His primary sculptural work is The Representative of Humanity , a nine-meter high wood sculpture executed as a joint project with the sculptor Edith Maryon. This was intended to be placed in the first Goetheanum. It shows a central, free-standing Christ holding a balance between the beings of Lucifer and Ahriman , representing opposing tendencies of expansion and contraction. Steiner's blackboard drawings were unique at the time and almost certainly not originally intended as art works. In collaboration with Marie von Sivers, Steiner also founded a new approach to acting, storytelling, and the recitation of poetry.
His last public lecture course, given in , was on speech and drama. The Russian actor, director, and acting coach Michael Chekhov based significant aspects of his method of acting on Steiner's work. Together with Marie von Sivers , Rudolf Steiner also developed the art of eurythmy , sometimes referred to as "visible speech and song". According to the principles of eurythmy, there are archetypal movements or gestures that correspond to every aspect of speech — the sounds or phonemes , the rhythms, and the grammatical function — to every "soul quality" — joy, despair, tenderness, etc.
Rudolf Steiner, Philosophy of Freedom. Chapter 9. In his commentaries on Goethe's scientific works, written between and , Steiner presented Goethe's approach to science as essentially phenomenological in nature, rather than theory- or model-based. He developed this conception further in several books, The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception and Goethe's Conception of the World , particularly emphasizing the transformation in Goethe's approach from the physical sciences, where experiment played the primary role, to plant biology, where both accurate perception and imagination were required to find the biological archetypes Urpflanze , and postulated that Goethe had sought but been unable to fully find the further transformation in scientific thinking necessary to properly interpret and understand the animal kingdom.
Particular organic forms can be evolved only from universal types, and every organic entity we experience must coincide with some one of these derivative forms of the type. Here the evolutionary method must replace the method of proof. We aim not to show that external conditions act upon one another in a certain way and thereby bring about a definite result, but that a particular form has developed under definite external conditions out of the type.
This is the radical difference between inorganic and organic science. Steiner approached the philosophical questions of knowledge and freedom in two stages. In his dissertation, published in expanded form in as Truth and Knowledge , Steiner suggests that there is an inconsistency between Kant's philosophy, which posits that all knowledge is a representation of an essential verity inaccessible to human consciousness, and modern science, which assumes that all influences can be found in the sensory and mental world to which we have access.
Steiner considered Kant's philosophy of an inaccessible beyond "Jenseits-Philosophy" a stumbling block in achieving a satisfying philosophical viewpoint. Steiner postulates that the world is essentially an indivisible unity, but that our consciousness divides it into the sense -perceptible appearance, on the one hand, and the formal nature accessible to our thinking , on the other. He sees in thinking itself an element that can be strengthened and deepened sufficiently to penetrate all that our senses do not reveal to us.
Steiner thus considered what appears to human experience as a division between the spiritual and natural worlds to be a conditioned result of the structure of our consciousness, which separates perception and thinking. These two faculties give us not two worlds, but two complementary views of the same world; neither has primacy and the two together are necessary and sufficient to arrive at a complete understanding of the world.
In thinking about perception the path of natural science and perceiving the process of thinking the path of spiritual training , it is possible to discover a hidden inner unity between the two poles of our experience. The task of understanding is not to replicate in conceptual form something that already exists, but rather to create a wholly new realm, that together with the world given to our senses constitutes the fullness of reality.
In the Philosophy of Freedom , Steiner further explores potentials within thinking: freedom, he suggests, can only be approached gradually with the aid of the creative activity of thinking. Thinking can be a free deed; in addition, it can liberate our will from its subservience to our instincts and drives. Free deeds, he suggests, are those for which we are fully conscious of the motive for our action; freedom is the spiritual activity of penetrating with consciousness our own nature and that of the world,  and the real activity of acting in full consciousness.
