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Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance? Don't have an account? Currency and addition of Tax VAT depend on your shipping address. Author: Robert J. Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token. Have Institutional Access? Forgot your password? PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. The Christian Reception of the Hebrew name of God has not previously been described in such detail and over such an extended period. This work places that varied reception within the context of early Jewish and Christian texts; Patristic Studies; Jewish-Christian relationships; Mediaeval thought; the Renaissance and Reformation; the History of Printing; and the development of Christian Hebraism.

The contribution of notions of the Tetragrammaton to orthodox doctrines and debates is exposed, as is the contribution its study made to non-orthodox imaginative constructs and theologies. In a case of II. This custom exists in most coin-using cultures. Category III, hoards, is divided into the two major categories of emergency hoards and savings hoards. Emergency hoards occur when some disaster impends war, invasion ; the owner grabs what coins there are and conceals them NFA , A savings hoard is accumulated over a series of years, and chooses the better coins from circulation; coins in a savings hoard are often skewed towards heavier weights NFA 27, A "reverse hoard" is a variant of discarding counterfeits II.

In the early s, a counterfeit subway token was widely circulated in New York City, nicknamed "the people's token. It was not uncommon to see token booths with stacks of a dozen "people's tokens" piled up on the shelf. These accumulations were, in effect, "reverse hoards": the hoarders were not picking out the desirable coins from circulation, but picking out the undesirable coins to prevent their further circulation.

The Montclair Hoard has some "reverse hoard" characteristics, since many of the coins in that hoard bear cancellation graffiti NFA It is possible for finds to move from one category to another. For example, an individual may accumulate a savings hoard in Pompeii , and then get buried by lava from Vesuvius—thus most of the finds at Pompeii will be I. Someone may accumulate coins, believing that they are valuable, but then the passage of time makes them valueless—an example would be state coppers that became valueless after the coppers panic.

The finds then move from III. B to II. The pre-Columbian civilizations of North and South America did not have coinage, but they did create metal objects that appear to have had some coin-like functions. The Aztecs used axe-shaped "hoe money," tlacas , made of thin sheets of copper and shaped like the Greek letter tau ; they are thought to have played some sort of monetary function, and hoards of these pieces have been found. Finds of non-coin traditional monies such as cowries, hoe money, and wampum have not been included in this inventory partly because of the difficulty of drawing the line between a cowry shell that served a monetary function, and one that was used as jewelry.

The discoveries of ancient coins in the Americas, thought by some to be evidence of pre-Columbian contact, have been brilliantly debunked by Epstein, who shows them to be later losses by collectors. More secure evidence begins with the excavations at La Isabela, in the Dominican Republic—the site of a settlement established by Columbus and abandoned by —and the coins found on the site of Hernando de Soto's camp of in Tallahassee NFA 3, 6.

The output from Santo Domingo was chiefly copper, although a small silver coinage is known. Another innovation of this period was the fleet system to transport bullion and coinage to Spain and to the Philippines. The New Spain fleet was loaded at Veracruz , and then would follow the currents along the Gulf of Mexico to Havana on the island of Cuba. The silver from Peru was taken via llamas down to the ports of Callao and Arequipa , and then was transported by a Pacific fleet, called the Armada del Sur, to the Isthmus of Panama.

Mule trains took the silver across the isthmus to two towns, Nombre de Dios until and Portobelo after During weeklong fairs the silver would be placed on the ships of the Tierra Firme fleet, which had also stopped on the coast of what is now Colombia for emeralds. Finally the joint fleets would leave Havana , pass up through the Straits of Florida between Florida and the Bahamas , and follow the Gulf Stream to Spain.

At Spain they would arrive at Cadiz , and proceed up over the sandbars of Guadalquivir River to arrive at Seville , where all treasure from America had to be landed. The other fleet system was in the Pacific, where one to three galleons a year traveled between Manila and Acapulco. The Manila galleon brought American silver to the Philippines , whence it passed across the Manila straits to China; it brought back porcelain and silks to Acapulco , which were transported by mule train across Mexico to Veracruz , where the porcelain was shipped onwards to Spain.

Shipwrecks have been found from all types of fleets, although it is only with the seventeenth century that shipwreck discoveries become abundant. The most important American shipwreck of the sixteenth century is the Plate Fleet, which was wrecked off Padre Island in Texas , and was excavated in the s and s NFA 13, 14, Shipwreck evidence becomes more ample from this period with the Atocha , Concepcion and Maravillas , to name only three of the most famous NFA 60, 78, Spain poured troops and treasure into the Netherlands in an unsuccessful attempt to defeat the revolt of Much of the coin spent by Spain in the Netherlands , including much American coin, ended up in the hands of the Dutch.

