and practical features implied by the work of a literary translator, when it comes to translating Joyce, the process could entail even philosophical questions. Is the translator aware of all the meanings of the source words and expressions? If language were merely a set of universal concepts, it would be easy to translate from one language into another. In contrast, starting from the idea that languages were developed in distinct sceneries and resulted from different types of experiences, it is utopian to assume that two words coming from different languages, refer precisely to the same objects.
For that reason, when it comes to translating literature, in particular, the concept of fidelity is worth to be brought into discussion. This is a sensitive subject, since it raises problems when 49 Vol. In terms of relationship, the concept of fidelity in translation could be similar with fidelity in a marriage. Moreover, in the process of translation prevails an unsteady equilibrium between the translator and the source text, either by actions of adding or cutting out.
Only by means of compensation and compromise could a translator preserve the meaning and restore the balance that he had upset by his disruptive presence, because, in the end, every process of perception and reasoning is aggressive. When speaking of the art of literary translation Wechsler introduces the issue of fidelity gradually. According to him, at first, a translator experiences a feeling of devotion towards the author that he has loved as a reader, whom eventually he is willing to share with the others. To the content or the form? To the literal meaning of the words or the literal meaning as the translator interprets them?
Furthermore, the concept stands between the question of applying fidelity to content or to fluency. Words not only convey concepts, but also work together to represent pictorially the course of events. In consequence, form and content are interdependent. Thus, the feeling of devotion which constraints the translator can easily be steered by the phenomenon of non- equivalence that may occur at word level. This means that the target language is sometimes not in possession of an equivalent for a word which exists in the original text.
Proper names require fidelity to the original culture, which means that they are not rendered differently. The style of Joyce is well known for employing foreign words and sometimes changing their syntax or spelling, according to the rules of English. It remains unchanged when conveyed into Romanian, in an act of fidelity to form.
Although the source-language may have concepts that are easily understood, it can happen that the target language not to have a single word for them, which means that the source-language concept is not lexicalized in the target language. Hissss Joyce As the target 51 Vol. At the same time, by preserving the rhythm of the line, the idea of a sound propagated through a narrow pipe fails to be rendered. Although the translator tries to be faithful to the form and to the mother tongue as well, the vibration of these sounds when read aloud, inevitably lowers. Often in translation the source-language word is semantically complex.
Therefore, the translator had to face up the problem of a double meaning which in the target language could not be expressed by only one word. English Language holds both a flexibility of function, which means that words have often the same form whether they are nouns or verbs, as well as an openness to vocabulary, words being adopted or adapted according to different contexts. Whereas Romanian is not as flexible, sometimes requiring a group of words to express a certain idea. The translator is thus constrained to use a technique of compromise for situations where one word cannot be used to cover the same range of meaning as in the source text.
Joyce associates the action with an imaginary percussion instrument, highlighting the clap of the fingers in the palm of the hand. There are situations when both languages are in possession of words that designate similar concepts, but non-equivalence can still occur when the source and target languages make different distinctions in meaning.
The Romanian equivalent is a slang designing the same concept. The cry of a donkey was impossible to be rendered, because it would have periclitated the sound-play, but it was replaced by a word with double meaning. This time the act of fidelity is targeted towards both the form and the content. A different situation of non-equivalence occurs when the target- language owns a word which has the same propositional meaning as the source-language word, but it may have a different expressive meaning.
Therefore, non-equivalence is dictated by differences in expressive meaning. It is possible for the translator to add the evaluative element by means of a 54 Vol. Another aspect of non-equivalence is dictated by differences in form, when there is no equivalent in the target language for a specific form in the source text. In the overture, the use of auxiliary verbs has the purpose of building ambiguities.
Joyce intentionally omits the main verb in order to prolong the momentum. As the target language does not employ an auxiliary verb to express a present tense the translator is constrained to name the verb right from the beginning. The motif introduced in the overture is developed afterwards during the episode. The sounds of knocking and tapping fail to be conveyed into the target language, the translator creating a highlight in the inner turmoil of Bloom.
In the target language the action is only implied without actually naming the verb in order to avoid a stilted style. A translation devoted to the content, would have periclitated the original rhythm. Since this chapter is allocated to the art of music, the transposition of sounds is very important, as every object and action contribute to the musicality of the paragraph.