Steiner affirms Darwin 's and Haeckel 's evolutionary perspectives but extended this beyond its materialistic consequences; he sees human consciousness , indeed, all human culture, as a product of natural evolution that transcends itself. For Steiner, nature becomes self-conscious in the human being. Steiner's description of the nature of human consciousness thus closely parallels that of Solovyov : . In his earliest works, Steiner already spoke of the "natural and spiritual worlds" as a unity.
As a starting point for the book Steiner took a quotation from Goethe, describing the method of natural scientific observation,  while in the Preface he made clear that the line of thought taken in this book led to the same goal as that in his earlier work, The Philosophy of Freedom. In the years — Steiner maintained the magazine "Lucifer-Gnosis" and published in it essays on topics such as initiation, reincarnation and karma, and knowledge of the supernatural world. The book An Outline of Esoteric Science was published in Important themes include:. Steiner emphasized that there is an objective natural and spiritual world that can be known, and that perceptions of the spiritual world and incorporeal beings are, under conditions of training comparable to that required for the natural sciences, including self-discipline, replicable by multiple observers.
It is on this basis that spiritual science is possible, with radically different epistemological foundations than those of natural science.
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He believed that natural science was correct in its methods but one-sided for exclusively focusing on sensory phenomena, while mysticism was vague in its methods, though seeking to explore the inner and spiritual life. Anthroposophy was meant to apply the systematic methods of the former to the content of the latter  .
For Steiner, the cosmos is permeated and continually transformed by the creative activity of non-physical processes and spiritual beings. For the human being to become conscious of the objective reality of these processes and beings, it is necessary to creatively enact and reenact, within, their creative activity. Thus objective spiritual knowledge always entails creative inner activity.
Steiner termed his work from this period onwards Anthroposophy. He emphasized that the spiritual path he articulated builds upon and supports individual freedom and independent judgment ; for the results of spiritual research to be appropriately presented in a modern context they must be in a form accessible to logical understanding, so that those who do not have access to the spiritual experiences underlying anthroposophical research can make independent evaluations of the latter's results. In Steiner experienced what he described as a life-transforming inner encounter with the being of Christ; previously he had little or no relation to Christianity in any form.
Then and thereafter, his relationship to Christianity remained entirely founded upon personal experience, and thus both non-denominational and strikingly different from conventional religious forms. To use Steiner's own words, the "experience culminated in my standing in the spiritual presence of the Mystery of Golgotha in a most profound and solemn festival of knowledge. Steiner describes Christ as the unique pivot and meaning of earth's evolutionary processes and human history, redeeming the Fall from Paradise.
To be "Christian" is, for Steiner, a search for balance between polarizing extremes  : —3 and the ability to manifest love in freedom. In Steiner's esoteric cosmology , the spiritual development of humanity is interwoven in and inseparable from the cosmological development of the universe.
Continuing the evolution that led to humanity being born out of the natural world, the Christ being brings an impulse enabling human consciousness of the forces that act creatively, but unconsciously, in nature. Steiner's views of Christianity diverge from conventional Christian thought in key places, and include gnostic elements. One of the central points of divergence with conventional Christian thought is found in Steiner's views on reincarnation and karma. Steiner also posited two different Jesus children involved in the Incarnation of the Christ: one child descended from Solomon , as described in the Gospel of Matthew ; the other child from Nathan , as described in the Gospel of Luke.
See Genealogy of Jesus for alternative explanations of this radical divergence. Steiner's view of the second coming of Christ is also unusual. He suggested that this would not be a physical reappearance, but rather, meant that the Christ being would become manifest in non-physical form, in the " etheric realm" — i.
He emphasized that the future would require humanity to recognize this Spirit of Love in all its genuine forms, regardless of how this is named. He also warned that the traditional name, "Christ", might be used, yet the true essence of this Being of Love ignored. In the s, Steiner was approached by Friedrich Rittelmeyer , a Lutheran pastor with a congregation in Berlin, who asked if it was possible to create a more modern form of Christianity. Soon others joined Rittelmeyer — mostly Protestant pastors and theology students, but including several Roman Catholic priests.