There are more hoards of coins from Spain's American colonies reported from the Dutch northern provinces, which the Spanish lost and which became the Netherlands , than there are from the southern provinces, which the Spanish retained and which became Belgium. The Dutch took over both places, temporarily in Brazil , permanently in the East Indies. They supplied their far-flung empire through their own fleet system; the ships were heavily stocked with coin from the colonies of Spanish America. They would use the winds of the Roaring Forties in the Southern Ocean to sail east; then, just before the coast of Australia , they would make a sharp left, and head north to Batavia now Jakarta.

Some of these ships did not turn in time, rammed into Australia , and their wrecks have since been recovered. Spain's troubles reached their nadir in the s. Spain's commercial partners lost their trust in Spanish coinage. This led to extensive countermarking operations in Spanish America and in Antwerp NFA A61, A70 , and also to the first coinage in what is now the United States—the New England and the willow, oak, and pine tree shillings from the mint in Boston , Massachusetts. The latter half of the seventeenth century in Europe was overshadowed by the wars of Louis XIV, and in the last decade of the century these wars affected America as well.

During the War of the League of Augsburg , Massachusetts undertook an invasion of Canada , and in it paid off the returning troops with the first government-backed paper money as opposed to banknotes in the western world. France's worldwide ambitions had several important numismatic effects in America. One was the competitive distribution of Indian peace medals by the French, the English, and latterly the Spanish in North America , as they sought to win Indian tribes over to their side NFA , His minting of a debased 2 reales the pistareen would greatly influence the monetary circulation of North America.

The Bourbons modernized Spain. Among their reforms was the introduction of modern minting machinery in the Spanish colonies. The large output of Santiago gold may actually have been smuggled over from Brazil. The first big gold strikes were made in Brazil in the s; gold production peaked in —45, much of it produced in Minas Gerais.

Oddly, the most extensive recovery of Brazilian 6, and 12, reis the "joes" is from a shipwreck of the late nineteenth century, the Douro, which sank in NFA A In these mints are superseded by the Federal Mint at Philadelphia. A hoard of the last decade of the eighteenth century that shows the work of the early United States Mint is the Goodhue-Nichols find from Salem, Massachusetts , the source of many mint state draped bust large cents NFA In , during the French Revolutionary Wars, Britain went off the gold standard, but by revaluing the 8 reales upwards to keep them in the country pegged the pound sterling to the Spanish dollar.

In this supply of silver was cut off when the War of Independence broke out in Mexico. The Mexican War of Independence led to the establishment of numerous branch mints to supply the armies, many of which continued to flourish after independence. A similar proliferation of mints happened as Central and South America won their independence.

The centralized mint system of colonial New Spain and Peru would not be re-established. The British attempt to enforce their blockade of France led to conflict with the United States, which cut off the British supply of planchets to the United States mint, and led to an interruption in the coinage of cents, so there are no cents dated The West Indies had a very complex coinage, involving the cutting and counterstamping of Mexican 8 reales and Brazilian joes.

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As possession of the islands changed hands during the Napoleonic Wars, the French, British, and Dutch regularly cut and counterstamped the coinage. The United States operated a centralized minting system until the discovery of gold in the southern Appalachian Mountains in Georgia and in North Carolina led local jewelers to begin minting their own coins: these were the coins of Templeton Reid and the Bechtlers. The Treasury set up branch mints at Charlotte , North Carolina and Dahlonega , Georgia both opened to compete with the private mints. A third southern branch mint was at New Orleans.

The discovery of gold in California led to the establishment of, first, private assayers, and, subsequently, the San Francisco branch mint in A rich category of hoards comprises those associated with the United States Civil War. Tilley, who made much money trafficking in mules during the Civil War and who was killed by bushwhackers prior to a Confederate invasion of Missouri in September NFA The discovery of the huge silver supplies in Nevada the Comstock and Bonanza lodes led to the establishment of the Carson City mint in It shut down because of the financial crisis prompted by bimetallism in The large production of silver dollars, required by the Bland-Allison Act, led to the amassing of hundreds of millions of the coins in Federal government vaults, the largest coin accumulation ever put together in the United States.

This was then dispersed in the s, s, and A separate section in this inventory discusses this accumulation of silver dollars Part II. The most important hoarding phenomenon in the Americas in the twentieth century was the hoarding of gold in the United States following the stock market crash of , which was made illegal by the gold turn in order issued by Franklin D. Roosevelt in The hoard evidence shows that this law was widely flouted NFA , A study of the law reports and the newspapers shows that huge hoards continue to be formed in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, often by the illicit drug trade or to evade the income tax.

In the law reports, however, the notes are described in little detail, with merely the cash total mentioned. Where little revealing detail is reported, the hoards have been omitted from this inventory. American coin finds have been of interest to numismatists from the very beginning of numismatic study in the United States. This is clear from the fine reports of coin finds in a nineteenth century antiquarian periodical, the Historical Magazine. Sydney P. Noe , who contributed much to the study of ancient coin hoards, also wrote about United States hoards, including the Economite hoard and the Castine Deposit.

