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It was December Now I'd been getting bored with the stereotyped changes that were being used all the time and I kept thinking there's bound to be something else. I could hear it sometimes but I couldn't play it. Well, that night I found that by using the higher intervals of a chord as a melody line and backing them with appropriately related changes I could play the thing I'd been hearing.

Charlie Parker died on March 12, , in the New York apartment of Baroness Konigswater-Rothschild, of acute stomach ulcers and severe liver cirrhosis — both the result of his addictions to alcohol and heroin. It is the "dum-de-dumming" V Note, however, that he has fudged the chronology: Slothrop's scene at the Roseland, like Charlie Parker's chili- house gig, occurred in December ; but Malcolm X did not begin shining shoes at the Roseland until June of Malcolm X 48 tells of dispensing prophylactics to wealthy white boys, buying condoms at the drugstore for a quarter and dealing them in the men's room for a dollar.

Joseph Kennedy, Sr. John F. Kennedy had returned from England to Harvard University in to finish his senior thesis on prewar English diplomacy, a study that later became his first book,. While England Slept. Come and sit by my side if you love me, Do not hasten to bid me adieu; Just remember the Red River Valley, And the cowboy who loved you so true. Faro is a card game; players wager on the top card ; ; of the dealer's deck. But the article should be feminine— Las Madres.

Here Pynchon deliberately misspells it. By a bizarre method, Pirate decodes the message he received from that V-2 rocket of December Here it is a form of "tyrosine" an unknown and doubtless fictional substance; from the' Latin tyro, "a young soldier" , and it is decrypted by the application of here, Pirate's seminal fluids.

Beginning in the nineteenth century as a patentee of the new coal-tar dyes, IG Farben metastasized into a multinational cartel concerned with drugs, synthetic fibers and rubber, films and dyes, and a variety of indus- trial chemicals. The firm plays a key role in GR from this moment on, and Pynchon ; s primary source for details about it is Richard Sasuly's book, IG Farben ; another minor source, as Hite points out [Ideas , n8 , was fbsiah Dubois's book, Generals in Grey Suits His black-and-white drawings for turn-of-the-century German erotica by Hans Butsch and Max Somneraus won him a coterie following; his best-known work was a series of drawings for an edition of Dante's Divine Comedy.

De Mille's Cleopatra , with its immense sets and arrangements of diaphanous silk scrims behind which brown-skinned girls fan the empress played by Claudette Colbert in her milk bath. When ranging across the sky, he is accompanied by his "furious host," the Wutende Heer, or "Mad Army," of northern European legend Grimm These 1 include a "projective test" with an octopus that will lead off part 2. In brief, a psychological projective test is designed to use a subject's responses to unstructured stimuli as measures of personality.

We also learn a good deal about the jealousies and internecine fights between these scientists and pseudoscientists. Internal references put the date as i December 21, the onset of winter. A Nazi poster exhortation. A translation: "What are you doing for the front? For the war? What have you done for Germany to- day? The suicide leap of Reg Le Froyd "Reginald the Cold" corresponds with later references to the Gadarene swine and the rush of lemmings into the sea V From grunten, Middle English for marine fishes of the genus Haemulon that produce grunting sounds; and the Greek muron, ;j meaning "sweet" or "delightful.

Jacob's magisterial study, Teu- tonic Mythology, is one of Pynchon's principal sources. Through the mediation of British prime minister Ramsey MacDonald, the Dawes plan was accepted and the payments continued - for eight years, until Hitler's rise to power A. Koltushy was the village located outside Leningrad where Pavlov established an experimental lab, the Institute of Experimental Medicine. In the village was renamed Pavlovo in his honor. The name of this fictional Great War commander contains a pun: "Thunar" also known as "Donar" was the Teutonic god of storm and rain, a son of Wuotan; Thunar's bolts of lightning were like "prods.

A few lines further on, Pynchon also mentions their political affiliations. The OSS was begun in June Whereas opera- ; tions carried out at OSS were covert, the Office of War Information ' handled overt activities associated with the media. Under Robert ' Sherwood, an old New Dealer by , there gathered a group of fairly ". Its abominably muddy conditions come up again at i V When Edward stepped down MacDonald lost his power; he died several months later.

Dale Carnegie zealots This is a short catalog of some pop-psychology movements of the twenties , and thirties. Emile Coue , a self-proclaimed psychotherapist from France, was best known for his proverbial formula "Every day in every way I am getting better and better. Coueism centered on this type of autosuggestion as a means of subduing the will and thereby "healing" mental and physical ailments. After the publication of his book, My Method , Coue attracted large audiences on a lecture tour through England and the United States.

On Ouspenskian beliefs, see V Pynchon's mention of the Skinnerites is an interesting one, but not because it is as Fowler claims anachronistic. Skinner's first book, The Behavior of Organisms, was published in as an ex- panded version of his Harvard dissertation, a development of his thesis on "operant conditioning," which was widely known by Still more interesting, during the war Skinner directed a University of Minnesota project under the acronym ORCON, for "Organic Control" that involved animals pigeons as a possible "guidance system" for rockets.

