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The final key component of the NFACC Code development process is the public comment period whereby the draft of the Code is made available online for 60 days. For the equine Code, approximately individuals and 24 organizations provided submissions. The CDC was very pleased with the diversity of stakeholders who provided valuable input. Feedback was discussed by the CDC during a two-day meeting and the input informed final changes to the Code. Balanced in the context of feed : a term applied to a diet or ration of feed that has all the known required nutrients in the proper amount.

It involves a physical palpation and visual assessment of specific anatomical sites that are most responsive to a change in body fat. A body condition score is the value assigned to individual equines from the body condition scoring scale. Box stall : a confinement area where horses are kept loose not tied when housed indoors in a barn or stable. The term colic can encompass all forms of gastrointestinal conditions which cause pain as well as other causes of abdominal pain not involving the gastrointestinal tract.

Concentrate : a feed used with forage to improve the nutritive balance of the total ration e. Creep feeding : the practice of using a creep feeder, which is a feeder designed so that foals can eat concentrates, but older horses will not be able to access the feed. Primary contributing factors to the development of EMS are genetics and the quantity and type of feed. Exercise : for the purpose of this Code, exercise refers to any indoor or outdoor physical activity for horses including, but not limited to, riding, lunging, walking in-hand and hand grazing.

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Foal : the offspring of a horse or other equines from birth to weaning and under one year old. Forage : bulky feeds such as grass or hay; can also refer to the act of foraging eating hay, grazing pasture, browsing. Geriatric horse : for the purpose of this Code, geriatrics are ageing horses that need specialized care. Horses are generally considered to be geriatric when they are years of age or older. Gestation : the period of development of the fetus from conception to birth. Hay : grasses or herbage especially cut and cured for animal feeding. Haylage : Feed that was cut as fresh forage and that has been chopped and stored at relatively high moisture content.

Haylage undergoes a similar fermentation process as silage. See also silage. Fatty substances accumulate in the blood and infiltrate the liver. The syndrome can affect any equines although donkeys, ponies and miniature horses are at greater risk. Knowledgeable and experienced horseperson : For the purpose of this Code, this refers to people who have knowledge of a given topic or have successfully managed horses relative to a given topic.

Lameness can manifest as a change in performance or willingness to move, head nodding or hip hiking. Laminitis : inflammation in the foot specifically the sensitive laminae connecting the hoof bone and the hoof capsule that may result in severe pain, abnormal foot growth, and lameness.

Also known as Founder. Non-ambulatory : an animal that is unable to stand without assistance or move without being dragged or carried, regardless of size or age. Paddock : a small, fenced-in field or enclosure with varying surface terrain where horses are kept or exercised. Parturition : the act or process of giving birth to the foal also referred to as foaling. Pasture : a large, fenced-in area where horses are kept loose and can graze. Pelleted feed : feed that has been ground and processed to produce a pellet shaped feedstuff. Reinforcement : positive or negative reinforcement are training terms that refer to anything that will make a response from the horse more likely in the future.

Silage : succulent, moist feed from forage, corn or other crops that has gone through a process of fermentation that helps it stay free from spoilage. Stallion : an adult male horse that has not been castrated and is typically kept for breeding. Stereotypy : formerly referred to as a vice, a stereotypy is an abnormal behaviour that serves no apparent function and is performed in a repetitive, invariant way. Section 6. Soring : the practice of inflicting pain on the limbs of a horse for the purpose of accentuating its gait.

Note: this practice is not acceptable see the Requirements in Section 6. Teeth floating is necessary because the teeth of horses continue to erupt from the gums until horses are approximately 17 years of age. Thermoneutral zone : a temperature range in which animals do not have to expend any additional energy to maintain normal body temperature. Tie stall : a space in a barn or stable where horses are tied when housed indoors.

Also called a standing stall. Turnout does not necessarily mean the horse is grazing. Horses, donkeys, and mules can live for 30 years or longer. Ownership of these animals can be a great pleasure, but it is also a significant responsibility associated with a long-term commitment of time and money. Owners and staff have a duty of care for the animals they are permanently or temporarily responsible for. A parent or guardian of a minor needs to take responsibility for any animal that is owned or cared for by the minor. In this case, it may be advisable to have a written boarding contract in place.