David Bowers published a work on coin hoards from the United States. The distinctions between this work and Bowers may be summarized as follows. This work includes single finds, Bowers as a rule does not; this work includes non- USA coins found in the Americas, Bowers as a rule does not; this work includes finds in all the Americas, Bowers only covers the USA ; this work includes American coins found outside the Americas, Bowers does not. There are also a number of hoards in Bowers that this inventory does not include, such as large accumulations of Lincoln cents.

Those hoards have been omitted because they do not tell us much about the history of the period. This inventory uses a concise, standardized, chronological arrangement, modeled after the Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards , 13 as opposed to the topical and discursive approach used by Bowers. In his Encyclopedia, published in , Walter Breen mentioned numerous hoards in the catalog listings. Except for the well-documented Goodhue-Nichols find NFA , none of Breen's hoards could be confirmed by the pedigree information. Breen seems to have attributed the prevalence of many high-grade coins of a particular variety to the existence of hoards, when there are many other possible explanations such as better mint quality control with that particular variety.

Most hoards for which the only evidence is Breen's Encyclopedia have accordingly been omitted. Some hoards in Breen's articles, such as the "Hidden Find," likewise have been omitted because they could not be verified. This inventory is based on five different groups of sources—the numismatic literature, the shipwreck literature, the archaeological literature, law reports, and newspapers. Numismatic literature was covered by reading through most of the major United States numismatic periodicals. Other sources, such as auction catalogs and monographs plus the periodical Coin Hoards and the periodical bibliography Numismatic Literature , were also examined.

Gordon Frost tracked down and supplied much of the shipwreck literature. The major source among the newspapers was the New York Times, because it has been indexed since Other indices were also consulted, such as the Canadian Periodicals Index and the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, and indices to other newspapers such as the St. The legal literature was accessed by looking through digests under the law of finds and treasure trove.

This inventory exploits all these sources more thoroughly than has ever been done before. Finds in Canada were comparatively easy to locate because of the Canadian numismatic periodicals, the Canadian Periodicals Index, and the Canadian numismatic bibliography of Daryl Atchison. Finds in the Americas, outside of the United States and Canada , have been more difficult to track down. There are several Latin American numismatic periodicals, but the coverage is by no means as comprehensive as is the case in Canada and the United States. The major lack is the absence of newspaper indices like that for the New York Times, since newspapers are the primary source of information about coin finds.

The coverage outside of Canada and the United States is thus more haphazard. The Inventory is divided into three parts: in the first part are finds of all types in the Americas, in the second part the dispersal of the accumulation by the USA federal government of silver dollars, and in the third part finds of American numismatic items, found outside the Americas. Finds in the first part are designated by simple Hindu-Arabic numerals, dispersals in the second part by Roman numerals, finds in the third part by Hindu-Arabic numerals plus the letter "A" as a prefix.

Each entry begins with the type of find: single find, hoard, shipwreck, or archaeological excavation. The type of find can refer either to the circumstances of deposition hoard, shipwreck or the method of recovery archaeological excavation. The coins found in archaeological excavations were usually deposited in the same manner as most single finds, i.

The intentional discarding of counterfeits also forms a major component of the archaeological record. The finds are ordered by the date of deposit. The term "date of deposit" is used instead of burial date, since modern hoards are often concealed by methods other than burial. For archaeological excavations, the date of the occupation of the site is used, or, if that extensively antedates the coins, the date of the earliest coin found.

The entries are modeled on the Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards, although the coins are described in more detail, because the underlying sources can be difficult to access. The Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards mentions if a hoard is a "pot hoard"; this inventory includes an entry on the container, if any. Each find is referred to by its location city, state or province, country and the date of finding, so far as that is known. If the date of finding is not known, then the date of reporting often the month and year of the periodical where the hoard is mentioned is used instead.

There can be a lag of several months before a report in local newspapers is published in a national magazine, such as the Numismatist. A comparison of ten instances where newspaper reports and reports in the Numismatist have been located for the same hoard shows that, assuming that the publication date of the Numismatist is the first day of the month, this lag extends from as few as nineteen days to exceptionally as many as days the next longest lag is forty-eight days.

The median number of days is thirty-six. Thus if a hoard is reported in, say, the Numismatist for November , the researcher in local newspapers should begin looking at the local newspaper for October 31, , and work backwards; the hoard should be reported by the time the researcher reaches the issue for September 12, ; to be certain that the researcher has not missed anything, the search should be extended back to the issue of June 16, The next entry is the number of items of each material copper, silver, gold, paper ; then the date of deposit.