The moment Mr. Dedalus prepares to smoke, he blows the pipe twice, resulting in the repetition of the Past Simple form of the verb. The title of the love song The bloom is on the Rye is a musical theme assigned to Bloom and to the moment Lenehan enters the Hotel and goes to the bar. In Romanian, gerundial forms preserve the idea of musicality and of sounds echoing. In conclusion, as we have stated in the beginning, any work of literary translation implies in fact a utopian task.
It is impossible to render precisely in a different language a writing style so abundant in ambiguities, allusions and compressions. From the point of view of fidelity, the idea of a perfect equilibrium between the form and the content, in relation to the rules of the 57 Vol. An equivalence without identity. It is impossible to avoid structural discrepancies and not to overspill in clarifications the aural aspect of a language that stakes out playfulness and distinctive sequences. Arrojo, R. Fidelity and the Gendered Translation. In Other Words. A coursebook on Translation.
Third Edition. Bell, R. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. London: Longman. Blamires, H. London: Routledge. Bowen, Z. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Burgess, A. An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce. Casado, C. Papers on Joyce. Cruse, A. Meaning and Language. An introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. Chamberlain, L. Gender and the Metaphorics of Translation. Kaplan Eds. The University of Chicago Press. HarperCollins Publishers. Comin, J. Estudios Ingleses de la Universidad Complutense.
Constantinescu, M. Ellmann, R. James Joyce. Emery, P. Translation, Equivalence and Fidelity. A Pragmatic Approach. De Laet Ed. Fargnoli, A. Gillespie, M. New York: Infobase Publishing. Gasset, J. The Misery and the Splendor of Translation. Miller Trans. Venuti Ed. London and New York: Routledge. Gallego, G. Sevilla: Universidad de Sevilla. Gilbert, S. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Gheorghe, C. Interview with Mircea Ivanescu.
Observator cultural, nr. Gibson, A. Gifford, D. Ulysses Annotated. Berkeley: University of California Press. Grove, G. A Dictionary of music and musicians A.
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By Eminent writers, English and Foreign, Vol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hervey, S. New York: Routledge. Ionescu, A. Garcia Tortosa Gen. Spanish James Joyce Society. Jakobson, R. Selected Writings II. Word and Language. The Hague: Mouton. Jones, F. Letter from James Joyce describing his writing process. British Library. With and Introduction by Declan Kibert. London: Penguin Books. Joyce, J. Klimkiewicz, A. Luczak Ed. XXXV: , pp. Lees, H. Latham Ed. Tulsa: The University of Tulsa. Lernout, G. The Reception of James Joyce in Europe.
London and New York: Thoemmes Continuum. Liiceanu, G. MacCabe, C. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan. Macrea, D. The Odyssey of Man. Masculinity in Ulysses. In Innervate Vol. University of Notingham. McMurren, B. James Joyce and the Rhetoric of Translation. Oxford: University of Oxford. Gold, P.
Sicker Eds. New York: Fordham University Press. Milesi, L. James Joyce and the Difference of Language. Osers, E. Translation Norms. Do they really exist? Translation Strategies and Creativity. New York: Thoemmes Continuum. Pecican, O. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Ecou. Ricoeur, P. On Translation. The Joycean Monologue. Stainer, J. A Dictionary of Musical Terms. Steiner, G. After Babel. Aspects on Language and Translation.
New York: Open Road Media. Revista Echinox. Vancu, R. Last Interview. Venuti, L. A History of Translation. Second Edition. Weissbort, D. The classical theatre will never be able to return to itself, unless giving the spectator the utopian sense of life that only a staged play could perform, not from a delusive perspective, but from a real and personalized perspective, giving a certain meaning to reality.
Being against the conservatory type, the authors put an end to all the theatrical conventions. They considered that it had to come to a point of changing the old patterns, of introducing new themes, new structures, new means of performing in the attempt of seducing and shocking the audience. Most of the dramatic texts focus on the plots about hard human existence such as racism, madness, suicide, sexuality, drug addiction and any type of abuse. The language is vulgar and slangy. All the dramatic texts when performed on stage invade the personal space of the people watching, who is now considered one of the characters.