Responsibility for an animal includes having an understanding of their specific health and welfare needs, and having the appropriate knowledge and skills to care for the animal. Those responsible will also have to comply with relevant legislation and be aware of the Requirements and Recommended Practices in this Code. They should also know when to seek advice from a knowledgeable person. Donkeys and mules need the same good animal care for their health and well-being as do horses. Key points about specific animal care needs of donkeys and mules are included throughout this Code and are summarized in Appendix F.

Owners must have the resources for and knowledge of the basics of care as stated in this Code and ensure such care is provided.

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Principle caregivers must be familiar with and provide the basics of care as stated in this Code. What are the costs? The costs vary but can be substantial. The cost of purchasing a horse will be less than the ongoing costs associated with its care. What type of horse is appropriate? In the context of your skill level and intended use for the horse, evaluate what breed, sex, age, level of training, and temperament will be most appropriate.

Children and novice owners may benefit from buying a horse that is already well trained or that has experience in their intended discipline. How much time is needed? Consider the time commitment for daily care e. How and where will the horse be kept? Suitable off-site accommodation needs to be available unless there is suitable accommodation on the home property.

What skills and knowledge are required? All persons responsible for horses must have good working knowledge of their feed and water requirements, stable maintenance, signs of ill health, humane handling, and common horse injuries. What contingency plans should be made? A simple plan may involve identifying capable persons who can look after the horse should you be temporarily or permanently unable to care for the animal.

Another aspect of horse ownership is planning for the time when you may want or need to bring your ownership of a horse to an end. Refer to Section 9-Change or End of Career. The results are interpreted relative to the intended use of the horse - a high performance prospect may require a more extensive examination compared to a pleasure horse. Prospective owners are strongly urged to have a pre-purchase examination performed by a veterinarian who is proficient in equine practice.

The consequences of buying a horse that is not fit for the purpose for which it was purchased outweigh the costs of the examination. Horses, donkeys and mules are successfully managed in a variety of outdoor and indoor environments ranging from extensive range to relatively intensive housing in yards, pens or stables.

Attentive management is important regardless of how horses, donkeys and mules are kept. Horses are highly adaptable to many weather conditions 3 - keeping them outdoors or giving them frequent outdoor access is encouraged. Mud management is an important factor in some regions. Appendix K provides references on pasture management.

The risk of injury increases when horses are overcrowded in pastures or yards or when there is competition for any resource. The amount of outdoor space horses need depends on many factors. Generally a minimum space allowance per horse, in m 2 , is 2 to 2. Ideally, there should be enough space to allow horses to canter. For an open-front shed housing more than one horse: provide At a minimum, each horse must have enough space to move easily, walk forward, turn around with ease and lie down in a normal resting posture.

There must also be sufficient space for subordinate horses to escape aggression. The application of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and farm manure must be timed to prevent any health risks to grazing horses or contamination of ground water. Horses can adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions due to their physiological and behavioural responses that help them maintain body temperatures within a normal range 3.

Shelter can be natural e. Research shows that horses are particularly likely to seek shelter during rainy, windy conditions or snowy, windy conditions 3. Blankets are sometimes used to offer protection from weather and insects. However, blankets can lead to sores and heat stress. Therefore, if blankets are used, the condition of the horse beneath the blankets must be examined at least weekly.

Within the lower or upper temperatures of this range, horses may modify their behaviour without any increased energy needs. In temperatures outside the range, increased metabolic energy is required to maintain normal body temperature. Shivering is a heat-producing response to cold temperatures. It may be seen particularly when the horse is unable to move around, whether indoors or outdoors. Shivering horses are not thermally comfortable 5. Horses should also be monitored for heat stress in hot ambient temperatures. A horse facing heat stress may appear weak or disoriented.

Other signs of heat stress include muscle tremors and shallow or rapid breathing. Refer also to Section 3.