The birds were shown film of a target and conditioned to guide the missile toward it by pecking at a control panel. There are striking resemblances to the method he details there, and the oper- ant conditioning of Octopus Grigori, in GR. Finally, then, there is Dale Carnegie, best known for his book, How to Win Friends and Influence People, with its Coueist enthusiasm for "positive thinking" as a cure-all. Originally published in Vogue, the photo shows Mrs. Asquith from behind, hair elegantly styled atop her head; hooped earrings, shoulders bared above a striped gown of some sheer fabric, gathered at the derriere in a kind of fan ; her left hand is poised at the arm of a chair, her right hand on her hip.

A copy of the picture, dated and signed by Beaton, appears as the frontispiece to Margot Asquith's autobiography, More or Less about Myself Pe- 53 tersburg. The mixture was used to attach glass tubes to the surgically rerouted salivary ducts of dogs, tubes designed to drain for measuring through the cheek. The recipe: "Colophoniuin. Pynchon's fictional example of "equivalence" is textbook perfect. His secretary was Sir Philip Sassoon, cousin of Lt. Siegfried Sassoon, the poet, a soldier with the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Siegfried's battalion-mates called him "Mad Jack" because of his reckless courage he once attacked a trench full of Germans with only hand grenades and after routing them sat down among the dead to read a book of poems.

When wounded in the neck he used his recuperation in England to compose a series of bleak and bloody poems about the war, beginning to argue ; that the struggle had changed from one of national defense and liber- ; ation to one of aggression and conquest. He claimed that the War Department was misrepresenting its aims to the British, and thereafter he was derogatorily labeled a pacifist.

Presumably this would be the context of Haig's evidently apocryphal remark, as the fictional Pudding relates it. It was called Passchendaele literally, "Valley of the Passion" after the bloodiest of : its wooded battle zones. The British historian A. Taylor 87 sums it up: ; Everything went wrong. The drainage system of Flanders broke down, as had been foretold. To make matters worse, it was the rain- : ; iest August for many years.

Men struggled forward up to their waists in mud. The guns sank in the mud. The tanks could not be used. Haig had declared his intention to stop the offensive if the first attack failed. He did not do so. The futile struggle went on for three months. The British advanced, in all, four miles.

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This made their salient more precarious than before, and they evacuated without fight- ing when the Germans took the offensive in March Three British soldiers were killed for every two German. The British lost a third of a million men to casualties at Passchendaele. Army slang, a "bird" or "chicken" colonel is a full col- onel.

Charismatic orders are in Web r's view fleeting: "In its pure form charismatic authority, may be laid to exist only in the process of originating. It cannot remain stable, but becomes either traditionalized or rationalized, or a combination of both. See V Allport, P. Vernon, and G. Lindzey in the early thirties.

According to Anne Anastazi 90 , whose undergraduate textbook was probably a main source for much of this detail, "this inventory was designed to measure the relative strengths of six basic interests, motives or evaluative attitudes": theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. The Bernreuter Inventory was composed by R. Bernreuter for the Stanford University Press in The test measures self-sufficiency, introver- sion-extroversion, dominance-submission, and neurotic tendencies; it was especially targeted for young-adult populations and is answered with simple "yes-no-don't know" responses.

Flanagan, who later be- came a major figure in psychological testing, noticed that the four Bernreuter categories of neurosis, introversion, submission, and low self-sufficiency were all statistically correlated, and to a very high degree of predictability. These discoveries led to a further refinement of the Bernreuter test, accurately pinpointed in GR as occurring in The Rohrschach test was first described in arid more formally developed.

It consists of ten cards, each printed with a bilaterally symmetrical inkblot, which the subject is asked to interpret by telling what is "seen" in it. Implicit in the whole procedure, as Anastazi points out, are the assumptions that test responses are typical of how a subject always perceives and that person- ality traits influence perception. His bookcase, Sie- gal recalls, "had rows of piggy banks on each shelf and there was a collection of books and magazines about pigs. Not long after British colonial occupants of that city were massacred in the "Black Hole 77 atrocity, the British East India Company empowered Baron Clive 74 to retake the city.

He faced a native army of vastly superior num- bers, and its nabob had also enlisted the help of French artillery troops.

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On June 23, , Clive led his forces assisted by elephant packtrains against the French artillery, routing it in what proved the decisive battle of Give's campaign. The victory was famous for solidifying the East India Company's hold over the region. Also, another Bantam error: "not matter how. The subject of the characters' discussion is once again Slothrop's enigmatic sexual member and what should be done to crack its "code. Shaping the narration is a philosophical debate pitting the determinist view of Ned Pointsman against the statistical ap- proach of Roger Mexico I; V Note the date on this fictional catalog of insults: in Slothrop was fifteen years old, about thirteen ; years beyond the time of his "conditioning" at the hands of Dr.