The date of deposit is usually arrived at from the coin with the latest date, or, as some numismatists say, the coin that "closes" the hoard. Single finds are usually listed at the date of the coin; a 8 reales will be found with the finds from , even though such a coin may have been lost at any time well into the nineteenth century. Since, however, there are often well-documented historical circumstances that suggest the reason for the burial of the hoard such as the movements of Confederate or Union armies during the Civil War , this date of deposit has often been used instead.

Where the date of deposit is the coin with the latest date, the hoard could have been deposited years later. The date of deposit is often not a precise date, but a terminus post quem ; and the date of finding, likewise, not a precise date but a terminus ante quem. This is then followed by a detailed description of the find, plus the disposition, if known.

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Bibliographical references conclude each entry. The bibliographical entries do not include every mention of the find in some cases, such as the Atocha , to list every mention would result in a huge book , but the three or five most important, occasionally more if the references are especially interesting. Most sources are referred to by the author-date system, with full entries found in the reference list at the end; however, short articles in the Numismatist , the Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine , the New York Times and other popular publications that are referred to only once are entered in full in the entry referring to the find and omitted from the reference list.

Where a hoard appears to be genuine, but incorrectly described, the description has been amended. An example of this is a report of 3, Spanish silver coins, dated from to , which "included in the find an American silver dollar bearing the date with the likeness of George Washington. Similarly, gold hoards of United States coins where the oldest coin is reported as dated have been corrected to because people tend to round off numbers NFA , , , These emendations are mentioned in the text.

Incomplete descriptions, such as "Spanish silver coin," have been filled out by inserting the name of the likeliest casual loss of the period—e. These additions are also mentioned in the text. Finds have been reported from every single one of the fifty states composing the United States of America , except for three: Hawaii , Oklahoma , and Wyoming. Virgin Islands. Among American islands in the Atlantic, finds have been reported from the Bahamas and Bermuda.

Despite this extensive coverage, many gaps remain to be filled, particularly from outside the United States. Comparatively few coin finds have been reported from Latin America. The rich and complex history of Latin America , especially after independence, could usefully be supplemented by hoard evidence. Outside the Americas, the geographical coverage reflects the extensive circulation of the coins of Spain's American colonies in littoral countries, plus numerous shipwreck recoveries.

Particularly valuable series of hoard reports are due to the assiduousness of H. EnnoVan Gelder, Pablo I. Many people have helped the author greatly in compiling this book, and the author would like to single out two: Q. David Bowers and Oliver Hoover, for they both shared with the author their own research notes into the same field.

This was extraordinarily generous. Len Augsburger, likewise, shared his work on the Baltimore Gold Hoard when it was still in manuscript. Dave Ginsburg also shared his primary source materials from his research on the Kerens , Texas gold hoard. Philip Mossman read over the manuscript and made many helpful suggestions. Sarah E. Cox obtained a reference from a library to which the author did not have access, and retraced her steps when the first reference the author had supplied turned out to be incorrect.

David Bowers, Jeremiah D. Brady, F. Buttrey , Jr. Campbell, Tony Carlotto, Sarah E. Cox, Howard A. Doty , Penelope B. Drooker , Michael J. Kable, Jonathan K. Kern, Jennifer L. Metcalf, Philip L. Mossman , Eric P. Letter abbreviations for Spanish coins are the names of the assayers. Only initials are used in this listing.

The names and the dates of the assayers before milled coinage are listed in these references:. Winter Park, FL: the authors, Type of find: Archaeological excavation. Disposition: Found in shell and bone midden by Guy Mellgren, an amateur archaeologist. Type of find: Archaeological excavations on what may be the site of Columbus's first landfall. Date of site: Thought to be October Bibliography: Brill , — La Isabela, Dominican Republic, — Contents: 74 BI, 4 AR.

Subsequently, more coins were recovered so that total rose to coins; of these, coins were attributed, breaking down BI, 5 AR. Description: The attributions of the earlier 78 coins recovered were:. Portugal , John II, ceitil Unidentified 4. Other numismatic objects recovered were: Spanish states, Castile and Leon, Henry IV, blanca, lead counterfeit attributed as a token, but more likely a counterfeit.

Date of site: —; date of earliest coin, — Bibliography: Rouse , Portugal , ceitil. Disposition: 3 coins were found by J. Portugal , Alphonse V, ceitil [—81].

Portugal , John III, ceitil [—57]. Bibliography: Ewen and Hann, , 80— Disposition: Mrs.

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Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, December Disposition: F. Dominican Republic, August 24, Exported into the United States numismatic market, according to W. Selfridge, a numismatist of New York City. Puerto Real, Habitation Montholon, Haiti, — Date of site: —78; date of earliest coins, Bibliography: Michael B. Hornum , letter to John M. Kleeberg , May 9, Type of find: Funerary deposit. The coins were holed in the center and around their circumference; they had probably been used to decorate a cap.

Bibliography: Pearson Type of find: Shipwreck. Beach finds on Padre Island from the offshore wrecks of the plate fleet.

