Overall, then, it seems that there is a tendency in German towards an increasing use of sentence-initial conjunctions, especially doch , at the expense of the conventional way of marking concession, such as conjunctive adverbs. That development can be observed in both translated and non-translated text. In that respect, the genre seems to have undergone a similar change to that found in popular science by Becher : — It also ties in with my observations on causal clauses in the business genre, where there is also a decrease in hypotactic constructions Bisiada : 22 , though hypotaxis is used more often to express causal relationships than concessive relationships.
In non-translated language, however, there is no sign of such a decrease, as the frequency of hypotactic constructions in is significantly higher in the comparable corpus Even in translated language, and despite the decrease in frequency they seem to undergo, there is evidence to suggest that hypotactic conjunctions remain a common way of combining clauses in this genre as translators introduce hypotactic conjunctions into their texts with increasing frequency.
As they are still used in two out of five cases, hypotactic constructions do not seem to be a marginal phenomenon in business writing, as they seem to be in popular science Becher : At the same time, there is no significant increase in paratactic structures on the whole, as only paratactic conjunctions are increasing.
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The decrease in hypotaxis may be explained by the phenomenon of sentence splitting see Bisiada When sentences with a concessive logical relation are split, a sentence-initial conjunction is the only feasible way to maintain the connection, and sentence-initial concessive conjunctions tend to be paratactic aber or doch. Thus, the decrease in hypotaxis does not mean that hypotaxis is unpopular hence its introduction elsewhere , but that sentence splitting takes precedence over concerns with logical connectivity. An explanation for the discrepancy between the two genres, which are similar in that they unite journalistic and scientific discourse features, may be found in the fact that the overall use of conjunctions in the source texts has decreased.
This phenomenon, i. English language users in the business genre seem to use fewer conjunctions to achieve text cohesion, may have prevented the notable increase in parataxis that was observed in popular science texts. More research is necessary to confirm this rather speculative explanation. Similarities between the genres exist in the use of sentence-initial concessive conjunctions, which has been found to be increasing in business writing as in popular science.
In business writing, the increasing use of sentence-initial conjunctions may have been driven by their frequent occurrence in translations, both as source text equivalents and where they were introduced by translators. The data show an increase in the use of the conjunction doch even where the source text clause complex does not have an overt concessive relationship.
By adopting a method of diachronic corpus investigation of translations and non-translations in popular science texts, this paper has aimed to replicate the findings in the business genre. It has found that German language users do not increasingly prefer paratactic over hypotactic constructions. Though the use of hypotaxis in concessive constructions has decreased more strongly than in causal constructions Bisiada , it continues to be used frequently.
What could be replicated is the finding that concessive conjunctions are increasingly used in sentence-initial position, mirroring current conventions in English. As the latter development has been shown to have happened first in translations and then in non-translations, existing claims that this change has been affected by translation can be supported.
While the influence of language contact in translation on language change is hard to prove, the findings discussed in this paper, at least as far as sentence-initial conjunctions are concerned, lend more support to the method of discovering such change through diachronic corpus studies. On the development of final though: A case of grammaticalization? Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Baumgarten, Nicole. Converging conventions?
Macrosyntactic conjunction with English and and German und. Writer construction in English and German popularized academic discourse: The uses of we and wir. Multilingua 27 4. Linguistic variation through language contact in translation. Becher, Viktor. Zur Interaktion von Form, Bedeutung und Diskursfunktion, — Berlin: de Gruyter.
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Convergence and divergence of communicative norms through language contact in translation. Bennett, Karen. The scientific revolution and its repercussions on the translation of technical discourse. The Translator 17 2. English as a lingua franca in academia: Combating epistemicide through translator training. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 7 2. Bisiada, Mario. Changing conventions in German causal clause complexes: A diachronic corpus study of translated and non-translated business articles.
Languages in Contrast 13 1. Applied Linguistics Advance Online Access. Damerau, Fred J. Generating and evaluating domain-oriented multi-word terms from texts. Edmundson, Harold P. Automatic abstracting and indexing—survey and recommendations. Communications of the ACM 4 5. Fischer, Klaus. Sprachwissenschaft 32 4. Satzstrukturen im Deutschen und Englischen: Typologie und Textrealisierung. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. Fitzgerald, Jason C. An analysis of causal asyndetic constructions in United States history textbooks.
Functional Linguistics 1 5. Hansen-Schirra, Silvia. Between normalization and shining-through: Specific properties of English—German translations and their influence on the target language. Cohesive explicitness and explicitation in an English-German translation corpus. Languages in Contrast 7 2. Hentschel, Elke. Deutsche Grammatik.
House, Juliane. Communicative styles in English and German. European Journal of English Studies 10 3. Linking constructions in English and German translated and original texts. Using translation and parallel text corpora to investigate the influence of global English on textual norms in other languages.
London: Continuum. Koller, Werner. Heidelberg: Groos. Kranich, Svenja. To hedge or not to hedge: The use of epistemic modal expressions in popular science in English texts, English-German translations and German original texts. Text and Talk 31 1. Translation as a locus of language contact. In Juliane House ed.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. A tentative typology of translation-induced language change. Changing conventions in English—German translations of popular scientific texts. Malamatidou, Sofia. Passive voice and the language of translation: A comparable corpus-based study of modern Greek popular science articles. Meta 58 2. Manning, Christopher D. Foundations of statistical natural language processing. Cambridge, Mass.
Mossop, Brian. Revising and editing for translators. Abingdon: Routledge. On paradigms and cognitive translatology. In Gregory M. Musacchio, Maria Teresa. The influence of English on Italian: The case of translations of economics articles. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Following norms, taking risks: A study of the use of connectives in a corpus of translated economics articles in Italian. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitet. Neumann, Stella. Assessing the impact of translations on English—German language contact. Stein, Dieter.
Folia Linguistica Though editing is certainly no monolingual activity the editors of the Harvard Business Manager say they always consult the source texts , the constraints it applies to the text are monolingual, based on readability concerns and house styles. Except where it introduces a verbless concessive clause or serves as a discourse marker rather than a conjunction see Barth-Weingarten and Couper-Kuhlen : His research focusses on the corpus-based study of translated discourse, and he has published on language contact in translation in causal clauses and sentence splitting.
He is currently working on a monograph on the effects of editing on translated language. Export Citation. User Account Log in Register Help. Search Close. Advanced Search Help. My Content 1 Recently viewed 1 Structural effects of Show Summary Details. More options …. See all formats and pricing. Online ISSN See all formats and pricing Online. Prices are subject to change without notice. Prices do not include postage and handling if applicable. Who are we and who are you? Volume 38 Issue 6 Nov , pp. Volume 37 Issue 6 Nov , pp. Volume 36 Issue 6 Nov , pp.
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