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Horses must have access to shelter constructed or natural that protects them from the harmful effects of extreme weather conditions. Promptly assist individual horses that are showing signs of heat or cold stress. If blankets are used, the condition of the horse beneath the blankets must be examined at least weekly. Blankets must be appropriate for the weather conditions and not result in heat stress. Horses are herd animals and prefer to live in groups.

A single horse kept on a farm may benefit from increased human contact or the companionship of other grazing species e. Donkeys have a particularly strong need for social opportunities and may become depressed or apathetic when separated from a former companion. This can have health implications, particularly if they go off feed. Within a herd structure, horses interact on a dominance hierarchy. Some horses are more aggressive and may not be suitable for group turnout. When forming new groups, the introduction of new animals brings a risk of injury to horses.

Refer to Section 4-Health Management for information on disease transmission, an important consideration when mixing animals, especially new arrivals. Horses kept in groups must be managed in a way that minimizes the risk of injury. Several types of fencing materials are suitable for horses, including wood, metal pipe, mesh and electric. Page wire, barbed wire and narrow gauge, high tensile steel wire are used in extensive grazing settings but should be avoided in closely-confined paddocks. These types of fencing can cause severe injury to horses, especially if in poor repair.

Unless horses are effectively contained through strong, well-maintained fencing and gates they may leave the property, which brings a significant risk of injury to that horse e. The strength and height of fencing is particularly important for stallion enclosures. Fences must be constructed and maintained to minimize the risk of injury and must be strong enough to contain horses. Refer to municipal fencing by-laws, if applicable. Temporary electric fences used for strip grazing or pasture rotation are not an acceptable permanent perimeter fence for horses.

Foaling can take place in stalls, paddocks or pastures.

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After foaling, the area should provide ample space for the addition of the foal. Stalls used for foaling should have solid walls for safety. It is also important to ensure the foaling area offers protection from predators. Every effort should be made to ensure foals are thermally comfortable. Foals are sensitive to adverse weather conditions and can also lose body heat if they are wet, lie down on cold surfaces or are kept in drafty environments. Weak, premature or sick foals are even more vulnerable to chilling, and the loss of body heat in these foals can substantially reduce their chances of survival.

Heat lamps or space heaters are sometimes used to warm the stall. However, unless used with caution, such heaters can be a fire hazard and can lead to overheating, particularly if the foal is not able to move away from the heat source. Using a foal blanket is often the most practical option and is effective. Any foal requiring an additional heat source or blanket should be monitored frequently. Stallions need specialized management and should only be handled and cared for by experienced horsepeople.

Sick or injured horses benefit from facilities constructed or natural that minimize stress and provide protection from environmental extremes. Appendix K provides references on preventing the spread of disease. Owners must have the ability to segregate sick or injured horses for treatment. If sick pens or stalls are used, they must be equipped with a source of feed and water and be cleaned between uses. Depending on the region, horses may not need indoor housing.

Horse welfare should be prioritized when constructing or renovating facilities. The main considerations are the safety and comfort of the horses, ease of access, and adequate drainage and ventilation. If poorly designed or managed, stabling can contribute to the spread of disease and the risk of injury. Facilities must be designed and maintained to minimize the risk of injury.

An appropriate space allowance, in m 2 , is 2 to 2. This space allowance allows for the normal movements of the horse, including lying down. For indoor facilities: each horse must have enough space to lie down in a normal resting posture, stand with the head fully raised, walk forward and turn around with ease. For tie stalls, each horse must have enough space to lie down in a normal resting posture, stand with the head fully raised and step forward in comfort. For group housing, there must also be sufficient space for subordinate horses to escape aggression. Lighting in indoor facilities should provide uniform illumination and permit effective observation of horses.

Lighting is important for normal reproduction, seasonal endocrine rhythms and seasonal adaptation e. For horses kept indoors without natural light, artificial lighting must be provided during the day. Keeping horses in continuous darkness is not acceptable. The ground or flooring in stalls and alleyways should be well-drained and must provide non-slip surfaces to reduce the risk of horses slipping or falling.