This entry comprises finds not attributed to a specific ship. Disposition: In the year coins, including 2 reales and 4 reales of assayer L, were found on the beach by William Headen; examples of both denominations were given to General Meigs, who donated them in to the Cabinet of the United States Mint. As of , two coins that correspond to the above descriptions, with a patina characteristic of sea salvage, are in the Smithsonian, where the Mint collection has been since Bibliography: Dubois , 90; Sedwick and Sedwick , Sedwick 2.

Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine 36, no. Richard G. Doty, e-mail message to John M. Kleeberg , March 15, After extensive litigation, the salvors were awarded the value of the find; the artifacts remained in possession of the State of Texas. This ship was one of four in this fleet, which contained 2 million pesos in total.

Kleeberg , March 27, Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, real, Seville Also included 37 silver disks, one gold bar, and unidentified fragments of silver, some of which may have been coins. Excavation of an Indian burial mound. One of the reales was resting in the eye socket of a skull, evidently a "Charon's obol. Numerous Spanish ships were wrecked on Florida in the sixteenth century; the coins from these wrecks were salvaged by the Indians.

Early European explorers in Florida found that the Indians wore gold and silver ornaments, and shipwrecks are thought to have been where the Indians obtained the metal. Disposition: Frossard wrote: "Mr. McComb of Lockport, N. Bibliography: S. Edouard Frossard, "Items of Interest," Numisma 4, no.

Spanish colonies, Charles and Johanna, real? Disposition: Moore's collections, originally kept in Philadelphia, were subsequently donated to the Museum of the American Indian now in Washington, DC. Bibliography: Moore , Ship: Thought to be one of the ships of the expedition of Tristan de Luna.

Bibliography: Smith et al. Disposition: Florida State University. Type of find: Archaeological excavation of the site of the Spanish settlement of Santa Elena. The coin is in very poor condition, so the identification is not entirely certain. Clearly a Spanishcoin,becausetheupperquadrantwith the castle for Castile is visible, but little else.

Disposition: Excavated by Stanley South. Description: Spain , Ferdinand and Isabella, real. A date of deposit of the s has been chosen on the grounds that the coin would most likely have been lost after the establishment of Saint Augustine in Bibliography: Coin World, November 22, , 1, 8. German states, Nuremberg , jeton, England , Elizabeth I, sixpence, The coin was found during archaeological excavation of the Olompali Miwok Indian site on the floor of an Indian dance house by Charles Slaymaker, who suggested that the coinhadbeenleftduringthecircumnavigation of Sir Francis Drake.

The jeton is mentioned in Hudson's article as having been found in the San Francisco Bay area and thought to be related to Drake, but the specific find spot and discoverer are not given. Bibliography: Hudson , —14; Villiers , , , Ship: Unknown Portuguese ship. Portugal , John III, cruzado [—57]. Portugal , Sebastian, cruzados [—78] 4. Portugal , Henry I, cruzados [—80] 4. Spanish colonies, Philip II , 2 reales 2.

Spanish colonies, Philip II , 4 reales 2. Disposition: Found by Harry Cox. Bibliography: Marx , and plate ; Potter , — Puebla, Mexico , summer Disposition: Clyde Hubbard. Bibliography: Hubbard ; Nesmith , 4—5. The coins were added a little at a time to the hoard a savings hoard , and so many were in uncirculated condition. Other pieces were acquired by O.

Rumbel, E. Windau, and Victor Lanz. Nesmith saw the pieces in all four collections. Bibliography: Nesmith , Guatemala City, Guatemala , Bibliography: Hubbard ; Nesmith , Ruins of old Panama , Panama , Spanish colonies, real, Panama ,, assayer Xo. Bibliography: Proctor , , , — Camino Real, Panama ,, Type of find: Hoard? Not clear whether found as a hoard or a series of single finds. Spanish colonies, real, Panama , assayer Xo. Spanish colonies, real, Panama , assayer Bo. Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Panama , assayer Bo.

Disposition: Discovered by George Chevalier. Bibliography: Proctor , , , , Nombre de Dios, Panama , Spanish colonies, real, Panama , assayer Bo 2. The earliest report of the find is the Proctor monograph, but the coins were probably found several decades before. It is also not clear whether the coins are a series of single finds or a hoard. Bibliography: Proctor , , — Panama ,, Spanish colonies, reales, Panama ,, assayer Bo 2.

Spanish colonies, 2 reales, Panama ,, assayer Bo 2. The earliest report of the find available is the Proctor monograph, but the coins were probably found several decades before. It is not clear whether the coins are a series of single finds or a hoard. Bibliography: Proctor , —31, Rimac River, Lima , Peru , s. Type of find: Votive deposits. Date of earliest coin: Spanish colonies, real, Panama , assayer Bo [].

