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By bringing both figures in, Francke addresses the benefactor, to whom the sermon is dedicated, as well as the students and preceptors trained and training in the orphanage schools. First of all, Francke points out that everyone is obliged to help the poor — the rich as well as the poor. In the account of Luke, the rich man is represented as rich. Der findet heutiges Tages mehr seines gleichen als Cornelius.

Francke adds other scripture references to give nuance to the point. The purpose of work has social implications, and involves saving and sharing with the needy. The problem is not wealth, nor accumulation of fi- nances, but how wealth is handled and the responsibility it brings. The rich and the affluent must acknowledge that their property belongs to God, who will hold them accountable for it. In fact, poor people are a way for God to test the rich, and discover if they have the right attitude.

This eventually leads to a detachment of fixed meaning, which is why the poor are not excused from social responsibility for others, although they are poor. In the account of the rich man and Lazarus, one of the reversals of meaning is that only the poor man is mentioned by name, the man of means is anonymous.

Times of hardship can occur, and then he is impoverished. The duty towards the poor is not only a mat- ter of donating funds, but a task which requires engagement. The poor are not only to be relieved from, but also taught how to overcome, poverty. Francke therefore addresses the authorities and reminds them of their re- sponsibility to help the poor to help themselves.

The following reminder is an interesting backdrop for the reform project, which was still, at the time of this sermon, in its initial phase. Dahin solte aber Christl. It does not suffice to spread the seed: attention must be given to how and where it is sown. Support is a means which must be administered.

Francke takes up another theme related to the biblical parable: the sarto- rial difference between the rich man and Lazarus: the first is well dressed, but Lazarus is naked. Francke seizes on this as an occasion to thunder against all forms of ostentation. It is commonly believed that one must dress according to rank, but where is this written in the Bible? Mercke es wohl, das ist unser Stand nach der Schrift 1 B. III, In this biblical light, all differences of status and vocation are flattened. There are no differences, the only thing that counts is sin, respect of God and social responsibility.

Franckes, , pp. The Acrobat 45 riding in the summer and sledging in the winter. Francke describes com- mon delectations, which are caused by the devilish state in man. Ja Thlr. A life of luxury or needless spending is compared to the life of the rich man, who neglects his duties towards poor Lazarus.

Francke quotes the entire passage of the Book of Si- rach —10, which advises a meek and mild attitude towards the poor. The last part of the sermon turns to the punishment of neglect and the reward for fulfilling our obligations. In the account of the rich man and Lazarus, a severe judgment is passed on the rich, who must endure the tor- ments of hell.

He encourages them to pay attention to their duties and consider in what way they could be supportive. They should not, however, think that he, their minister, draws benefit by their fulfilment of obligations. In the following passage, we see how he disrupts his own sermon with pre-emptive comments to his church parishioners. Und obgleich niemand unter euch die Hand mit anlegen wolte, so lieget mir doch das geringste nicht dran.

This self-protection, inflated with scriptural authority, against accusa- tions is of some interest. It disrupts the sermon and the explanation of the biblical parable, and introduces a conflict between Francke and his Glaucha parish. What is implied in this statement? If we suppose that the parishioners had the mind of Christ and were like Francke, what were they more precisely to do?

The burden of his sermon, addressed to the local authorities and the pa- rishioners, is that everyone is obligated towards the poor. The work in Halle combines charitable work with training, teaching, education, cultivation and supervision. HF 15, He explicitly states that he is not seeking support from his parishioners for his reform work. This is the exact opposite role of the Grosse Aufsatz, where he is keen to give his public a clear idea of the work and encourage them to take part in it. Francke does not care if his parish- ioners will help or not — but if they had the mind of Christ, the situation would be different.

This is not only a testimony of the conflict between him and his parish, it also shows the formation of another and competing eccle- siastical space outside the church. The new ecclesiastical space represents another way, another place and another method for the true believer to ful- fil his and her Christian obligation to the poor.

By fo- cusing on training and performativity, we become aware of the ways in which the believer enacts and displays his faith. I have also used the acrobat as a means to wrestle fixed concepts free of self-evident meanings. This act of stripping must however be followed up by redressing. The acrobatic believer must train himself devotionally while preparing to become a shepherd, one who guards and guides others.

The prerequisite and the objective of devotional life are intertwined. The acro- bat and the shepherd show different aspects of the same endeavour, namely to make feasible a transition from head to heart. The means and the stand- ard for doing this was the Bible, and to master it required linguistic, exeget- ical and devotional training. Francke had such training, and was keen to convey it to others. It also shows up in the way he managed his Lutheran heritage. Both Luther and Francke were inveterate readers of Paul, but with different epis- tolary preferences.

It furthermore gives the reader an idea of what the work does. Finally, it shows the collaboration between university and orphanage — comprising schools, charitable work, a manufacturing industry and business trading. All of this in three parts of uneven length and structure. It — or parts of it — did, however, circulate among a trusted circle of affluent and supportive readers. The title Grosse Aufsatz is a constructed abbreviation of the full title, which was used for the entire text as well as for the second part.