It is not only the dramatic text that is taken into consideration, but the performance itself. The new type of theatre developed in Russia, Poland and Romania, giving specific projects Teatr. All were influenced by the verbatim dramatic style performed in theatres under the slogan of the in-yer-face.
The study intends to explore the importance of the Romanian theatrical project — DramAcum, as a new type of theatre and dramaturgy. Started during the nineties, this new theatrical current, known as New European Drama or New Writing, rejected all the old patterns of drama writing and performing and introduced new ways of theatrical expression with the purpose of continuously readjusting the image of reality according either to the new values or to the lack of them.
The message of this cruel theatre, as Antonin Artaud characterized it in his manifesto, was revealed on stage and it was meant to shock the audience not only through words but also through the settings and the acts of performing Artaud Most of the plays belonging to the new current generated certain reactions from the audience as well as from the critics mainly because such a discourse developed the uncomfortable tendency of invading the individual space. Based on themes such as madness, suicide, aggression, any type of abuse, drug addiction and sexuality, the new texts modelled the dramatic structures adapting them to the new manner of staging, more provocative for the audience.
Opposed to the previous manner of playwriting, in which case the text was considered a completed work, this time, the text is more a work in progress, whose development never ends. The language of the plays became an instrument of dynamic expression revealed on stage through voice intonation, all types of sounds, cries, gestures, movements, positions, reactions, all under specific light shades.
In other words, the aim of the new type of theatre was to create the metaphysics of the word, gesture and expression, but not by using metaphysical ideas or plots but by turning the theatre into a means of revealing true illusions. Thus this new theatre represented a possibility for dealing not only with all the aspects of the descriptive and objective external world but also with all the aspects of the internal world. The intention of these playwrights was to represent the April ; Crave — Traverse Theatre, August ; 4. Named in-yer-face, this unconventional kind of theatre21 did not allow the audience to sit back and contemplate in detachment but took it on an emotional journey.
More experimental than speculative and taping into more primitive feelings and smashing taboos, it forced the audience to react because it was no more enough for the theatre to be a vital necessity for playwrights and actors but also for audience itself Brook Staging private and intimate situations may lead to a strong emotional charge that could become more unsettling than the same experience in real life.
Such a play may be regarded as provocative because its content was usually expressed in blatant or confrontational language or stage images but, at the same time, because of its form Content and form became able to exhibit vulgar language, provocative situations and specific typology of characters23 in order to change theatrical sensibility.
The new kind of playwriting was called verbatim mainly characterized by its specific elements: aggressive language, violent scenes and social plots. The hot versions are performed in small studio theatres and use the aesthetics of extremism: explicit actions, heighted emotions, blatant language with the intention to make the experience unforgettable.
The cooler versions use several distancing devices among whom a larger audience, a more naturalistic style and a more traditional structure with the intention to mediate the disturbing power of extreme emotions generated by the theatrical performance. Sierz 13 22 The Elizabethan stage was more often used instead of the Italian one mainly because all the boundaries between the conventional space and audience were banished. Now, by placing the audience on stage or by setting the scenes in unconventional spaces, the performing space joined the space of reception.
The new typology favoured characters such as impotent fathers, abusive husbands or puzzled teenagers. Moreover, the text was written using the interviews taken by the author to real persons. Using the same manner of documentation, the new playwrights no longer adapt nor brush up the interviews. Furthermore, they reversed the process of writing: instead of starting with the theme or, at least, the idea of the future text, now they find a particular topic that may correspond to the interviews already taken.
In April the 15th , during a conference in Moscow, Stephen Daldry delivered an incipient theory of the method stating that one of the purposes of the documentation process is to lead the playwright to the theme, plot, characters and dramatic structure. A bit later, Royal Court Theatre together with British Council started to organize many international meetings, conferences and master-classes with the topic of the new manner of playwriting, promoting, at the same time, the new authors.
This fact had a great impact generating the foundation of many experimental groups gathering directors, actors and writers that chose the verbatim manner for their creative process. Similar to Dogma, these theatrical movements proposed a manifesto for their art whose main purpose was to reflect a dynamic society exactly as it is. The three major means of their artistic expression were docu-drama26, life game and interview on stage. Based on interviews, docu-drama represents an entire process of collecting information about real, ordinary people among whom the most interesting ones were the baggers, the soldiers, the disabled veterans, the possible suicides, the convicts, all the dregs of society and then staging these true stories sharing all the characteristic features that might be needed.
