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It can result in glottic incompetence leading to changes in vocal quality and ease. Associated voice complaints may include Purpose Life course outcomes for individuals with significant, high-need disabilities are far less favorable than the outcomes of people with other or no disabilities Newman et al.

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Adolescent-to-adulthood transition services Purpose High-resolution pharyngeal manometry HRPM is an emerging technology that shows promise as both an adjuvant diagnostic and therapeutic tool in oropharyngeal dysphagia management. Advances in manometric technology, including increased number of Purpose The current research was a pilot study of the GoldenTweets social media training program. Specifically, the research sought to explore a how the program in general was perceived by 2 groups of participants, namely, normally aging adults and Method A year-old man completed speaking tasks that differed in linguistic Purpose By implementing a plan of care that can simulate dual-task activities carried out in daily life, is it possible to reduce or even avoid functional decline due to aging?

Research has illustrated that cognition and executive functioning largely Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe strategies for optimizing clinical service for the population of classical singers. Conclusion The term professional voice users is used to denote the segment of the population for whom the voice is used as a Purpose This article is a review of the evidence for using neuromuscular electrical stimulation NMES as a treatment for dysphagia when given to head and neck cancer patients with dysphagia secondary to radiation therapy. Continuing Education Skip slideshow Perspectives Exams.

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Nearby words personned , personnel , personnel agency , personnel department , persorption , perspective , perspectively , perspectivism , perspex , perspicacious , perspicaciously. Can be confused perspective prospective. Examples from the Web for perspective The choice between freedom and fear is not difficult when seen with perspective. The Prairie Mother Arthur Stringer. Down the Yellowstone Lewis R. The Church Index William Pepperell. Donatello started sculpting elaborate checkerboard floors into the simple manger portrayed in the birth of Christ.

Although hardly historically accurate, these checkerboard floors obeyed the primary laws of geometrical perspective: the lines converged approximately to a vanishing point, and the rate at which the horizontal lines receded into the distance was graphically determined. This became an integral part of Quattrocento art. Not only was perspective a way of showing depth, it was also a new method of composing a painting.

Paintings began to show a single, unified scene, rather than a combination of several. As shown by the quick proliferation of accurate perspective paintings in Florence, Brunelleschi likely understood with help from his friend the mathematician Toscanelli , [12] but did not publish, the mathematics behind perspective.

Alberti's primary breakthrough was not to show the mathematics in terms of conical projections, as it actually appears to the eye. Instead, he formulated the theory based on planar projections, or how the rays of light, passing from the viewer's eye to the landscape, would strike the picture plane the painting.

He was then able to calculate the apparent height of a distant object using two similar triangles. The mathematics behind similar triangles is relatively simple, having been long ago formulated by Euclid.

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In viewing a wall, for instance, the first triangle has a vertex at the user's eye, and vertices at the top and bottom of the wall. The bottom of this triangle is the distance from the viewer to the wall. The second, similar triangle, has a point at the viewer's eye, and has a length equal to the viewer's eye from the painting. The height of the second triangle can then be determined through a simple ratio, as proven by Euclid.

Alberti was also trained in the science of optics through the school of Padua and under the influence of Biagio Pelacani da Parma who studied Alhazen 's Book of Optics [13] Alhazen's Book of Optics , translated around into Latin, laid the mathematical foundation for perspective in Europe. Piero della Francesca elaborated on De pictura in his De Prospectiva pingendi in the s, making many references to Euclid. Della Francesca fleshed it out, explicitly covering solids in any area of the picture plane. Della Francesca also started the now common practice of using illustrated figures to explain the mathematical concepts, making his treatise easier to understand than Alberti's.

Della Francesca was also the first to accurately draw the Platonic solids as they would appear in perspective. Luca Pacioli 's Divina proportione Divine Proportion , illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci , summarizes the use of perspective in painting, including much of Della Francesca's treatise. Perspective remained, for a while, the domain of Florence. Jan van Eyck , among others, was unable to create a consistent structure for the converging lines in paintings, as in London's The Arnolfini Portrait , because he was unaware of the theoretical breakthrough just then occurring in Italy.

However he achieved very subtle effects by manipulations of scale in his interiors. Gradually, and partly through the movement of academies of the arts, the Italian techniques became part of the training of artists across Europe, and later other parts of the world. The culmination of these Renaissance traditions finds its ultimate synthesis in the research of the 17th century architect, geometer, and optician Girard Desargues on perspective, optics and projective geometry.

Further advances in projective geometry in the 19th and 20th centuries contributed to the development of analytic geometry , algebraic geometry , relativity and quantum mechanics. Like the painter, the computer program is generally not concerned with every ray of light that is in a scene. Instead, the program simulates rays of light traveling backwards from the monitor one for every pixel , and checks to see what it hits.