Examples of non-slip surfaces include sand, dirt but not mud , rough cut planked floors, rubber mats, and stamped or grooved concrete. For shod horses, the addition of rubber mats or epoxy flooring to concrete helps avoid slipping. Ideally, stall flooring will be reasonably level but designed to move excess moisture away from horses. Soft ground surfaces e. Refer also to Section 2. Provide non-slip surfaces in stalls and alleyways to reduce the risk of horses slipping or falling.

Well-managed bedding provides comfort, warmth, dryness, traction and protection against abrasions. Examples of bedding include straw, shavings, shredded paper and peat moss. Each type of bedding has advantages and disadvantages 3. The Scientific Committee report for the equine Code, listed in the References , provides more detail. Horses prefer to lie down in bedded areas in the stalls; therefore, providing ample clean bedding also helps ensure horses get enough rest, which is important for their well-being and performance 3. Ensure stalls are kept clean.

Horses must be provided with a dry lying area.


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The area must also be of a design or texture that will not bruise, cut or otherwise injure the horse. Concrete or hard rubber mats without bedding are not acceptable surfaces. Respiratory problems can be created or made worse by poor bedding practices and poor indoor air quality. The concentration of ammonia and airborne particles, such as dust and mould, are of particular concern 3. The concentration of fungal spores, the main component of dust in stables, is determined by the rate of release from feed and bedding and the rate of clearance, mainly by ventilation 6.

Keeping facilities and bedding clean helps maintain good indoor air quality. Excessive ammonia concentrations can pose a health threat to humans and animals. The concentration of ammonia should ideally be less than 10ppm and must not exceed 25ppm. When a human observer can detect ammonia by smell or irritation to the eyes it is likely to be at a concentration of 20ppm or higher. There are also several tools for measuring ammonia concentration, including litmus paper, detection tubes and electronic devices. A good ventilation system will remove stale air, maintain ideal ambient temperature, bring in fresh air without causing drafts, especially at horse level and remove excess heat and moisture a factor in mould development.

Air quality in barns must be maintained to prevent the buildup of noxious gases, dust and moisture. The concentration of ammonia in the air must not exceed 25ppm. Refer to the above information on options for assessing ammonia concentration. Emergencies can necessitate the need to urgently release horses from a housing facility e. In the case of a fire, horses should be secured in a safe location as they may return to a barn that is on fire.

Refer also to Section 8. Toxic materials must be securely stored. Serious health consequences can arise if horses gain access to such materials. Develop an emergency action plan for emergencies that may occur in your area. Toxic materials must be securely stored such that horses cannot gain access to them. Horses, donkeys and mules require good quality feed. Good overall feed management includes providing feeds that are safe and that meet the nutritional and behavioural needs of horses, donkeys and mules.

Good quality forage hay or pasture should form the bulk of the diet for equines. Section 4. Water is the single most important nutrient in the management of horses. Equines in particular donkeys and mules will limit their water intake to the point of dehydration if the quality palatability of drinking water is compromised. They may also limit their intake of water from a new source, such as when moved to a new location. It may be advisable to take a supply of water with you on trips. Generally, the minimum daily amount of water required by horses at maintenance and in a moderate environment i.

The amount of water the horse needs will go above this minimum with:. There is limited research on snow as a sole water source for horses 3. Given the scientific research on the water needs of horses in general, snow alone will not meet their water requirements.

Some research shows that limiting liquid water intake can lead to reduced feed intake, a particular concern in the winter months given the increased energy needs of horses in cold temperatures 3. Water requirements may even increase in cold temperatures because water intake increases as feed intake increases 3.

Horses must have access to safe, palatable and clean water in quantities to maintain health and vigour. In extreme weather conditions cold or hot , special attention must be paid to ensure water availability, access and intake. Water troughs, containers and any automatic watering devices must be cleaned regularly and maintained in working order with no sharp or abrasive edges.

Before feeding hay, ensure it is free from dust, mould, soil, weeds and poisonous plants. Concentrates should be dust-free and not too finely ground. Some feeds that are appropriate for other farm animals are not appropriate for horses e. Feed must also be securely stored.