Coins thrown into the water by lovers making pledges as they walk over the bridge over the Rimac River. Bibliography: Menzel ; Proctor , ; Sedwick and Sedwick , German states, Nuremberg , jetons, Hans Schultes [—74] 2. England , Elizabeth, sixpence, cut half. England , Elizabeth, sixpence, , holed. Type of find: Archaeological excavation on the site of Santa Catalina de Guale. Description: Spain , Catholic religious medal with image of the Virgin Mary. Fernbank Museum of Natural History, "St. Bermuda, late summer Ship: Probably the San Pedro. Disposition: Excavated by Edward B. Acquired by the Bermuda Maritime Museum.

In one gold bar was on loan to the Smithsonian Institution. Bibliography: Kent ; Marx , 42, 47, , ; Nesmith a, —84; Peterson , 43, 74, 86, —77; Pickford , , ; Potter , 92, —83; Sedwick and Sedwick , ; Smith , 89—90; Tucker , 44— Description: Spain , gilded bronze Catholic religious medal with the Trinity on the obverse and Saint Jerome in the desert on the reverse, date of object — Bibliography: Boyd ; Johnson Spain , Ferdinand and Isabella, reales.

Spanish colonies, Philip II , 8 reales? Bibliography: "Capt. Kidd's Collection, No. In the Caribbean between the Yucatan and Cuba , Sedwick ascribes the Charles and Johanna coins to a shipwreck sunk off western Cuba , which he calls the "Golden Fleece" shipwreck and the Philip II to a shipwreck sunk off the Yucatan. However, the type of corrosion that Sedwick attributes to the coins from the shipwreck is also seen on the Charles and Johanna coins, so it seems that these two shipwrecks are actually one.

Note that the two findspots that Sedwick gives "off Yucatan" and "off western Cuba " are also very close together. Sedwick says the three Charles and Johanna 8 reales known were recovered from the "Golden Fleece" shipwreck. The authenticity of these coins is, however, still under discussion. Bibliography: Ponterio , lots —68; Sedwick and Sedwick , Sedwick 1 and 4.

This is the earliest English coin found in Virginia. Disposition: Found during construction. The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation 19, no. England , Elizabeth I, sixpence 6 : ; ; ; ; ND 2. England , Elizabeth I, shillings, ND 2. Two of the sixpence are bent "witch pieces". One shilling is bent. One sixpence is holed. One sixpence is partially cut.

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Disposition: Found by metal dectorists. Bibliography: BillD. Jamestown, Virginia , USA , , — Netherlands , stuiver, Zeeland, [-]. Netherlands , 2 stuiver, Zeeland, cut into three parts. German states, Nuremberg , jeton, Hans Krauwinckel I []. German states, Nuremberg , jeton, Hans Laufer [—60]. German states, Nuremberg , jetons, unspecified England , Elizabeth I, sixpence 5 : , whole; , cut into rectangular pendant and pierced; ND 3.

England , James I, silver halfpenny [—8]. England , Charles I, farthings 4 : Harrington farthing [—36] 2 ; rose farthing [] 2. England , king's touch tokens 5 : James I, uniface rose and thistle touch token 2 ; other touch tokens, unspecified 3. England , religious medals 6. England , coin weights 4 : Elizabeth, weight for gold ryal worth 15 shillings [—92], made in Antwerp by PVG; James I, weight for angel 11 shillings [—19]; James I, weight for unite 22 shillings [—19]; James I, weight for double crown 11 shillings [—19].

The religious medals excavated at Jamestown are very Roman Catholic in appearance; this reflects the Anglican religion of the period, which had not yet undergone the more thoroughly Protestant reforms that would occur in the mid-seventeenth century. Disposition: Many of the coins excavated are on exhibition at the Archaearium in Jamestown. Saint George's Island, Bermuda, —59 and — Sank: July 28, Old Style. Description: German states, Nuremberg, jeton, Hans Krauwinckel [—] 2.

Bibliography: Steffy , —13; Wingood Mexico City, Mexico , Disposition: The coins were found when excavations were made while building a new opera house in Mexico City, probably the Palacio de las Bellas Artes, which opened in Robert I. Nesmith South shore beach near Port Royal, Bermuda, Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, twopence [].

Disposition: Washed up on the beach, found by a child. Bibliography: Breen , 11 Breen 7 ; Lefroy ; Sportack , Saint George's, Bermuda, Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, twopence, []. Bibliography: Dubois , 66—67; Lefroy ; Sportack , , Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, sixpence. Disposition: Found in a garden.

Bibliography: Crosby , 18; Sportack , , Saint George's, Bermuda, early Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, sixpence, []. George's in a garden. My father bought it from the finder's husband. It was unfortunately rubbed by the finder on a brick. Bibliography: Dubois , 66— Description: English colonies, Somers Islands, shilling, []. Disposition: Bermuda Museum. English colonies, Somers Islands, sixpence 16 : large portholes 9 ; small portholes 7 English colonies, Somers Islands, shillings 3 : large sails; small sails 2.

