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If we just look back over the past several years, we see that Russia has done the following:. The cumulative effect of these export transactions can work great changes in world security. Millions of people in South Asia now face the risk of sudden annihilation because India and Pakistan — presently on the brink of war — possess nuclear weapons. India and Pakistan also have missiles that can deliver nuclear weapons. The missiles too were built with help from China and Russia. It is simply a fact that Chinese and Russian exports have made the dispute over Kashmir far more dangerous.

Russia is also a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement. In , China pledged not to assist unsafeguarded nuclear facilities.

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And according to the CIA, China has pledged not to transfer missile items covered by Category One of the Missile Technology Control Regime and not to help any country develop a ballistic missile that could deliver nuclear warheads. Unfortunately, neither of these countries has a good record of keeping its word. The United States has applied sanctions to Chinese and Russian firms many times. The problem is that the bad behavior is still going on. On May 16, the State Department announced — once again — that it had decided to punish a number of Chinese companies for fueling weapons proliferation.

Seven companies and one Chinese individual were listed for selling Iran items useful for making weapons of mass destruction.

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According to the press, Iran got components for cruise missiles, as well as glass-lined equipment for making chemical agents. The most surprising thing about the list was that it contained a number of repeat offenders. The State Department had already punished three of the companies and the individual for similar offenses before. And a fourth company on the list was indicted for export offenses in To anyone familiar with these companies, it is obvious that they have become scofflaws. The question is: what are we going to do about it?

They are forbidden to sell goods to the federal government, or receive aid from it, or buy arms from the United States, or buy items that are controlled for export under the Export Administration Act. These restraints, however, are not much punishment. The companies are still free to buy as many high-performance American computers or machine tools as they want, so long as the computers and machine tools perform at a level just under the level controlled for export. CNNC would be the key player in any nuclear cooperation agreement that might be implemented between the United States and China.

If the question is: What happens to a Chinese organization that helps Iran prospect for uranium and helps Pakistan make nuclear weapons? The answer is: Westinghouse and the Clinton Administration try to find a way to sell it American nuclear technology. In addition to these specific cases, there are patterns of supply. These too are well known.

Iran's Continuing Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction

In I discovered, and wrote in the New York Times , that the United States had caught China exporting poison gas ingredients to Iran, and that the sales had been going on for at least three years. The State Department sanctioned the front companies that handled the paperwork, but did nothing to the Chinese sellers for fear of hurting U. In , the press reported that China was sending entire factories for making poison gas to Iran, including special glass-lined vessels for mixing precursor chemicals.


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The shipments also included tons of chemicals useful for making nerve agents. The result is that by now, in , China has been outfitting Iran with ingredients and equipment to make poison gas for at least five years. When I spoke to U. They said that the poison gas sales had continued to the present time, unabated.

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The studies contained all the legal and factual analysis necessary to apply sanctions, but they have lain dormant since then. The State Department has chosen not to complete the administrative process because if it did, it would have to apply sanctions and give up its engagement policy. At present, the sanctions law is not achieving either deterrence or punishment, as Congress intended. This lack of an American reaction has encouraged China to harden its position. China is now saying, explicitly, that it will not even talk to us about missile and chemical proliferation unless we are willing, at the same time, to discuss restraints on our arms sales to Taiwan.

And to make matters worse, the Chinese are beginning to complain about our policy of providing theater missile defenses to countries like Japan that might be vulnerable to Chinese missile attacks. The Chinese say that this is another form of missile proliferation. In addition to poison gas technology, China is also helping Iran in the nuclear domain. China has agreed to sell Iran a 25 to 30 megawatt nuclear reactor, which is an ideal size for making a few nuclear weapons per year. And China has also agreed to sell Iran a plant to produce uranium hexaflouride from uranium concentrate.

The hexaflouride plant is essential to enrich uranium for use in atomic bombs. Bombs fueled by enriched uranium have become the holy grail of developing countries trying to join the nuclear club. Such bombs are easier to make than those fueled by plutonium because uranium is easier to work with, less toxic, and easier to detonate with confidence that a substantial nuclear yield will result. Iraq was close to making a uranium bomb when the Gulf War began.

The first bomb ever dropped was a uranium bomb that the United States released over Hiroshima without having to test it. There is no peaceful use for enriched uranium in Iran. Enriched uranium is used to fuel reactors, but the only reactors in Iran that could use such fuel are being supplied by Russia, which is also supplying their fuel. The conclusion has to be that Iran wants to use this plant to make atomic bombs. The fact that China is even considering this deal shows that China is quite ready to put nuclear weapon-making capability into the hands of what the United States regards as a terrorist nation.

These two sales have not been finalized. In effect, they are being held over our heads like swords. This is essentially nuclear blackmail. In this case, the sweeteners were a centrifuge plant to enrich uranium, a megawatt research reactor, tons of natural uranium, and training. The centrifuge plant was canceled; the training is apparently going forward; the status of the research reactor and the uranium is unclear. This deal too included some blackmail.