In Otto Podczeck issued a scholarly edition of the text, based on the diverse copies of an original manuscript lost in The revision of the text in allegedly prepared it for publication, but was never finished, alt- hough it was resumed in nor was the text ever published. The Entste- hungsgeschichte of GA is complicated, particularly because the text was never fixed in a published form, but existed in drafts made over a lengthy period of time. The A-version of of GA1—3. The B-version of , and covering GA1—3 but not entirely.

The C-version of comprising GA2 chapters The D-version of comprising parts of GA2 chapter 3. Jahrhundert, , p. Podczeck, GA, pp. It certainly resets the coordinates for understanding and studying GA. More of this will become clear in my analysis. I shall present a brief overview of the three parts of GA. Poor conditions in Halle p. Chance to accomplish much good, as demonstrated in Halle p. Attention to the acceptable time to do good p. Previously and partly begun parts of the project p.

Trust in the Lord fulfilling his work p. Duty of serving the neighbour with your talent p. To what extent timely goods may serve the work of the Lord p. By whom the proposed suggestions will be carried out p. Why the proposed suggestions in fact will not be a burden p. Submitting the work to divine direction p. GA3 Headline: The actual project: how the affluent can lend a hand to the work pp. How the Foundations can be supported in many ways p.

How the Foundations can be supported by loaning capital p. On conducting business p. How the capital will be handled p. On interest p. GA1 comprises 12 subsections marked by Roman numer- als. I have listed the subsections above, but I do not propose to go through them one by one, but follow their development and focus on five main themes.

Then I shall engage with the way es- chatology is applied as a means for reform. The third theme is on the readi- ness and compliance of the Christian believer. It presents the reform project, and details on which Francke elaborates in the two other sections. We are thus given a first impression of the organization of the or- phanage, but without details as to its large contours and industry.

The first part circles around the reform project and seeks to place it in the right per- spective, and thus give the reader a clear idea of what it is. He recognizes the work as given by God, and knows it is worth honour and praise, and consequently also that it is a safe investment. With this statement, Francke trusts his account to his supportive readers, and re- lies on them to see things in the right perspective.

Still, it is with hesitation that he makes his text public. He knows well of the worldly unease with his work, which is why he instructs his readers not to distribute the text, but to treat it with the utmost discretion and care. Grosse Aufsatz is thus not in- tended for everyone, but for a trusted circle. Francke wants to control the reading of his texts. He addresses an audi- ence, which is presupposed to be convinced and thus favourably disposed to the text with a right and sincere mind.

The reason that he has had reser- vations as to circulating his text is worldly malice. He had first put aside his project. Apoka- lyptische Erwartungen im radikalen Pietismus um , , pp. In PuN 8 , p. Erhard Peschke has remarked that the relationship between Mayer and Philipp Jacob Spener only be- came complicated after Mayer divorced his wife. Peschke, Streitschriften, xxii. For a fur- ther account of the distinction between Pietism and Orthodoxy, see Matthias, Ortho- doxy, pp.

He deplored the way the orphanage in Halle was represented and staged as if it were a holy place, and due to this exempt from criticism. These readers are from the outset on his side and therefore positively disposed to the re- form project, but this does not mean that encouraging directions are not needed. This description is worth bearing in mind, since metaphors of the flood recur in GA2, where corruption is compared to the destructive Old Testament deluge.

Flooding is the metaphor for both the threatening disaster and the means to prevent it; and thus an effective dis- course of Christian reform. Elaborating on how the reader can support the reform in Halle, Francke gives an example. The free table, the stipend system, is packed, and hun- dreds of students stand in line for vacant seats. There are more needy stu- dents than there are stipends, and the talented youth among the poor cannot study for want of cash. It is among the poor that the best pastoral candi- dates are found, Francke claims GA1, p. I shall begin by giving one or two examples of how Francke construes time management, and then move on to a discus- sion of pastoral eschatology.

He complains of the great number of poor and retarded students at the theological faculty. Instead of the God-given opportunity being seized, it is turned down. He often applies an apocalyptic drift, not to scare away but in order to dramatize his encouragements and admonitions. Since the work offers more opportunity to do good than is realized or real- izable, the paradoxical result is that precious time is constantly lost.

Francke compares the loss of time to a city set on fire. For the inhabit- ants time is urgent; once the fire spreads, fighting it will be useless. See the third part. Each of the seven angels of the seven churches represents a measurement of the prophetic and moral quality of churches. As we shall see, the metaphor of God opening doors combines an apocalyptic drift with pastoral care. Francke claims that the reader will be at- tuned to the them after having read the entire GA. He is, in other words, calling for assistance among his readers. He develops the argument further with two scriptural references.