Most of times, the actors tend to improvise or to improve the story with facts from their real life. Things could be pushed even further with life game as a means 25 Dogma represents an avant-garde current of the European cinematography influenced mainly by the New French Wave.
The whole performance develops a draft containing only few specific directions more for individualizing the characters than for plot or conflicts. These means of theatrical expression introduced a new approach that placed the dramatic discourse reception in the position of a constitutive part of the whole process of artistic creation.
Although the rejection of any theatrical conventions and the preference for social topics that facilitate those true stories to be brought on stage, making the delimitation between fiction and reality more difficult to be distinguished, are the facts to be imputed to this new manner of playwriting as well as of directing and performing, verbatim turned to be essential for emphasizing particularly the moral intention of the new dramaturgy. Thus, in December , in Moscow the first festival of documentary theatre took place and it was later developed into a new project called teatr.
The most specific features of the Russian new dramaturgy correspond to the new aesthetic norms stating the in-yer-face naturalism, the vulgar language and the topics dealing with physical and psychological aggression, any kind of abuse and violence. In this respect, the Russian version of the new theatre proposed the one act play based mainly on dialogues and less on a narrative development of the plot that could be staged without any directing interventions except the basic ones. Almost in a similar manner, in Poland, the most important project of contemporary playwriting 27 On the other hand, a traditional approach to the same true stories might turn them into classical representations highlighting mainly the aesthetic aspect of the performance and thus losing the authenticity.
Rejecting any theatrical convention, their texts use a colloquial language and develop topics regarding the new capitalist system and its social effects: unemployment, immigration or distrust. Most of the plays written by Michal Bajer, Marek Kochan or Dorota Maslowska were meant more for reading than for staging. The same tendency involving the playwright into the theatrical production as well as the necessity of new theatrical projects was also identified in Romania, during the period between and All these three projects introduced new theatrical experiences by changing the perspective regarding the relationship between the author of the play and the author of the theatrical performance.
At the same time, Tanga Project denied the necessity of a theoretical basis and used its own means to develop and promote its theatrical productions while DramAcum defined itself as a theatrical alternative, similar to the other ones. Popovici 30 Under the slogan Build Your Community! It developed on stage real events and social experiences documented in Rahova-Uranus district in Bucharest. The new kind of playwriting was adjusted in order to correspond not only to the literary-dramatic strategies but also to the theatrical ones for turning the act of performing into reality.
All these plays abandoned the old patterns concerning the unity of time, place and plot development as well as the cause-effect logic offering instead a direct and individual intrusion of the actors into the process of theatrical construction of reality.
In doing so, the theatrical performance intended to reveal its main conflicts which thus exceeded the limits of the stage and entered the social field. Moreover, the play may function as an open discourse inviting the audience to participate in the act of performing as an equal partner. Reality was brought on stage using performativity as a necessary condition of this new kind on theatre. As a theatrical project, DramAcum was the first and the only artistic movement31 that neither was included nor depended on any public institution. Its aim was to develop and promote the local playwriting.
The first event was a play contest32 having the slogan: Ai o idee? Besides the play contest, which gathered six editions, the project extended its activity by becoming involved in the process of translation for lots of important contemporary plays and by organising workshops of creative writing or master-classes and conferences on topics such as new theatrical forms and concepts or documentary theatre.
Most of the representatives also started to write and direct their own texts. For all these authors the play was more a work in progress and less a completed work. This sort of theatre proved to be a theatre of contemporary society full of real characters telling their true stories that reflect the most important social concerns and problems. Staging a social conflict in a live performance, opposed to any theatrical frozen moment, may be interpreted as an open access to performativity for all the instances involved in such a process, from the playwright to the audience Popovici The concept of performativity could be regarded as a dramatic dimension of the text that is not necessary to be also identified on stage.
Needless to mention that, while theatrical dimension represents an open access for the actor to the fictional story which, in its turn, belongs to a meaningful reality, performativity may be translated as the search for a trustful sense to be assumed by both the actor and the audience. It is the performative act that shades light upon reality on stage.