Steiner offered counsel on renewing the spiritual potency of the sacraments while emphasizing freedom of thought and a personal relationship to religious life. He envisioned a new synthesis of Catholic and Protestant approaches to religious life, terming this "modern, Johannine Christianity ". The resulting movement for religious renewal became known as " The Christian Community ". Its work is based on a free relationship to the Christ, without dogma or policies.
Its priesthood, which is open to both men and women, is free to preach out of their own spiritual insights and creativity. Steiner emphasized that the resulting movement for the renewal of Christianity was a personal gesture of help to a movement founded by Rittelmeyer and others independently of his anthroposophical work. Steiner's work has influenced a broad range of notable personalities. Albert Schweitzer wrote that he and Steiner had in common that they had "taken on the life mission of working for the emergence of a true culture enlivened by the ideal of humanity and to encourage people to become truly thinking beings".
Anthony Storr stated about Rudolf Steiner's Anthroposophy: "His belief system is so eccentric, so unsupported by evidence, so manifestly bizarre, that rational skeptics are bound to consider it delusional. Robert Todd Carroll has said of Steiner that "Some of his ideas on education — such as educating the handicapped in the mainstream — are worth considering, although his overall plan for developing the spirit and the soul rather than the intellect cannot be admired".
The th anniversary of Rudolf Steiner's birth was marked by the first major retrospective exhibition of his art and work, 'Kosmos - Alchemy of the everyday'. Organized by Vitra Design Museum , the traveling exhibition presented many facets of Steiner's life and achievements, including his influence on architecture, furniture design, dance Eurythmy , education , and agriculture Biodynamic agriculture. Olav Hammer has criticized as scientism Steiner's claim to use scientific methodology to investigate spiritual phenomena that were based upon his claims of clairvoyant experience.
However, he did consider spiritual research to be fallible  : p. Steiner's work includes both universalist, humanist elements and historically influenced racial assumptions. However, he consistently and explicitly subordinated race, ethnicity, gender, and indeed all hereditary factors, to individual factors in development. In the context of his ethical individualism, Steiner considered "race, folk, ethnicity and gender" to be general, describable categories into which individuals may choose to fit, but from which free human beings can and will liberate themselves.
During the years when Steiner was best known as a literary critic, he published a series of articles attacking various manifestations of antisemitism  and criticizing some of the most prominent anti-Semites of the time as "barbaric" and "enemies of culture". This stance has come under severe criticism in recent years. Steiner was a critic of his contemporary Theodor Herzl 's goal of a Zionist state, and indeed of any ethnically determined state, as he considered ethnicity to be an outmoded basis for social life and civic identity.
Towards the end of Steiner's life and after his death, there were massive defamatory press attacks mounted on him by early National Socialist leaders including Adolf Hitler and other right-wing nationalists. These criticized Steiner's thought and anthroposophy as being incompatible with National Socialist racial ideology, and charged him of being influenced by his close connections with Jews and even that he himself was Jewish. Steiner's collected works, making up about volumes, include his writings about forty volumes ,  over lectures, and a substantial body of artistic work.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, economist and esotericist. For other people named Rudolf Steiner, see Rudolf Steiner disambiguation. Dornach , Switzerland. Anna Eunicke — Marie Steiner-von Sivers — Main article: Rudolf Steiner and the Theosophical Society. See also: Rudolf Steiner's exercises for spiritual development. Main article: Waldorf education. Main article: Biodynamic agriculture. Main article: Anthroposophical medicine.
Main article: Threefold Social Order. See also: Eurythmy. Live through deeds of love, and let others live understanding their unique intentions: this is the fundamental principle of free human beings. See also: Goethean science. See also: Philosophy of Freedom. See also: Anthroposophy and Rudolf Steiner's exercises for spiritual development. See also: Anthroposophy: Scientific basis.