The first is to the account of Moses and Aaron preventing a plague inflicted as a jealous revenge of the Lord: So Aaron took it [the censer] as Moses had ordered, and ran into the middle of the assembly, where the plague had already begun among the people. Saving time is ultimately a matter of saving life.

Francke maps the biblical words onto his own time and thus constructs a sense of urgency. The risk of losing time, daylight and working hours is not meant as a threat, but serves to encourage. Still, man must take responsibility and seize the opportunity to realize the divine initiative. The way in which Francke imbues time with urgency and uses it to ex- hort his fellow citizens to action and to seize the acceptable time, is a core element of time management and pastoral eschatology. The different versing is presumably influenced by Latin manuscripts. Both the Septuagint and the Hebrew Bible end Numb 16 at verse 35, whereas the Vulgate takes it up to verse Mose XVI.

The question that has arisen is, which terms are apt for rendering eschatological presence?

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On which premises are they based and which associations do they imply? Such a concept or rather use of eschatology is attested. It is found in the biblical literary and patristic texts. Since Pietists are known to be pre- occupied with close Bible readings, and to have the early church as a model for true and sincere Christianity, I find it relevant to highlight this pre- Augustinian context, when debating the role of eschatology.

The text is admonitory, and in the guise of an apocalypse. The theme is the life and identity of the baptized believer, who sins and is led to repentance and conversion. Hermas, the protagonist, is the repentant sinner who undergoes a repetitive process of conversion, which he endures in the company of different visionary or rev- elatory figures, such as the church in the figure of an old lady, who is reju- venating, and a shepherd or guardian angel.

Although the text adheres to the apocalyptic genre, it is not dramatic or visionary in the same way as for instance the Book of Revelation. Its apocalyptic and eschatological design serves moral purposes and reform. In his commentary to the text, Norbert Brox has a section on eschatology to which I shall refer. Brox, Hirt, pp. Certainly, many good and pertinent points are covered by this term, but for the sake of clarity, I intend to use different ones.

I shall now explain that decision: but to begin with a preven- tive remark, I do not discard the concept of chiliasm, but prefer other terms to describe the uses of eschatology in Halle Pietism.

GERMAN STUDIES: THE CLASSICAL ERA

In the seventeenth century, the term chiliasm or chiliast was much mis- used. The word was not only used to discern eschatological questions, it was also a phantom term applied by adversaries to denigrate their oppo- 20 Brox, Hirt, p. The appropriation of the Pastoral Letters furthermore shows a similar approach to es- chatology.

Scheider, Zukunft , pp. Gottfried Leibniz was well aware of this usage 24 and explicitly warned against it. Johannes Wallmann would probably agree with it, but he would use the term chili- asm to describe the rhythm and the tension between present and future. Hotson mentions that Leibniz support- ed the writings of Johann Wilhelm Petersen, whom he regarded as both simple and eru- dite. Hotson, Alsted, pp. Let us now summarize some of the ar- guments in that discussion.

This short phrase is the central nerve in the eschatology of German Pietism, and it can be interpreted with different accentuations. It covers both elements, he argues. Wallmann is sceptical: he therefore plun- ders the history of the Western Church from Augustine onwards to show that chiliasm is located in a salvific historical context which is by no means restricted to Rev ZThK , pp.

First of all, Spener was hesitant to use it, and Wallmann informs us that it would in fact be wrong to call Spener a chiliast. He attempted rather to redefine and moderate the term, Wallmann asserts. The point of the interreg- num is to postpone the day of judgement and generate a message of com- fort. His point is clear: chiliasm is an indispensable concept. It is not without problems, but it is worth defending. This is not the place to go further into the debate, which according to a short remark by Ulrich Barth was won by Wallmann.

Man steht jedenfalls mit Spener und der pietistischen Historiographie in Widerspruch, wenn man Spener unter die Chiliasten rechnet. To sum up: with or without the term chiliasm, the role of eschatology in Halle Pietism is characterized by a charged presence. If we call it chiliasm, we must bear in mind both the misuse and the contested connotations of the term. The concept of pastoral eschatology, which I have tried to reshape above is easier to relate to other concepts. Finally, the aim with pastoral eschatology is to find out how the es- chatology is constructed and applied in texts, and not whether or not it ex- isted as a set of concepts in the mind of Pietist writers.

Yet the expanding pro- ject, and his fundraising, fits ill with and contradicts such an apocalyptic prospect. It is nevertheless against a charged backdrop, as if the world were about to end, that he develops the call to reform the world. We run two risks if we label this chiliasm. On the one hand we might overlook the cir- cumstance that eschatology is here turned to account as a means or a smokescreen for promoting a project. On the other hand, it could lead to speculation about whether or by which eschatological concepts Francke is influenced, instead of focusing on how he constructs eschatological tension in his texts.