The enrichment plant would only serve to make nuclear weapons, for the reasons I have already stated, and the same is true of the natural uranium. The research reactor would have been ideal, like the Chinese one, for making a bomb or two per year. Minatom, the Russian Nuclear Energy Ministry, was quite prepared to supply all of these items. Both China and Russia are helping Iran make missiles.

This case is the subject of one of the studies that is now languishing in the State Department. In February of this year, the Washington Times reported that Russia had sold Iran plans for building the 1,mile range SS-4 missile, together with guidance components, and that U. If this report is true, it could help Iran take an important step forward in its nuclear missile program.

According to the Nuclear Weapons Databook , the SS-4 is a single-stage, liquid-fueled missile capable of carrying a one megaton nuclear warhead. Its diameter is 1. The larger diameter of the SS-4 would allow Iran to mount a much larger warhead, thus reducing the problem of miniaturization for a first-generation nuclear device. In this case, the sweeteners were a centrifuge plant to enrich uranium, a megawatt research reactor, tons of natural uranium, and training. The centrifuge plant was canceled; the training is apparently going forward; the status of the research reactor and the uranium is unclear.

This deal too included some blackmail. The enrichment plant would only serve to make nuclear weapons, for the reasons I have already stated, and the same is true of the natural uranium. The research reactor would have been ideal, like the Chinese one, for making a bomb or two per year. Minatom, the Russian Nuclear Energy Ministry, was quite prepared to supply all of these items. Both China and Russia are helping Iran make missiles.


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  • This case is the subject of one of the studies that is now languishing in the State Department. In February of this year, the Washington Times reported that Russia had sold Iran plans for building the 1,mile range SS-4 missile, together with guidance components, and that U. If this report is true, it could help Iran take an important step forward in its nuclear missile program.

    According to the Nuclear Weapons Databook , the SS-4 is a single-stage, liquid-fueled missile capable of carrying a one megaton nuclear warhead. Its diameter is 1.


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    • The larger diameter of the SS-4 would allow Iran to mount a much larger warhead, thus reducing the problem of miniaturization for a first-generation nuclear device. Dubai is an example. These companies are legally off-limits to American exporters because of the U. The U. Commerce Department has never published a list of Iranian companies operating in Dubai. And because Dubai has no effective export control system, there is nothing to prevent these supercomputers from going on to Iran or anywhere else.

      Iran now imports more goods through Dubai than through its own ports. By selling him what he wanted, we would bring Saddam into the mainstream of nations. Sanctions would only hurt American exporters and allow the Europeans and the Japanese to get all the business. It is now clear what that strategy produced. The United States was lucky.

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      The United States now maintains a complete trade embargo against Iran, but our European allies have refused to join. They have refused in part because they want the export earnings, but also because they regard the U. They justly observe that the Clinton Administration, while giving lip-service to arms control and nonproliferation, routinely subordinates these objectives to commercial interests. The Administration decided at the outset of its tenure to promote U. In fact, most of the countries that worry Washington are interconnected, so the failure to confront proliferation by one usually means there will be a failure to confront proliferation by others.

      I believe that Iran will acquire nuclear weapons within the next ten years unless something intervenes to stop the current effort. If the Gulf War had not intervened to stop Iraq, Saddam Hussein would have had nuclear weapons by now. Iran is believed to have obtained about 60 of the missiles, which are capable of destroying a warship, and could also pose a significant threat to commercial shipping in the Gulf. Iran reportedly tested a shore-launched C in December It is a long range, sea-skimming, multi-purpose anti-ship missile, powered by a turbojet engine.

      It can be deployed on warships, coastal bases, and aircraft. It can carry a warhead at high subsonic speed Mach 0. The smaller C has a range of 40 kilometers and can also travel at high subsonic Mach 0. China Precision Machinery was sanctioned by the U. Exports: U. Comments: According to U.

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      Naval Intelligence, Iran recently acquired this tactical air surveillance radar from China. It can provide long-range tactical surveillance as part of an automated tactical air defense system. It can detect targets up to kilometers away and at altitudes up to 75, feet, even when subjected to high electronic clutter or jamming.

      The system also provides automatic tracking and reporting of up to targets. The Institute designed and developed the Tokamak in the mids and successfully operated the unit for 10 years, after which it was transferred to Azad. In addition to supplying Iran, the Academy has helped develop the flight computer for the Chinese DF-5 intercontinental missile, which can target U. In the nuclear field, the Academy has developed separation membranes to enrich uranium by gaseous diffusion, and its Institute of Mechanics has studied the effects of underground nuclear weapon tests and ways to protect against nuclear explosions.

      It has also studied the stability of plasma in controlled nuclear fusion.