Disposition: Bermuda Government. Description: France, probably douzains, one dated 2. Ludlow, in digging the foundation of his house at Dorchester, found two pieces of French money: one was coined in They were in several places, and above a foot within the firm ground. A note by James Savage suggests that the coins had been brought by the crew of a French ship that was wrecked on Cape Cod around , of whom two of the crew were captives among the Indians until redeemed by Dormer; a third remained among the Indians until his death.

The rest of the crew had perished. Bibliography: Winthrop , Disposition: State of Florida Bibliography: Craig b, 75, 78; Sebring , lot ; Sedwick and Sedwick , Sedwick 5 ; Smith , 94— Castle Harbor, Bermuda, — Disposition: Bermuda government; however, a few cob 8 reales in poor condition entered the market from the estate of Mendel Peterson after his death in Bibliography: Sedwick and Sedwick , Sedwick 7. England , Elizabeth I, sixpence. Deetz reads the date of the medallion as Van Loon, however, gives the date of the medallion as Van Loon's date has been substituted for that of Deetz.

Bibliography: Deetz , 43—44; Van Loon , 2: 87— Description: England , Elizabeth I, sixpence, , Tower mint, cut twice, weighs 1. Disposition: Thomas Kays. Bibliography: Kays , Description: The coins included:. The excavation also turned up Indo-Pacific cowrie shells and small billets of copper, both used in the African slave trade. The bulk of the treasure, however, was salvaged by Bermudians in the seventeenth century after the ship sank. Disposition: Bermuda government; some to Smithsonian Institution?

Bibliography: Lefroy , —58; Marx , 42, 47, , ; Peterson , , —91; Pickford , , ; Potter , —84; Sedwick and Sedwick , ; Smith , 90—91; Tucker , 66, Date of site: March 22, Fort and Company Compound. German states, Nuremberg, jeton, obverse 3 open crowns and 3 lis, reverse: cross and orb within double tressure of 3 arcs and 3 angles, Hans Krauwinckel, [—] 2. Pittman lists only one Spanish colonies coin found at Martin's Hundred, which he attributes as a Philip II 2 reales of Lima , cut and broken into quarter of a full 2 reales.

The Regency Spies of London, Book 1

As an early style Lima piece it would have a similar pillar and waves design to the Charles and Johanna coinage. Bibliography: Charles E. Description: The compilation below comes from five sources:. Spain , Charles and Johanna, escudo, Burgos. Spain , real, Madrid, V.

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Spain , 4 reales, Madrid, V. Spain , 2 escudos, Madrid, assayer G [— 20]. Spain , 8 reales, Segovia, assayer M? Spain , 2 reales, Toledo, assayer C. Spain , 8 reales, Toledo, P. Spain , 4 reales, Seville , assayer V. Spain , 8 reales, Seville, NDA. Spain , Charles and Johanna, escudo, Seville. Spain , 8 escudos, Seville. Spain , 2 reales, Granada, assayer M.

Spain , 4 reales, Granada, assayer D.

From the Beginnings to the Seventeenth Century

Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena , A 2. Spanish colonies, 4 reales, Lima 9 : pillars and waves type, assayer R; shield type, assayer Do 8. Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Lima , assayer Do 8. The mints, assayers, and dates were not provided. However, the denominations broke down as follows: reales 8 ; 2 reales 52 ; 4 reales ; 8 reales 1, ; fragments Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena , assayer A 2.

The primary cultural deposit—the main treasure and the resting place of the hull—was not discovered until July 20, The broad wreckage field is explained by the theory that the Atocha sank on the site of the primary cultural deposit; then a subsequent hurricane swept the wreckage to the northwest. Some of the more notable coins found were cataloged in the article by Neil Harris in the Numismatist. At least six of those coins were auctioned as part of "the Research Collection. None of the gold coins in the Numismatist article formed part of "the Research Collection," nor were the gold coins in that article auctioned as part of the main Christie's auction.

The four better-preserved copper coins were found in —86 near the lower hull structure. The corroded copper coin was found in summer at the northern extreme of the site, near what is believed to be the upper works of the ship. Bibliography: Christie's a, lots 78—, —; Christie's b; Coin Galleries ; Daley ; Earle , 15—18, —45; Harris ; Heritage , lot 50, and lots 50,—; Lyon , ; Proctor , , —46; Sedwick and Sedwick , —56 Sedwick 8 ; Smith , 92— Spain , 2 reales, Seville. Spain , 4 reales, Seville , assayer D. Spain , 2 escudos Gold chains, gold bars, and silver bars were also found; six of the gold bars appeared in the Christie's auction.