Es handelt sich um eine eminent praktische Hoffnung. Again, I would rephrase that: Francke contemporizes Paul in order to stage, and lend authority to, his reform project. He did not call upon Paul because of any shared eschatological concept. It was pub- lished the same year and republished in , and again in in more than 1, copies. Where applicable such points are indicated with reference to this article. See pp. Bessere Leute, bes- sere Zeiten; schlimmere Leute, schlimmere Zeiten. The Project-maker 65 The first verse establishes a stage for the present era, the second exhorts to action.

By merging two passages from Paul and turning a Greek participle into an imperative, he forges a rhetorical tool apt for exhorting to action. The use of eschatology as a means to reform is thus an intrinsic part of his exposition of the Bible text. Ac- cording to Francke, there is no diminishing of the eschatological tension, it is still applicable. The way he here contemporizes Paul is in a continuum with the other examples mentioned earlier. How the attempt to realize the divine kingdom impacts and charges the present era may differ.

This is the argument that I shall now pursue. The reference to Esther limps: Francke only quotes one part of a scripture verse and omits another. Thereby the emphasis is placed 43 Francke, Zeit, pp. See also Deppermann, Pietismus, p. The verse is from the Book of Esther , where Mordecai, her uncle, advises her to take action and prevent the anni- hilation of the Jews. It is illustrative that Francke uses the same verse of Scripture for his theology students in Idea Studiosi Theolo- giae He quotes a passage from the Bi- 44 Francke, Idea, pp.

Also sage ich euch auch! The passage from de Sacy adds to this a focus on providential guid- ance. Cap des 5. This is an ide- al Francke seeks to contemporize for his readers. Francke does not include this in his quotation, but both themes are important to the argument he goes on to present.

My references are from the online edition from , but the page numbers correspond with those mentioned by Peschke, GA1, p. De Sacy, Explication, p. Its ambiguity, being active and passive at the same time, is a strength, and both the prem- ise for and the purpose of devotional engagement. The reborn or acrobatic believer must be in a state of Gelassenheit and fight for it.

Mejrup et al. Case Studies, pp.

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Case Studies , pp. I shall attempt now to show how Francke constructs the state of active passivity in GA. It is both a premise for the devotional engagement and the purpose of it. The believ- er is responsible for being directed, and for directing others. In order to clarify the order between divine initiative and human support, Francke poses himself a question: when relying entirely on God, why then not leave it to God to take action?

GA1, p. In fact the believer is responsible for drawing attention to and involving others in the divine un- dertaking. Francke here assigns to man a precise task as an instrument and caretak- er of the divine estate. Francke elabo- rates on this collaborative responsibility with Pauline and Petrine verses. Without specifying any particular verse, he alludes to the eighth and ninth chapters in 2 Corinthians, where Paul encourages Corinth to give generous- ly e.

Another point Francke is keen to stress concerns giving and givers. To give generously is one thing, but it is most important to learn how to 58 I have earlier worked out this point in a jointly written article: Mejrup et al. This point is made with reference to 1 Peter. Francke connects his trust in God with confidence in his own competence as a director of others. The acrobatic believer is obligated to and socially responsible for others. Neither would he hesitate to give others a clear idea Vorstellung about their role in the divine enterprise.

In return, he would not have reser- vations as to taking the advice of others, as long as it served useful causes. Finde ich einen, der in der Welt vieles gesehen und erfahren, so suche ich mir seine Erfahrung zu nutz zu machen. The competence of directing others also involves directing those of worldly for- tune, which is the argument Francke goes on to elaborate. It relies on God, and only secondari- ly on mortal assistance. The theme of worldly negotiations reaches a cli- max in what follows, as Francke outlines his business plans. The theme is directly linked to GA3, which is even more elaborate and explicit about capital loans and commercial initiative.

Both sections were omitted in the later manuscripts,62 raising the question that Francke was perhaps too bold in wanting to combine commerce and trading with devotional reform. God can turn cash into blessings, and he may grant wealth as a gift. Furthermore, when the affluent benefactor becomes a sincere giver, he joins forces and becomes one of the true believers collaborating in Halle. The work is not promoted by wealth, but the proper use of wealth; not cash, but the congregation of people whom God has already blessed.

This congregation is important and it apparently needs a clarifying gloss. Indeed, when the acrobatic believers in Halle join hands with worldly supporters, the work becomes the more prosperous. Having established this link between outside supporters and inside acro- batic believers, Francke sees no reason why he not should go further. Why not take the advice of those engaged in commerce?

He would not run the business himself, but entrust it to others who have the skill and competence. Warumb hat er so viel Vortheile an die Hand gegeben, z.

Francke takes up the theme in GA3, and I shall pursue it further in that section. The reform project is locally situated, but orientated and aiming at universality. Francke mentions the advantages of his work, for instance how stipends in Halle are more useful than in any other place, since they provide nutrition for both stom- ach and soul GA1, p.

He also draws attention to the importance of the collaborators, who guarantee the high quality of the administration of the work GA1, p. The project is thus presented as a concrete object and a collaboration between God, Francke, the administrators and the affluent supporters. Pre-empting the question, what if the work falls into the hands of bad di- rectors? Francke reasons that this is highly doubtful, since his project is different from others.