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In this way, the program does not have to compute the trajectories of millions of rays of light that pass from a light source, hit an object, and miss the viewer. CAD software , and some computer games especially games using 3-D polygons use linear algebra, and in particular matrix multiplication, to create a sense of perspective. The scene is a set of points, and these points are projected to a plane computer screen [ dubious — discuss ] in front of the view point the viewer's eye.

The problem of perspective is simply finding the corresponding coordinates on the plane corresponding to the points in the scene. By the theories of linear algebra, a matrix multiplication directly computes the desired coordinates, thus bypassing any descriptive geometry theorems used in perspective drawing. One of the most common, and earliest, uses of geometrical perspective is a checkerboard floor.


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It is a simple but striking application of one-point perspective. Many of the properties of perspective drawing are used while drawing a checkerboard. The checkerboard floor is, essentially, just a combination of a series of squares. Once a single square is drawn, it can be widened or subdivided into a checkerboard. Where necessary, lines and points will be referred to by their colors in the diagram.

To draw a square in perspective, the artist starts by drawing a horizon line black and determining where the vanishing point green should be. The higher up the horizon line is, the lower the viewer will appear to be looking, and vice versa.


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  • The more off-center the vanishing point, the more tilted the square will be. Because the square is made up of right angles, the vanishing point should be directly in the middle of the horizon line. A rotated square is drawn using two-point perspective, with each set of parallel lines leading to a different vanishing point. The foremost edge of the orange square is drawn near the bottom of the painting.

    Because the viewer's picture plane is parallel to the bottom of the square, this line is horizontal. Lines connecting each side of the foremost edge to the vanishing point are drawn in grey. These lines give the basic, one point "railroad tracks" perspective. The closer it is the horizon line, the farther away it is from the viewer, and the smaller it will appear.

    The farther away from the viewer it is, the closer it is to being perpendicular to the picture plane. A new point the eye is now chosen, on the horizon line, either to the left or right of the vanishing point. The distance from this point to the vanishing point represents the distance of the viewer from the drawing.

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    If this point is very far from the vanishing point, the square will appear squashed, and far away. If it is close, it will appear stretched out, as if it is very close to the viewer. A line connecting this point to the opposite corner of the square is drawn. Where this blue line hits the side of the square, a horizontal line is drawn, representing the farthest edge of the square. The line just drawn represents the ray of light traveling from the farthest edge of the square to the viewer's eye.

    This step is key to understanding perspective drawing. The light that passes through the picture plane obviously can not be traced. Instead, lines that represent those rays of light are drawn on the picture plane. In the case of the square, the side of the square also represents the picture plane at an angle , so there is a small shortcut: when the line hits the side of the square, it has also hit the appropriate spot in the picture plane. The blue line is drawn to the opposite edge of the foremost edge because of another shortcut: since all sides are the same length, the foremost edge can stand in for the side edge.

    Original formulations used, instead of the side of the square, a vertical line to one side, representing the picture plane. Each line drawn through this plane was identical to the line of sight from the viewer's eye to the drawing, only rotated around the y-axis ninety degrees. It is, conceptually, an easier way of thinking of perspective. It can be easily shown that both methods are mathematically identical, and result in the same placement of the farthest side. Plato was one of the first [ clarification needed ] to discuss the problems of perspective. Thus through perspective every sort of confusion is revealed within us; and this is that weakness of the human mind on which the art of conjuring and of deceiving by light and shadow and other ingenious devices imposes, having an effect upon us like magic And the arts of measuring and numbering and weighing come to the rescue of the human understanding — there is the beauty of them — and the apparent greater or less, or more or heavier, no longer have the mastery over us, but give way before calculation and measure and weight?

    Perspective images are calculated assuming a particular vanishing point. In order for the resulting image to appear identical to the original scene, a viewer of the perspective must view the image from the exact vantage point used in the calculations relative to the image. This cancels out what would appear to be distortions in the image when viewed from a different point. These apparent distortions are more pronounced away from the center of the image as the angle between a projected ray from the scene to the eye becomes more acute relative to the picture plane.

    In practice, unless the viewer chooses an extreme angle, like looking at it from the bottom corner of the window, the perspective normally looks more or less correct. This is referred to as "Zeeman's Paradox". For a typical perspective, however, the field of view is narrow enough often only 60 degrees that the distortions are similarly minimal enough that the image can be viewed from a point other than the actual calculated vantage point without appearing significantly distorted. When a larger angle of view is required, the standard method of projecting rays onto a flat picture plane becomes impractical.

    As a theoretical maximum, the field of view of a flat picture plane must be less than degrees as the field of view increases towards degrees, the required breadth of the picture plane approaches infinity. To create a projected ray image with a large field of view, one can project the image onto a curved surface. To have a large field of view horizontally in the image, a surface that is a vertical cylinder i.