A humour upsets the status quo, free, cruel, bold. The other important aspect of context is the intellectual one, on which we will spend a little more time. Le refoulement. Repression, perversion, libido, transfer. It is a consciously composed set of living images extracted from a subconscious state of repressed images. I have seen admirable drawings by the mentally ill. We shall return to this text in our discussion of hysteria in the next chapter. But this view was not to be taken up until the s, as we shall see below.
Un Chien andalou would not have existed if surrealism had not existed. But what can I do about people who are crazy for anything new even when the novelty outrages their innermost convictions, or a venal or insincere press, or about that pack of imbeciles who found beauty or poetry in what is, essentially, nothing less than a desperate, passionate appeal to murder.
What the three readings have in common is that they all recount the sexual development of a single hypothetical protagonist. Although he loves his mother, he also loves himself, seeking pleasure from his own body c. Then he turns to the Mother, trying to grab her. He reverts to infantile regressions when he remembers his schoolbooks; he rebels against himself and attempts to kill the ego which condemns him to remain a child. One day, a woman comes to see him: he does not know how to handle her, and makes fun of her the lipstick.
Another man calls her; annoyed, she throws herself into his arms. During the early s, Metz moved away from semiotic and structuralist approaches to a Lacanian-inspired psychoanalytical approach which was considerably more rigorous than the early psychoanalytical views. His desperation as a gambler leads his mother to comfort him as he lies in her arms in their apartment in Le Double Amour.
His desperation as a young lover leads Claudine to cradle him protectively in her arms in Claudine et le poussin Figure 3. Mareuil plays a young Parisian who stays with provincial cousins; she manages to arrange the marriage of one of them, while at the same time getting her own man. We saw her running across the mown meadows, playing hide and seek behind Parody and the avant-garde: Un Chien andalou the sheaves, chased round and round a tree by a boy from the village. In that respect, it is as if his persona has been split apart into two radically opposing poles.
It is the nature of that split that we will explore in the next chapter, relating it to the central image of the slit eye. In the extract quoted here, it is clearly being used in a very broad and loose sense. Ramain was a cinema enthusiast who had set up a cine-club in Montpellier in see Ramain , where he praised avant-garde cinema in moderation. Laurent Guido has explored the work of this writer in some detail Guido The public had been soiled by the reviews and disclosures of the avant-garde which itself applauds anything that appears to be new or bizarre. Part of this section has been previously published as Powrie Drummond was picking up on comments made by Randall Conrad in see Drummond 79, note He repeats this point word for word in Drummond where the release date for One Week is wrongly given as This point is reprised by Short Parody and the avant-garde: Un Chien andalou Other views are less functional.
Sandro relates it to the Freudian notion of narcissism Sandro 46 , Williams to the Lacanian notion of lack Williams —9. This will return us to issues of femininity, which we will analyse by focusing on masochism. Most obviously, there is the slit eye of the Prologue. This broader historical context has not prevented a wide variety of context-free interpretations arising, some of which we have alluded to in Chapter 7.
Un Chien andalou: Parodying Stardom Drummond reviewed a number of these in The slit eye could be a sexual metaphor for birth, or for masturbation, or for castration. It could also be a metaphor of reception for opening the eyes of the spectator. The Prologue may well be a metaphor, but it is a false metaphor, as Williams has shown. This serves as a purposeful disorientation of the rational and intellectual faculties, in keeping with the aims of surrealism, as Matthews had already argued in Such views have been well rehearsed by Drummond, Williams and Sandro, and reiterated more recently by Short.
He has too often been forced into roles that trade on his good looks.
Now he has shown us for the second time where his strengths lie. Et quel sens du tragique! And what a sense of the tragic! There is nothing false, nothing forced. His role, where he splits into two and even into three, required skilful performance. While varying his characters, he has managed not to dissociate them; he has maintained their fundamental unity, rather than giving us a series of sketches. If he had just been skilful, conscientious and cold, he would never have been able to create this fragmentary, layered and troubled hero.
Hysteria, as we saw in Chapter 3, was fundamental for the surrealists in this period. Hysteria was seen in this period as a female disorder, which raises the issue of gender identities as well. The sweaty proximity of dangerous desire rubs shoulders with cool, detached remoteness.