This will help prevent contamination of the feed which can impact horse health. When horses gain unrestricted access to concentrates e. Horses must have daily access to forage that is free from visible mould and has minimal dust. Horses must only receive feedstuffs that are appropriate for the species. Concentrates must be stored in a secure manner that prevents horses from overeating.

Horses are strongly motivated to forage eating hay, grazing pasture based on their inherent nature 3. When given the opportunity, they exhibit approximately the same feeding patterns observed in free-ranging horses: eating an average of 12 hours per day and never voluntarily fasting for more than hours 3. Horses without available pasture or free-choice forage e. If feeding concentrates, a good practice is to feed forage first. Feeding forage increases the amount of time horses spend eating and results in slower digestion. The average mature horse will consume 1.

As forage is important to maintain proper gut function, it is crucial that forage forms the majority of the ration. The nutrient content of hay can vary. With forages of good nutritional content, little to no supplementation is needed. Donkeys, mules, miniature horses, ponies, and some breeds of horses are particularly prone to obesity. These equines may need special feed management e. Feeding haylage or silage can be suitable for horses provided these feedstuffs are of excellent quality; are free from toxins and ruminant-specific additives; and the horses are given time to adapt to this type of feed.

Horses fed haylage or silage should be vaccinated against botulism poisoning. Concentrates are fed at different rates based on the increased energy needs not met by the forage. The quantity of concentrates fed should be no more than that necessary to provide the required energy - many horses will not need concentrates to meet their energy needs. Feeding excessive concentrates can contribute to obesity, digestive upset and laminitis. Minerals and vitamins may be deficient in some diets.

It is advisable to consult a nutritionist or veterinarian familiar with the nutrient content of feeds grown in your region. Feed space varies depending on the size, number, and temperament of horses that will feed simultaneously from the same site 4. Generally, competition for feed can be reduced by providing horses in groups with multiple feeding sites whether buckets or boxes 4.

Hay racks or feed troughs that provide 1m 3. An extra feeding point i. Horses must receive a diet that is adequate for maintaining health and vigour. Horses must have access to salt either provided in the ration or free access a block or loose salt.

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Most horses will increase their feed intake in cold temperatures achieving their increased energy needs; however, some may need to be fed a more energy-dense diet 3. Horses may voluntarily decrease feed intake as temperatures increase 3. Their specific feed requirements depend on their age, growth rate, activity level and anticipated weight at maturity. A key principle in feeding young, growing horses is to provide high quality feeds that are balanced for growth.

If creep feed is necessary, it should be provided to foals at a rate of 0. Weanlings need high quality hay fed free choice or at 1. Creep rations need to be balanced for growth. Growth rate slows considerably by 12 months; however, even two-year-olds have higher nutrient requirements than mature horses at maintenance 8. It is advisable to feed yearlings and two-year-olds separately from mature horses as they may not compete well when fed with mature horses 8. If high quality hay or high quality pasture is available, yearlings and two-year-olds may not need concentrates 8.

Growing horses must receive a diet that is adequate for maintaining health, growth and vigour. Work increases nutrient needs. Dietary energy the caloric content is the nutrient most affected by increased work 9. Other nutrient requirements also increase marginally; however, the increased protein, vitamin and mineral needs are often met with the extra energy source 9. The addition of more energy-dense feeds e.

Added fat can be used to reduce reliance on large amounts of carbohydrates 9. Horses in work must receive a diet that is adequate for maintaining health and vigour. In the breeding season, stallions have higher energy requirements similar to horses in light work see Section 3. Although the energy expended by the stallion during mating is modest, the additional activity or changes in behaviour e. Stallions finishing the breeding season in good body condition can be tapered down to maintenance by increasing the hay portion and decreasing the concentrate portion Adding extra feed or supplements will not enhance fertility for stallions already receiving a balanced diet Stallions must receive a diet that is adequate for maintaining health and vigour.