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The benefit of his work is already present, and it will only augment in the nearest future. All invested capital will therefore turn out profitable. Francke here deploys a metaphorical language of sowing. The field and the act of sowing evoke biblical allusion, but there is no mention of the sower nor any explicit Bible reference. Since Francke distinguishes good soil from a field of thorns and thistles, he might be alluding to the parable to the sower in the Gospel of Mark —9 and — If this is the case, the variation of the biblical parable is done with a Pauline touch.

In the parable of the sower, the focus is not on the good soil, but on spreading the Gospel and the hardships of such a mission. Of the different places the seed is spread in the gospel account, only one out of four is prosperous. Here mention of the field is omitted, however.

The good soil is the reform project at Halle, the thorny ground is projects elsewhere. There is no sower here, but the sowing indirectly refers to the collaboration between Francke, his loyal co-directors and the affluent subscribers. He thus invites his reader to join forces and become the sower. He remembers a famous university with righteous and gifted professors and ministers, but which had no students. To do it the right way requires devout administrators and presupposes that the in- vestors understand the concept.

The sower, although absent in the quotation above, is one of the most prominent motifs figuring on items issuing from the orphanage industry. He appears in the emblem used on the impresa for the Orphanage Printing House. He offers a respectable and utilitar- ian enterprise cultivated in rich and fertile soil, and he gives several exam- ples to prove its worth.

GA1 has the function of an exordium, and the follow- ing parts take up the threads and themes introduced here. GA2 3. Like the early reform move- ments in the 17th century, German pietism strove to renew society through devotional reform of theology. The target of Chris- tian rearing changed from prince to preceptor. The reform was no longer expected to proceed from the Regierstand or be spearheaded by the worldly ruler. Instead reform was taught, nurtured and cultivated in and for and from the Lehrstand.

The project was not located in one church, but involved several de- votional sites spread out over a pastoral landscape with its main centres on the university campus and on the orphanage premises. This topographical spread is central to understanding Halle Pietism and its professionalization of pastoral care. The first part, presenting the main themes, is fol- lowed by a careful treatment of detail. The transition from the first to the second part is thus a move from the general to the specific, from the ab- stract to the concrete. Wiedergeburt und neuer Mensch 2, p.

The third chapter portrays the benefits of the tandem institutions, the fourth chapter their shortcomings and flaws. The fifth chapter gives advice on how to extend the work. My analysis follows this progression, not strictly, but with regard to the order in which the topoi are presented. These estates are not as fixed or predetermined as they might appear, but are open to modification and change. He does not mention that the flattening of societal differences was not uniformly handled in Pietism, nor that there is no consensus as to whether pietistic egal- itarianism is limited to the religious domain or reaches beyond.

Francke, as we shall see, expects a sequential impact be- ginning with the Lehrstand and proceeding to the others. Francke develops his ideas on reform in this vibrant societal framework. He presupposes a cer- tain social order and modifies it through discourses of reform. We shall see several examples of this approach below, but I shall begin by pointing to one of the most pertinent social modifications.

The increasingly popular stipend systems for university students at Halle had an impact on the Lehrstand and its new members. Cloister-turned-refectory The American professor of history Anthony La Vopa has investigated the role of refectories and free tables at German universities after the Reformation. Behrendt, Haustafel, p. Although elusive, it can be described either from the bottom or from the top, so to speak. It is what everybody knows, what does not have to be specified, what is thoroughly internalized, so that it is produced and reproduced without much fanfare.

La Vopa: Grace, Talent, and Merit, As the applicants increased, other kinds of work were found, especially recording lectures and sermons for future publication. The changes in the student body generated new challenges in regard to student behaviour and lifestyle; challenges which the universities had a pastoral responsibility to solve. The way the free tables were organized also 12 Vopa, Talent, p. It allowed clergymen including teachers a critical role, but was not under the direct and exclusive control of a clerical establishment. Hardly more than a token presence in the early years, theology students contributed Francke quotes the words of an anon- ymous writer, who laments over the worldly authorities.

In fact the above-quoted lines were omitted in the B- version of GA. Francke, Zubereiteter Tisch, , pp. Haustafel, pp. Podczeck GA, pp. The Project-maker 81 ads, voiced without quotation, generally concern all three estates, and espe- cially the Lehrstand. He compares the evil conditions of his day to the deluge, the only difference being that contemporary sin augments original sin. The decay of the present day thus looms large. Es wird aber von dem jenigen Verfall und Verderben geredet, davon die Schrifft saget, wenn sie spricht von der ersten Welt 1.

Mosis VI, 12 [ The first world was flooded, and this one is on the brink of suffering the same fate. Francke sounds the alarm, but instead of panicking, he believes that corruption can be overcome. Water thus signifies the threatening waters of the deluge and its antidote, the liv- ing water of the reform. The idea of fighting water with water is a classic biblical topos. The baptismal act, through water, saves the believer from the destruc- tive waters of sin.