However, there is an undated autobiographical fragment written by Steiner, referred to in a footnote in his autobiography in German GA 28 , that says, "My birth fell on 25 February Two days later I was baptized. Retrieved 23 April Architecture and Anthroposophy. Moscow: KMK, , Rudolf Steiner: Die Biografie. Munich: Piper. Cambridge, Clarke Rev Ed.
Esoteric Lessons — SteinerBooks, Helmuth von Moltke, Light for the new millennium: Rudolf Steiner's association with Helmuth and Eliza von Moltke: letters, documents and after-death communications. London: Rudolf Steiner Press. Google Books. Retrieved 1 June Krishnamurti: A Life.
New Delhi: Penguin Books India. Steiner took the name but not the limitations on knowledge which Zimmerman proposed. Rudolf Steiner Verlag. Temple Lodge Margot M. II, Chapter Archived from the original PDF on 17 April Retrieved 16 April CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link. McDermott, , in ReVision, vol.
Translated by Olin D. Wannamaker and Reginald E. Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 23 May Eidos , n. Anthroposophie in Deutschland. History Workshop. Rudolf Steiner. London: Continuum International Pub. This essay was republished as an independent brochure in ; in a Prefatory note to this edition , Steiner refers to recent lectures on the subject. European Journal of Educational Studies, 3 1 : 53— Journal of Social and Development Sciences. Discipline dependent on the right mood of soul. The teacher's own preparation for this.
Seating of children according to temperament. Retelling of stories.
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Importance of imaginative stories that can be recalled in later school life. Drawing of diagrams, from ninth year. Completion and metamorphosis of simple figures, to give children feeling of form and symmetry. Concentration exercises to awaken an active thinking as basis of wisdom for later life.
Simple color exercises. A Waldorf school timetable. The "main lesson. In counting, each different number should be connected with the child or what the child sees in the environment. Counting and stepping in rhythm. The body counts. The head looks on. Counting with fingers and toes is good also writing with the feet. The ONE is the whole. Other numbers proceed from it. Building with bricks is against the child's nature, whose impulse is to proceed from whole to parts, as in medieval thinking.
Contrast atomic theory. In real life we have first a basket of apples, a purse of coins. In teaching addition, proceed from the whole. In subtraction, start with minuend and remainder; in multiplication, with product and one factor. Theorem of Pythagoras eleven-twelve years. Details given of a clear, visual proof, based on practical thinking. This will arouse fresh wonder every time. After seven, child has impulse to model and to paint.
Teacher must learn anatomy by modeling the organs.
Teaching of physiology nine to twelve years should be based on modeling. Between seven and fourteen astral body gradually draws into physical body, carrying the breathing by way of nerves, as playing on a lyre. Importance of singing. Child's experience of well being like that of cows chewing the cud. Instrumental music from beginning of school life, wind or strings. Teaching of languages; up to nine through imitation, then beginnings of grammar, as little translation as possible. Vowels are expression of feeling, consonants are imitation of external processes.
Each language expresses a different conception. Compare head, Kopf, testa. The parts of speech in relation to the life after death. If language is rightly taught, out of feeling, eurythmy will develop naturally, expressing inner and outer experiences in ordered movements--"visible speech. Beginnings of science teaching from twelfth year only, and connected with real phenomena of life. The problem of fatigue. Wrong conceptions of psychologists. The rhythmic system, predominant in second period, never tires. Rhythm and fantasy.
Sums from real life, not abstractions.
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Einstein's theory. The kindergarten--imitation of life. Teachers' meetings, the heart of the school. Every child to be in the right class for its age. Importance of some knowledge of trades, e. Children's reports-- characterization, but no grading. Contact with the parents. How to deal with both together. Transition from the concrete to the abstract in Arithmetic. Not before the ninth year.
Healthiness of English weights and measures as related to real life. Decimal system as an intellectual abstraction. Lines have no reality in drawing and painting, only boundaries. How to teach children to draw a tree in shading, speaking only of light and color.