Proper nutrition improves fertility and promotes normal growth and development of the fetus. The energy requirements of mares and jennets increase significantly during late gestation i. There are advantages to including a small amount of concentrate i. Geriatric horses see glossary will typically consume 1. Good quality forage is generally a good sole maintenance feed source provided the teeth are in good condition Some geriatric horses may need specialized rations refer to Section 4.

Weight loss or failure to maintain appropriate body condition in the face of perceived adequate feeding strategies are common problems in geriatric horses However, old age itself is not a cause for weight loss. Therefore, owners need to make an effort to determine the cause and take corrective action.

Euthanasia may be necessary on welfare grounds if appropriate corrective actions fail to result in an increase in body condition above the minimum acceptable score. Refer to Section 4. Geriatric horses must receive a diet that is adequate for maintaining health and vigour. The health of horses, donkeys and mules is a key component of their welfare.

Horses should be regularly assessed for health and fitness relative to any work or activity they perform. Owners and managers should maintain the health of their animals through appropriate nutrition and housing and disease prevention, detection, and treatment. Veterinarians should be involved in helping meet these animal health obligations.

Depending on the circumstances, it may only be possible to seek veterinary advice via phone or other contact. Health management plans which include biosecurity and vaccinations reduce the risk of introduction or spread of infectious diseases. Biosecurity protocols are guidelines intended to prevent the introduction or spread of diseases within a farm or to other farms.

Horses that are newly introduced or returning to the farm present the greatest risk of infectious disease. Biosecurity protocols should be in writing, especially on farms with a large number of horses. For some diseases, a horse can be a carrier of the disease without showing signs. These carrier animals can play a significant role in disease transmission. Infectious diseases can also be transmitted by people e. Appendix K provides several resources to assist with biosecurity planning. Medications, especially prescription medications, should not be administered unless under the advice of a veterinarian.

Some medications or remedies may be ineffective or even unsafe. These include: natural and herbal remedies; supplements, medications that are unlabeled, untested or unregulated; and medications used in a way that differs from the originally intended and licensed use i. Regulated sources of medication include a veterinarian, pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, and licensed animal medicines outlet. Before administering any medication or remedy, read the label carefully and discuss its safety and proper use with a veterinarian.

It is also important to store medications correctly - this can affect their efficacy and safety. Horses must be observed as often as required to maintain their health and well-being. Purchase medications and veterinary pharmaceuticals from regulated, reputable sources. Refer to provincial and federal regulations. Controlling pests and flying insects is an important component of an overall health management plan. Pests and insects can transmit diseases and cause discomfort. Vaccinations offer horses protection from some infectious diseases, but do not completely eliminate disease risk.

Good overall management directed at infection control remains important even for vaccinated horses. Vaccination guidelines vary by region and should take into account the risk for exposure. While there are costs associated with vaccines, those costs are generally much lower than the costs associated with an infectious disease. Appendix K provides a reference to the vaccination guidelines of the American Association of Equine Practitioners.

While Section 4. A veterinarian should be consulted for advice on controlling external parasites. Control of internal parasites is key to maintaining feed efficiency and horse health 3. Foals and geriatric horses are particularly susceptible to internal parasites as are horses with lowered immunity 3. Research shows that parasite resistance to several dewormers may be related to the traditional approach of deworming all horses every weeks with rotating products 3.

A more effective alternative may be targeted treatments based on the worm burden specific to individual horses and farms combined with effective pasture management 3. Fecal examination for parasite eggs is an important component of a parasite control program but results must be interpreted based on a thorough understanding of parasite life cycles. For example, immature larval stages of worms can cause disease before egg shedding is detected. The list of topics covered in Section 4. It is essential that those responsible for horse care be able to recognize normal behaviour, signs of sickness or injury and have basic knowledge of first aid for horses.

It is important to frequently check horses carefully in order to identify problems that may not be apparent from a distance. These inspections can be done during feeding or other chores. Compared to horses, donkeys and mules are stoic animals and are less likely to show behavioural signs indicative of illness.