In dramas set in the present, he tends to wear formal suits, often tails; and in the historical reconstructions, he wears high-collared costumes. The suit is the most characteristic male attire in the modern period. We shall consider the connection with the feminine below, but here wish to explore the interface between formal and informal clothing, before looking at the ways in which Un Chien andalou plays with audience expectations.
This is because the open-necked shirt functions as a sign of the pin-up, the passive ephebic boy of Solomon-Godeau, or the equally static Sad Young Man of Dyer. He is drugged in the boat by the sailors, and drugged again by the Count; in both cases he is immobilised, made helpless under the gaze of more powerful men. The whole character returns dressed as he was in the cycling scene when he lies on the bed in the room to which Mareuil escapes from his more lustful double version 2.
And the clothes will return right at the end when Mareuil and the new sporty character pick them up on the beach, only to cast them away. We therefore have a range of costumes, all of which have the suit as their basis, but none of which is full formal wear i. It is this feminisation that we shall pursue in the next section. To put it more simply: the star has no identity, but is the absent centre of a circle constituted by his roles. Our exploration of costume has shown how his male attire is undermined in Un Chien andalou. The centrifugal and the centripetal coexist in a single convulsive event.
We have previously argued that masochism was intimately bound up with the surrealist project of achieving the Hegelian aim of the Second Manifesto, that of resolving opposites: The surrealist text, particularly the automatic text which depends upon the notion of automatism as a privileged form of access to the surreal, must gesture towards its own abolition in the surreal. The surrealist text gestures towards the surreal, indeed the surreal is brought to light by the text, but remains just beyond it, in idealist transcendence. The text itself can do no more than gesture towards the point where all opposites, including the opposites which constitute the surreal image itself, the verbal and the visual, will vanish in one apocalyptic transcendent moment.
That transcendent moment also abolishes gender distinctions.
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The moth has led to less commentary than the series just mentioned, most commentators assuming that it is a straightforward symbol of death. Le papillon en G. Close-up of the moth. Lacan draws a contrastive parallel between the stable Cartesian subject and the Lacanian subject on the one hand, and geometric or central perspective and inverted anamorphic perspective on the other. Anamorphosis leads not just to loss, but also to a loss of bearings for the spectator. In each case, however, we obscurely understand that whatever it is must involve something round and linked with hair or objects resembling hair.
It is both there and not there, seen and not seen, a destroyed eye, but a viewing eye all the same. The question then becomes one of location: where exactly is this object? First, the hidden-ness of the object is coterminous with the ruin of the subject. We are unlikely to care much what the painting is about. These functions words emanating from a mouth; the gaze emanating from the eyes are replaced by what the hair is supposed to indicate: yet another hole nestling invisibly beneath what has been construed as female pubic hair. We have arrived at much the same conclusion as Williams, although with some disagreement over detail.
It is therefore not so much that he has no gender or virility, but that he combines both. He can now disappear from the narrative because he has died and risen again as both man and woman. The fact that the vagina cannot be seen, as Williams reminds us, is none the less important. Hysteria and masochism are embedded in his roles from the beginning of his career; Un Chien andalou, we have argued, merely makes them more manifest through parody.
Both objects and subjects are in crisis. The circle that they try to create, both in their circulation and in their circularity, does not have a centre. It is, like the slit eye, emptied of humour, an orbit without a sun. Robert Aron had already pointed out this aspect of disorientation in , although dismissing it as mere play, like so many others we have already quoted; see Aron , translated as Aron This article shows how the split eye image can be found consistently in the work of surrealist poets at the end of the s.
See also Abel —6. Much sadder. See Powrie et al. Un Chien andalou: Parodying Stardom Indeed, it is no coincidence, we might argue, that the word role is connected etymologically to the idea of rolling, or wheels. This is because the moth has always been connected with death. See Foster and Tudor-Craig As can be ascertained by watching visitors in the National Gallery, London, tricked by the anamorphosis into a physical activity which they are unlikely to resort to in front of other paintings. It is curious, to say the least, in the context of this discussion that Lacan was the last private owner of this painting.