Emeralds have been found as well. The manifest listed silver bars, , silver coins, and 1, ounces of gold bullion. Bibliography: Christie's a, lots —66; Earle , 15—18; Heritage , lots 50,—; Lyon ; Sebring , ; Sedwick and Sedwick , —57 Sedwick 9. Bibliography: Hoover providing. Bay of All Saints, Brazil , Ship: Hollandia , the flagship of Piet Heyn. Netherlands , lion daalders, mint not described. Netherlands , lion daalder, Overijssel, 2 Thomas Sebring. Disposition: Recovered by Robert Marx. Bibliography: Sebring , 74—; Sebring , lot Ship: Possibly the Van Lynden. Thought to be part of the Dutch fleet under Piet Heyn, carrying treasure captured from the Spanish.

The coins possibly come from the Van Lynden , which sank in ; others say this is one of the Spanish treasure ships that Piet Heyn sank, and have proposed the Santa Gertrudis or the Romario. Many bore the date of Oddly, no coin of appeared in the two public auctions held by Schulman and by Sotheby's. A 2 reales of was also recovered, but this could be a later contamination of the shipwreck; the coin could have been dropped by one of the Bahamian or New England "wreck fishers" who recovered much silver from this area in the seventeenth century.

Bibliography: Lepera and Goodman , , —48; Schulman , lots —30; Sedwick and Sedwick , Sedwick 13 ; Slack ; Sotheby's , lots 1— Portobelo , Panama , — Spanish colonies, 8 reales, Cartagena. Bibliography: McLean Charles E. Description: German states, Nuremberg , jeton, obverse: 3 open crowns and 3 lis, reverse: cross and orb within double tressure of 3 arcs and 3 angles, Hans Krauwinckel, [—].

Type of find: Funerary deposits. Spain , oval Catholic religious medal, fragment, obverse, unidentified figure of saint, reverse 2 unidentified figures John the Baptist baptizing Jesus? Disposition: Peabody Museum West of the Pecos. Bibliography: Smith and Fontana Pemaquid, Maine , USA , Date of site: —; date of earliest coin, The explanation is that in a colony of fifty Irish families was established on the site. The Irish colony dissolved after Bibliography: Mossman , — Date of deposit: October 3, Container: Rhenish salt-glazed stoneware from.

Contents: 30 AR, 21 AV; gold signet ring. England , Elizabeth I, groat [—60]. England, Elizabeth I, sixpences 16 : ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ND 5. England , James I, sixpence, England , Charles I, sixpence, England , Elizabeth I, shillings 4 : [—61]; [—84]; ND 2. England , James I, shillings, [—5] 4. England , Charles I, shilling, [—26]. England , James I, double crowns 3 : [— 19]; ND 2. England , James I, laurels 8 : [—23]; [—24] 3 ; ND 4.

England , James I, unites, [—7] 2. England , Charles I, unites 7 : []; [—26]; [—27]; [—28]; ND 3. The gold ring weighs In the jar the gold was arranged on one side, the silver on the other, and the ring in the middle. Compare NFA The coins are thought to have belonged to Walter Bagnall, who was killed by the Indians on October 3, Jordan proposes instead that the hoard might have been deposited by a subsequent trader, John Winter, who died in Since, however, the hoard closes with a coin of —28 the Charles I unite , given the large proportion of gold Besly says that Civil War hoards from later years do not have much gold , and given that Bagnall's violent death provides a logical explanation for why the hoard was not recovered, the ascription of the deposit to Bagnall makes more sense.

Disposition: Found by a farmer, Hanscom, while plowing. Acquired by Dr. John M. Cummings, who owned Richmond Island. In Cummings's descendant, Mrs. This had then been reduced to 18 silver coins and 11 gold coins. The Maine Historical Society raised the money to purchase it and acquired these coins, plus the ring, plus the fragments of the jug, in ; Maine Historical Society item numbers MHS collection , items 1 through Jordan suggests that the eighteen coins that are currently untraced—the 10 silver coins and 8 gold coins—were given to Hanscom, the finder, in a split of the hoard between him and Cummings.

Southern Peru , Early Mostly 8 reales, but also some 4 reales and a smattering of the smaller denominations. Most of the coins date to —29; latest date in hoard Coins share a tell-tale patina distractingly darkly toned with green spots. All the coins are in high grade.

Description: German States, medal with the inscription "Gloria in Excelsis, ," with a winged figure in the circle, holding a sword and a torch. Mostly assayer A; also included a few assayer P and possibly some assayer E. Dates known include , , and Nesmith suggests that one of the riverboats sank, concealing this hoard. Disposition: to the Banco de la Republica, for the national collection, of which to remained in July ; about 40 came to the United States, of which one each was owned by well known Saint Louis and New York collectors; 19 were in the hands of a Toronto collector; and Wilcox had Spink's Numismatic Circular, March , no.

England , James I, Lennox farthing item number