In donkeys and mules, a reduced or loss of appetite is a significant concern. Take action immediately if any horse is injured or appears ill or distressed. While episodes of colic vary in their severity, every case should be taken seriously. Young horses and horses that commingle with others such as at a horse show or if living in high-traffic barns are at particular risk for respiratory infections, such as influenza, rhinopneumonitis and strangles. The school bus, on its way to a Sderot school, was filled with the sound of laughter, chatting, and music leaking out from the earbuds of MP3 players.

Just another ordinary day. Run for cover! This was no drill. All the students rushed out of the bus and ran in different directions—all except Sarah, who remained firmly planted to the bus seat as if she had grown roots. But Sarah was not being brave; she was mortified. From the shock and fear, she had wet herself. How could she bring herself to leave the bus in that state? Two courageous friends climbed up into the bus, covered her with a shirt, and found shelter together with her.

The story should end here, just like it did for all the other students. From that day on, Sarah began a steadily decline. She was ashamed to leave her house. She refused to go to school, sure that everyone would laugh at her and talk about the embarrassing incident. The only one she confided in about her burning shame was her pillow.

At one point during the evening, she was left alone at the table while everyone else was celebrating on the dance floor. Sarah was thirsty, but all the soda bottles on the table were empty. The only available drink was one glass bottle filled with a transparent liquid. Sarah was so thirsty, she poured herself a full glass.

She almost choked on the drink that burned her throat, but suddenly, as if she had waved a magic wand, she felt nothing: no more pain, no more frustration, no more self-blame or shame. This lets you custom-tune support preferences, use navigation features, record your ride, set fitness goals, and view battery and system data. Balanced, comfortable ride: The lightweight ALUXX aluminum frame with a center drive SyncDrive Life motor and low-step-through design makes it easy to get on and off, while offering comfortable, easy-to-maneuver handling.

Liv Avail Advanced 2. From epic solo adventures to group road rides, Avail is light, comfortable and engineered for female riders. Light and lively on the climbs and supremely confident on the descents, this versatile endurance road bike will help you cover miles with confidence and ease. Avail Advanced is built around an Advanced-grade composite frame that features an exceptionally lightweight endurance geometry with a special carbon layup tuned specifically women.

The D-Fuse seatpost reduces road vibration, keeping you fresh for the long haul. Disc brake technology provides confidence and control in variable weather, maintaining stopping power on wet roads, while also accommodating larger tire sizes. This bike also features OverDrive steerer tube for increased frontal stiffness and precise steering, along with the PowerCore bottom bracket for pedaling efficiency.

Specialized Men's Diverge Sport. With the Diverge Sport, you'll be prepared for anything, from smooth tarmac to the loosest, roughest tracks out there. It's packed with all the same technologies as its pricier cousins, only its spec places an emphasis on reliable performance, not components so flashy you'll be eating nothing but top ramen for months. The Diverge frame will comfortably fit up to x42mm tires with plenty of room for mud, too.

Weight was a large factor in the development, so Specialized took some design cues from the Roubaix with a FACT 9r carbon frame that's one of the lightest in the category. Specialized opted for a new Open Road Geometry. We know what you're thinking, "it's just another marketing term," but they truly did develop an entirely new geometry. Think of it as a road version of modern trail bike geometry. It provides playful handling and predictable steering for endless dirt skids and mid-corner drifts. The geo features a bottom bracket that's over a half-centimeter lower than the previous Diverge, a slacked-out head tube angle, short chainstays, and a short wheelbase.

These changes make for a bike that's not only fun in the dirt, but also performs well on the road. There's only so much that wider tires with lower pressures can absorb, so Specialized implemented a new version of the Future Shock into the Diverge design. It not only soaks up bumps with ease, but provides extremely predictable handling.

That's because the wheelbase isn't lengthening when you hit a bump, so the front end of the Diverge keeps the same effective head tube angle. In other words, when you dive hard into a turn, you won't be surprised by under steer or sloppy handling. Unlike the original Future Shock, the Diverge's version features a progressive spring that makes this technology more suitable for off-road applications, where stiffer suspension is often needed to soak-up larger bumps and obstacles.