Where there are slight variations on that image, it would seem that audiences did not react favourably, as we shall see below. This was all the more the case when we consider the timbre of his voice. Unfortunately, the sound technology of the time did not allow for understated vocality. Not only are there too many of such scenes, but the chemistry between the actors is absent. Even more tedious is a long sequence with Valentine visiting her mother in the country. Part of the problem lies in his performance, which is unusually active for him. His performance is closer to the comic routines of Les Deux Timides, and it is possible that audiences reacted badly to the shift away from the melancholic and distant lover.
A second problem for a star known for his youthfulness was the denouement. Puis, brusquement. Then, suddenly, they are wrinkled and white-haired. Villette 5 The plot is so conventional and banal that the interesting elements of the direction sink beneath the platitudes. But it was unfavourably compared with Der blaue Engel Josef von Sternberg, , released in Paris only six months before. Le costume de la vedette est identique. Why does he show Bouchard the large sum of money when he meets him on the train? Where does he come from?
Where is he going? Jacques Varenne. These two actors, and especially the former, have understood what cinema is. Their performance — restrained, natural, simple — proves that intentions can be conveyed without undue exaggeration. It was made in multiple versions across the globe. As one reviewer of the French version commented in relation to the international nature of just the French Looking back Figure 9. Although the documentary aspect led to considerable praise, most reviewers were less impressed by the narrative. New York Times Compared with the documentary realism and the beauty of the photography in real locations, however, the narrative had no chance.
The bulk of the sequence is taken up with a discussion between Hamed and the European singer Arlette, to whom he is attracted. Hamed — Perhaps we are more civilised than you are. Arlette — There, I knew you were a savage. That, of course, is part of the point. Although this remains unsaid, he has not Looking back Figure 9. In both versions, the song is sung in French; we have provided our attempt at a translation below, trying to convey its melancholy. Reported in Pour vous 2.
His tragic suicide in April just after Baroud was a loss to the French cinema. We are using the dialogue from the English version. Caillois 5 If you play the Phantom, you will become a Phantom. In that respect, his persona came back to haunt him. We wish to take up the challenge, at least in part, in our concluding remarks. Two broad points made by Foster are of relevance for our purposes.
This is a reasonable objection, given that we have laid considerable store by an archivally based study, where cinema discourses are underpinned by other cultural discourses of the period. Foster himself is well aware of the objection articulated by Fotiade. Where he begins to resemble the found object rather more is in his mysterious otherness, the sign of a being-other, of a being-elsewhere, cryptic and dislocated. In that sense he can never be graspable or recoverable. That displacement, we might wish to argue, is a complex mix. It is the result of , a social and historical alienation, a beingdisplaced; but it is also an enactment, or performance of displacement, a selfalienation from himself and others.
This emerges in comments on his voice; some say he has a Russian accent, others not. It is, of course, entirely possible that spectators imagined a Russian accent where none existed, because this concurred with the otherness of his star persona. But it is not inconceivable that he played on his alienness, performing the border, acting out the cusp.
The only way to refresh the image is to convulse it, which is what Un Chien andalou tries to do. To be able to do so, it must use recognisable images, but reposition them within an unrecognisable context or narrative. In other words, the images are recognisable, but their context is not, thus doubly othering what we see. The two selves of Un Chien andalou are patterned on two of his main roles, that of the young lover and that of the rebel-criminal.
And that doubling underscores while excessively magnifying his star persona, which combines normality and a rejection of that normality. A second conclusion is that the doubling generates the feeling of the uncanny, that which is both familiar and yet also strange. The uncanny for Freud was a resurgence of animistic mental activity, something which he himself would not necessarily have valorised, unlike the Conclusion: Uncanny bodies surrealists.
That residue is both feminine, as we pointed out in Chapter 2, and convulsive. Time retreats; a character threatens his own past image with a revolver; space is obliterated for a dying man so that the slow motion agony begins within the walls of a room and ends under the trees. Bodies dress or conceal themselves, undress or dress again, covering themselves with hair or insects, according to the desire that impels them or the death that threatens.
And in order to defy even desire, the body suppresses its sensuality by prescribing a slobbering, impotent mask with sorrowful upturned eyes for the lover who caresses naked breasts and buttocks; Aron The dizzying dislocations of time, space and bodies are tropes of convulsion. That this could only be achieved in a convulsive moment of comic violence tells us much about the period, and also much about the nature of masculinity more generally. I had a lot of aristocratic Russian friends. Appendices 1. Family moves to Paris at 88, rue de la Convention, 15th arrondissement.