The reform counters corruption with that knowledge, produced at the university in Halle and designed so as to spread out and encompass all territories and social spheres. Francke presents the Lehrstand as a threefold voice against corruption. The full choir thus com- prises Protestant devotional theology, the Bible and Catholic monasti- cism. Johann Arndt! Ludwig von Seckendorff Christenstaat! Ahasver Fritsch Aulicus peccans, Scholaris peccans, praeceptor peccans!

Joachim Betke Excidium Germaniae! Johann Valentin Andreae Christianopolis! Particularly formative for Francke were Arndt and Spener. The next voice, that of Jesus, is introduced by a number of scripture verses, which form a message that Francke elaborates in his text. He makes Christ the model for the struggle against moral neglect in society, and cites the commission to the apostles in Mt In Mt Jesus has compared the distressed and helpless crowd to a flock of sheep without a shepherd; and the disciples to harvesting labourers.

Francke brings the reference to 26 Such a combination is not uncommon: see part one. The Project-maker 83 Mt 9 and 10 into play with a heap of other references in a blend of para- phrase and biblical montage. Francke ties the Lehrstand to a range of scriptural verses, biblical desig- nators and the spiritual warfare against satanic powers.

The contours of the Lehrstand are thus nebulously defined; they are placed in a biblical setting and charged with the mission of being the salt of the earth. As in the present case, the heightened atmosphere is followed by a moral and comforting call for action, which smoothes the apocalyptic in- tensity. The reference to Bernard is a way of introducing a topos rather than en- gaging a particular Bernardine doctrine. The quotation may refer to this work, but it cannot be verified, as Peschke has pointed out.

Peschke, Auswahl, p. The same reference occurs elsewhere,30 and Podczeck sug- gests that Francke could have known it from Christian Hoburg. By evoking various voic- es of complaint and reform, he stages, authorizes and personalizes his work. This is the place where the pastoral apprentices are trained and edu- cated.

It is also the place where the roots of corruption are detected and weeded out GA2, pp. Francke describes untamed youth as a result of bad upbringing in private households. It is from here that reform is expected, as long as the institutions are selflessly administered and professors pay attention to formation and not just lecturing. Wenn [! GA2, p. Podczeck, GA2, p. We will see in part three how the Pastoral Letters were in- strumental in conceptualizing the long-term solution that would impede corruption.

In an elaborate jeremiad, Francke bemoans the uselessness of reform, if the root of corruption is not grubbed out. His reform offers a thorough treatment. We shall have a look at a particularly rich sentence, in which an abundance of flaws are mentioned, and the educational institutions com- pared to wild forest and mankind to misled cattle. Both the political and the educational authorities Regierstand, Lehrstand are mentioned here.

One of the main problems is caused by an administration staffed by bad employees. To Francke, the way justice is upheld by the worldly authorities does not sufficiently impede corruption. To punish criminals, burn witches and behead murderers does not improve society. The source of corruption must be completely destroyed, and the threefold vehicle is education, charity and work.

This pas- sage is a good indication of the focal shift in educational interests, of the motor of Christian rearing changing from prince to preceptor. Was it an orphanage, a seedling nursery, a planting school, a university annex or a factory of the holy spirit? These are some of the disparate terms applied to describe the reform. The variety of interchangeable concepts in- dicates the many facets of the work, and that it could be branded as serving charity as well as education. London According to Daniel L.

The Project-maker 87 God opening doors is a frequent metaphor in Grosse Aufsatz. These two institutions are closely related and both are pow- erful instruments for bettering society. Although God is the primary mover, man is an active collaborator, as we have already seen in the first part. His interest in personalizing the work increases in the later manuscript edi- tions. In the B-version of , four names are added,36 in the C-version of , seventeen more.

The increasing popularity and consolidation of the re- form in Halle brought with it more and explicit reference to names and fig- ures. The lamentations over moral decay, voiced by Luther and his associ- ates, is followed by constructive aspirations for the present day. For more details on the names mentioned see Peschke, SBH1, xiii. Barth, Luther-Francke, p. God has opened a door by planting the seed of the university at Halle.

Francke explains how the two institutions benefit from one another. The threefold cure for corruption is generated by means of collaboration between university and orphanage. The odd one out in this description is the church. This shift can be interpreted as a shift from doves to ea- gles — which chimes in with the words of Isa placed in the tympanum on the front of the orphanage building, to which we now turn.

GA2, pp. The Project-maker 89 was delivered at the end of , while the orphanage was being construct- ed. I shall not go into details, but will draw attention to a comparison Francke makes between Johann Arndt and an eagle. The same mo- tif was later applied in the orphanage tympanum, combining sun, eagles and the inscription from Isa In the preface to the SFA sermon collec- tion of , Francke makes further ornithological remarks regarding doves and eagles.