Specialized topped it off with three water bottle mounts and mounts for racks and fenders. So while it's one of the most smile-inducing bikes you'll ever shred fire roads on, it's equally adept at bike packing, commuting, or even a spin to your local brewery. The Diverge Sport spec hits right on the money with a sturdy Shimano Tiagra groupset, hassle-free mechanical disc brakes, and a strong Axis Sport wheelset. Electra Townie Go! Salsa Timberjack NX Eagle Timberjack features modern trail bike geometry, short chainstays for nimble scrambling, and clearance for either inch or plus-size Timberjack NX Eagle Specialized Men's Chisel Comp X1.

If you're thinking about taking the plunge into XC racing, do it with the Chisel Comp. It embodies all of the qualities you'd expect from an XC race bike, like light overall weight, incredible stiffness, and a race-oriented geometry—all with one-by gearing, too. Consider it the vessel that's bringing performance to the masses. Traditional welding methods create frame joints by connecting tubes to cylinders, leaving the performance and security of the connection up to the skill of the welder.


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D'Aluisio DSW , however, allows us to move the joint away from the area of the highest stress, making for a lighter frameset that's stiff, compliant, and incredibly strong—the optimal characteristics of a hardtail XC rig. So what does this mean for you? You'll be powering up climbs, shredding singletrack, and everything in between on a bike that has you questioning why alloy's gotten such a bad rap. This equates to a longer top tube, a shortened head tube, and a slacked out front-end, the result of which is a tremendous increase in downhill stability, plus a wider range of fit.

And just as importantly, this doesn't require any sacrifice of climbing proficiency. The build on this Chisel features a Shimano SLX one-by setup for ease of use along with a wide range of gears. You'll also find powerful MT Deore hydraulic disc brakes, the renowned RockShox Judy fork with up to mm of travel size-specific , and millimeter-wide alloy wheels that are optimized for weight and traction.

And when complemented with our speed-focused XC 29 Geometry, D'Aluisio Smartweld technology, and internal cable routing, you get a bike that compromises nothing in delivering explosive speed, confident handling, and hassle-free maintenance. It features proprietary technology from RockShox, like its Solo Air spring, that maintains an ideal equilibrium, as well as being one of the lightest air springs on the market.

Specialized Men's Tarmac. The base Tarmac brings performance to the masses, with many of the same technologies that you'll find in our higher-end models, but with a price tag that's a bit more palatable. To go along with this Grand-Tour winning FACT 9r carbon frame and performance geometry, we've spec'd it with the reliable shifting of Shimano's Tiagra. It's the perfect introduction to start exploring the roads ahead.

As for the spec, we've made sure to select components that keep you rolling without worry like durable DT R wheels, Shimano Tiagra shifting, and a bevy of Body Geometry components that maximize performance by providing the utmost in comfort. Liv Avail SL 1 Disc. Disc brake technology offers braking confidence and control in variable conditions, and the integrated D-Fuse seatpost reduces road vibration and fatigue. Other features include the OverDrive steerer tube for increased frontal stiffness and precise steering, along with the PowerCore bottom bracket that transfers power directly from each pedal stroke to the road.

Giant Contend SL 2 Disc. The perfect blend of confident and capable. Designed to help you take your road riding to the next level, Contend SL Disc is your ticket to longer rides, faster speeds, and more fun than you ever imagined. The innovative D-Fuse composite seatpost cuts down road vibrations, delivering a smoother, more efficient ride. Salsa Journeyman Sora Journeyman Sora offers a great mix of speed and comfort for a variety of missions. The wider tires allow you to ride rough terrain with plenty of traction and stability. The Shimano Sora drivetrain keeps shifting light and efficient both on and off the road.

Liv Avail SL 2 Disc.

Bring the bliss back to road riding with the lightweight Avail SL Disc. Performance for faster, longer road rides. Avail SL Disc is fit to handle those long days on the road. When taken in groups or on solo adventures, this bike shines with elegant, modern style. Powerful disc brakes offer confidence and control in variable conditions. Avail SL Disc will lead you down new roads and up to new heights.