Claudine et le poussin shot. Claudine et le poussin released. Princesse Lulu shot. Feu Mathias Pascal shot. Le Double Amour shot. Le Double Amour released. Feu Mathias Pascal released. Le Bonheur du jour shot. Le Bonheur du jour released.
Pierre Batcheff and Stardom in 1920s French Cinema
Vivre shot. Vivre released. Les Deux Timides shot. Le Perroquet vert released. March: Les Deux Timides released. March-April: Un Chien andalou shot. Un Chien andalou opens. September-November: Illusions shot. October: Cover of Pour vous. October-November Monte-Cristo released. Le Roi de Paris released. Les Amours de minuit shot in Billancourt.
Le Rebelle shot. Baroud shot in Nice and Morocco. Baroud released. Pour ses beaux yeux released under title Amour. People are waiting in the port, turned towards the sea, a boat approaches, moors. On the quayside people say their last farewells. Sheet 2 Sheet 2 — Au loin le paquebot. Il donne une — The boat in the distance.
He gives an address that he reads from a scrap of paper. The cab stops in front of a hotel for students and travelling salesmen. On the threshold a boy is sweeping, half-asleep. The stranger asks him a question, showing his scrap of paper. The stranger nods. The boy gestures that he has left.
The stranger pauses anxiously, then picks up his suitcase and settles in the hotel. The camera sweeps along some streets, the front of some houses, which become increasingly poor. We are coming to the poor quarter. Dans sa mansarde Johan dort. Johan is asleep in his garret. He is wearing all his clothes, wrapped up in a blanket full of holes, his feet, his socks protruding, huddled up against the cold. In the street a baker abruptly lifts the iron curtain of his shop. Dans la rue on vide avec fracas les poubelles. He opens his eyes, fumbles mechanically for his glasses, then sits up and thinks.
In the street, the bins are being noisily emptied. Johan gets up, goes to the window and sits on the edge. The baker takes some fresh air at the door before starting work, his eyes following an old woman as she rummages in the dustcart with a hook. He went back without them, frowning to make himself look sharp. The inspector walked right past him, suppressing a smile. He had been recognised. Johan has tied his laces. Johan va sortir. He throws the paper away, pours water from a jug into the bowl, gets some soap. The soap box is empty. Disgusted, all he does is sprinkle the knees of his trousers with water.
A pale ray of sunshine has penetrated the garret. Johan is going to leave. But at the door he thinks better of it. In the street the sun has pierced through the mist and frolics in the hearts of those who are awakening. Johan breathes deeply the fresh morning air. The ray of sunshine warms him and he stretches up, whistling as he walks along.
In front of him sparrows play in the clear water of a Appendices moineaux. Before he starts, Johan drinks from his cupped hands, freshens his head; when he gets back to his bench, he sees that an old man has sat down, hungrily munching a sausage for his lunch. Sheet 7 Sheet 7 une saucisse. Johan le salue. His good humour gives way to dizziness.
Feeling sick he decides to go and write somewhere else. He is just about to go when he sees someone he knows approaching, an old man with a limp. Johan says hello to him. But the little man with the limp hardly nods in response. Justement un couple xxxxx1 de jeunes femmes passait. Furious, he goes back up the high street, when he hears behind Sheet 8 Sheet 8 lui le clopinement du boiteux. He stops, decides he is going to teach the man a lesson, and when the man with the limp passes he stares at him, without a word.
They shake hands and begin talking. Contre son gilet on lui remet une petite somme What a stroke of luck for the little old man with a limp, who soon starts snivelling, lamenting his fate, and ends up asking Johan for money. Well he will give him some money, let him just wait a moment. Without batting an eye Johan takes his packet, bows and leaves. He goes to eat his provisions on the bench in the square at the end of the High Street.
Les morceaux de pain et de fromage sont vite engloutis. He has left his pencil at the pawn shop. When he goes past them, he tugs the top of his jacket closed, to hide the dirty shirt and the tattered tie that are now in full view without his waist coat — Notes 1.