The church in Glaucha was 42 I have earlier worked out some of the points that follow in a jointly written article. Where applicable such points are indicated with reference to the appropriate article: Mejrup et al. The sermon was preached on December 27, in Glaucha.

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I have earlier worked out this point in a jointly written article, Mejrup et al. I have earlier worked out this point in a jointly written article: Mejrup et al. Case Studies, p. This way of reforming the church by pastoralizing the surrounding landscape is efficient. It lends immunity from accusations of subversive and unorthodox teaching. Francke is not estab- lishing a new church or sect, and while remaining within the confines of the old church, he vindicates the advantages of the new field of the univer- sity.

The collaborative work of orphanage and university inescapably had im- plications for the church. Indeed the project professionalized the concept of church reform by investing, not primarily in the parishioners, but the future pastors. By changing them, the churches would be reformed. They must learn how to keep track of the way that providence forms and guides them. In this section I shall turn to the written accounts of the reform project, and how the act of writing was instrumental in the re- form.

By the time Grosse Aufsatz was written in Francke had become a master in presenting his reform project. A number of written accounts had been made, by him and by others. This account was written, in a time of crisis, for a broad audience and launched as a defence of the reform in Halle. Deppermann, Pietismus, pp. That it is a divine enterprise is shown by the logging of providential acts. Francke encourages diary writing and a specific technique for it. The writer must record day-to-day events, without emotional ado, in order to at- test to himself and posterity how or indeed whether his life is directed by providence.

I am not sure what to make of the enormous paper archive generated in the reform project at Halle, but this much is certain, that Francke and his colleagues could not have written it without the aid of a rationally designed system of student scribes. The method was carefully devised. A group of 8 to 16 students would take turns recording the spoken word in lectures, ser- mons and edifying discourses.

Each scribe had a notebook, which after the session had ended were collected by the inspector of the free tables. He would then pass the notebooks on to another group of student scribes, who would turn the piecemeal text into a consecutive whole. Indessen wird ein ieder den Nutzen davon finden Es hat dasselbe auch bey dem Ausgang des Jahrs seinem Nutzen.

Aber wenn einer ein diarium hat, so wird es ihm dadurch erleich- tert, da kan er alles wieder finden, was von Tag zu Tag vorgegangen ist, und ist ihm hernach eine Lust und Freude wenn er das wieder nachseyen kan. They would go to the church in Glaucha on the outskirts of Halle and approximately metres from the orphanage, where Francke pronounced a good part of the sermon published in in the SFA collection.

These sermons were later in the EP sermon collection of When he embarked on his Reise ins Reich, a team of student scribes journeyed with him. The sites were many and the preaching and lecturing activity constant. This all adds to the impression of countless words spoken, recorded, edited and published. I have here outlined a tour following Francke only. Other of his associ- ates and colleagues applied the same method.

Er hat auch mit etlichen Studiosis den Anfang gemacht die Predigten des Hrn. Chemnitz, ein ge- wesener Fendrich, ihm an die Hand gegeben, welches auch nachher eine weise wor- den. Rambach is particularly inter- esting because he is a second generation Pietist, which in this context means that he had a double experience with the scribe system, first as a student scribe, later as a speaker. It also adds to the impression that the act of writing was a way of being written, of having the meaning impressed or inscribed upon oneself.

The scribe system had a multitude of functions. First of all, it was a way for students to earn a seat at a free table. It was also a rational invention which served the double purpose of keeping students preoccupied during sermons and lectures and getting the words intended for a broader public recorded. The scribe system equally served the purpose of documenting the devotional activities in the pastoral landscape, not only in times of pros- perity or to log the input from providence, but as a resource if criticism against the reform project should arise.

True account Let us return to Grosse Aufsatz. It was probably distributed together with GA. It is nevertheless noteworthy, al- beit not a coincidence, that it chimes in with one of the themes of GA by highlighting the special relationship between professors and students at Halle. Herrnschmidt describes the arrival of students in the following way. This way of interrogating and keeping track of students is an expression of interest and care.

It is this that Francke complained was missing at uni- versities. Herrnschmidt too interpreted the interrogation positively. Yet two years separate them, which is why Francke seizes the chance to bring the latest development up to date. Kramer, Lebensbild 2, pp. It was around this building that the cluster of schools and manu- facturing workshops were established. From this centre a large and increas- ing establishment emerged, as we see in the following description.

Weinberge, welche um 3. Tausend und Zwey freye halbe Hufen Landes sind dem Waysenhaus geschenckt. Auch sind 3. In dem neuerbauten Waysenhause selbst, welche corpora denn, wie der Augenschein zeiget von guter Wichtigkeit, und nunmehro als ein gutes capital des Waysenhauses anzusehen sind GA2, pp. The aim of all this industry was for the reform to become self-supplying. The many sets were used for putting out Bibles and devotional literature in different languages, the production of which combined philological knowledge, assiduous work and a missionary aim.

The gardens, slaughterhouse, barns and farms lent weight to the ambition 62 GA2, pp. Jetzo wird der Psalter Davids nach der Ordnung, und zwar jedesmal ein gantzer Psalm tractiret, und darinnen sonderlich auff Christum als den Kern der Psalmen gewiesen. He explains that by hav- ing a manor of its own, the orphanage could become more self-sufficient and would have the space and the material for training orphans in agricul- ture.

Francke narrows his horizon and zooms in on nine selected places GA2, pp. He reuses the selection elsewhere: in the fourth chapter it is used to point up the flaws and imperfections of the work GA2, pp. The symmetry of the list adds to the idea of a correspond- ence between map and function: the orphanage is placed in the middle with four places on each side. Numbers 6, 7, 8, and 9 relate to schooling, social care and discipline. Further appropriation was prohibited by Friedrich II in Bartz, Wirtschaftsethik, p. The Project-maker 97 training. Each of the nine places is worth a chapter of its own.

Here I shall focus on the Collegium Orientale Theologicum, the Seminarium Praecep- torum and the Extraordinairen Freytische, since these three collegia for scholars and preceptors epitomize the tandem work between the orphanage and the university, and the effort to improve the Lehrstand by training pas- tors. The number of students employed as teachers or scribes, thereby earning meals in the refectory, was steadily increasing. The development of the stipend system was also an evolving innovation and specialization of the training of teachers. For preceptors, an additional curricu- lar burden other than Bible reading was required, namely instruction in teaching.

I shall come back to this, but first let us see how the system de- veloped. It offered refectory seats for 24 students and 12 orphans, placed at two tables. At the end of the free tables moved into the small dining hall in the orphanage, and in , twelve years later, it was removed into an edifice which extended the orphanage. The reform moved from doves to ea- gles. Francke designed a new free table college in , the Seminarium se- lectorum praeceptorum Selectorum , which ran parallel to the already ex- isting one.

The idea was to hinder the trained and capable preceptors from leaving Halle immediately after ending their studies. The members of the selectorum therefore signed up for a five-year period: two years of educa- tion and three years of teaching service after ending their studies, mainly in the Latin school and the Paedagogium Regium. The Selectorum specialized in training teachers for high level schools, and shows an increasing professionalization compared to the ordinary college. Further specialized was the Collegium Orientale Theologicum which was designed to train candidates for the university.

See also Kramer, Lebensbild 1, pp. The Project-maker 99 mostly students of theology. It was designed in a way that secured continuity. Each of the twelve students thus had to sign up for a period of four to six years and find a competent replacement if they left before time. Halle , Jerem. Podczeck, Orient, p.

Kramer, Lebensbild 1, p. It was thanks to the effort of Michaelis and his nephew, Christian Benedict Michaelis — , that the col. Podczeck, Orient, pp. Professori Tribbechov. Professor Michaelis und H. Studiosis, und gutentheils Magistris unter der Auffsicht des Professoris L. In order to become a college member, one had to master Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and be acquainted with oriental languages such as Aramaic, Syriac, Samarian, Arabic, Ethiopian, Rabbinic. The members should cursorily read through the German Bible in three months; the Old Testament in Hebrew once a year, and the Greek New Testament thrice a year.

In order to secure that the members did not lose touch with praxis, they were encouraged to give catechism lessons in the orphanage schools. He must be like a tall tree reaching upwards but with long branches hanging down offering assistance and fruit to the weak who have no ladder. From four to seven, the members were occupied in exegetical and philological analysis of Old Testament texts and translations; from seven to eight followed an hour of cursory reading of the Old Testament in the ver- nacular; the hours from eight to twelve were free for the members to fre- quent lectures at the theology and the philosophy faculties or give catechet- ic instruction.

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From five to seven in the afternoon, they compared the He- 79 Quoted from Podczeck, Orient, p. The Project-maker brew manuscripts. The programme was modified, and the report from autumn to spring attests that all objects were accomplished. We know from oth- er sources that the story of the five Greeks turned out differently than had been planned.

He strongly advised Francke, for instance, to cut down on the language requirements. Podczeck, Orient p. Podczeck informs us that the hour of cursory reading of the Bible from 7—8 in the morning replaced the original requirement that each student was to read the Old Testament in Hebrew once a year and the New Testament in Greek thrice a year. See Kramer, Lebensbild 1, p. He saw the college as a chance to es- tablish an evangelical missionary institute. In the later chapters of GA2, Francke mentions the shortcomings of the college and how his supportive readers could add to it.

First of all, he wants to increase the membership from 12 to 15, and supply them with books and travel stipends to Holland and England. He also mentions that other nations than Greece could benefit from exchanging students with Halle GA2, pp. The Oriental college did not however develop as planned, and the number of members kept declining. In the five remaining mem- bers had as their sole task the scholarly edition of the Hebrew Bible. What price the poor?

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