Laszlo Jamf. Watson and his wife Rosalie Rayner Watson were the parents of behavioral psychology. They first put into Al- berts playpen a variety of furry animals and toys, which he displayed no natural predisposition to fear. Then an assistant began clanging "a carpenter's hammer" on a steel bar held just behind Albert's head. They repeated this procedure each time one of the animals was introduced and Albert reached for it. Terrified by the unseen noise, Albert quickly associated it with the animals and began registering his terror each time one was brought near him.

His terror soon included all "furry ob- jects," including his mother's feather boa, an item he'd previously associated with Mother's loving care. At the University of Geissen he was initially enrolled as an architect but switched to chemistry at the urging of his teacher, Justus von Liebig. On Kekule's famous dream that anticipated the discovery of the benzene ring, seeV Larson was the author of Lying and Its Detection , the first thorough analysis of lie-detection methods and machinery.

His own device utilized a correlation of blood-pressure and respiration data, improving on the simple blood-pressure machine devised by William A. Marston in and already a part of American criminological folklore by the thirties. Leonarde Keeler was an associate of Larson's in the Berkeley, California, Police Department, but by the thirties he' had moved on to Northwestern University and its newly founded Crime Detection Laboratory.

There he devised a third variable, a card test designed to enhance a subject's faith in the machinery and to locate the so-called peak-tension moments when the subject was most likely to be concealing some guilty knowledge. In the film North- side it is Keeler himself who administers the lie-detector test to Richard Conte in his Joliet Prison cell, confirming what Jimmy Stew- art has thought all along: that he is not guilty of the crime for which he's been sentenced. In Pavlov's theory, the question of conditioned reflexes existing "beyond 58 Beyond the Zero the zero" involves the way some will "spontaneously recover their full strength" after a long time-lapse.

Occasionally, as in Slothrop's case, the recovery of that extinguished reflex may be "paradoxical" see V The precise correlation of Slothrop's "stars" with rocket strikes would be a coincidence of extremely low probability, but not impossible. In it occurred on Friday, December Next day the Times of London reported that the twenty-second had been "one of the coldest days" of the coming winter; temperatures ranged in the low thirties, with heavy frosts, just as Pynchon describes it here. One writer Angellucci calls it "the most celebrated strategic aircraft of the war.

It is followed by the chapter Pynchon mentions here. Horsley Gantt's odd translation That is, his translation of Pavlov's Lectures, volumes 1 and 2. The Greek mythical hero Theseus sails to Crete intending to stand in tor tne seven young : men and seven young women that King Minos demanded, as an annual tribute, rrom the Athenians. The fourteen were ottered as sacrificial victims to the Minotaur, and Minos' s bargain is that if Theseus slays the monster, his fellow citizens go free. Minos's daughter, Ariadne, falls in love with Theseus and seeks aid from Daedalus, who designed the Cretan labyrinth.

Daedalus suggests that Theseus should carry with him a skein of thread to unroll and mark his pathway out. After killing the Minotaur, Theseus takes Ariadne with him but abandons her some versions say on Cyprus. The Cypriot cult of Venus, goddess of love, used to regard Venus and Ariadne as the same goddess. Pavlov, in turn, was quoting from Janet's , essay "Feelings in the Delusions of Persecution" ; for the Journal de psychologie. His F Scale? The F Scale serves to indi- cate "undesirable behavior" during the test, for example, "deliberate malingering" or "gross eccentricity" or even "simple carelessness.

Or it may indicate that the subject was trying to outwit the test, perhaps for reasons of paranoid psychosis Anastazi The dignified black skating here has just been used in the film made as a propaganda maneuver by Operation Black Wing. By VI It begins on December 22 in the London maisonette belonging to Pirate Prentice. Katje Borgesius, just snatched out of Holland, stands before a camera filming the visual material to be used in the operant conditioning of Octopus Grigori.

Then begins a narrative analepsis treating Katje, Blicero, and Gottfried with the V-2 battery in Holland. The narrative circles still farther inward and back in time as we get glimpses — focalized through Blicero — of South- West Africa from his tour of duty there during the twen- ties. The narrative returns momentarily to the second-order time at the V-2 battery in order to begin one more analepsis, this time focalized through one of Katje's seventeenth-century ancestors, Frans van der Groov "Frank the Groove".

His enthusiasm for the annihilation of the dodo Didus in- eptus on the island of Mauritius extends the theme of colonialization across nonhuman fields. Then the episode ends by cycling us back to the original base time, with Katje in London. The German folktale of Hansel and Gretel and the theme of colonial domination provide continuity over these narrative shifts. Of its cousin, Robert Graves The White Goddess 45 has written that "Dionysius's centaurs, satyrs and maenads, it seems, actually ate a spotted toadstool called 'flycap' [Amanita muscaria , which gave them enormous muscular strength, erotic power, delierious visions, and the gift of prophecy.

Harvey Nicholls: a fashionable clothier located near Harrods, in Knightsbridge, and a frequent advertiser in the Times. The term, however, does not appear in Grimm, where der Backofen literally, a "bake oven" is used throughout. Pynchon's com- pound noun aptly conveys the cannibalistic idea of the story about an old crone who pushes children into her oven to bake them into breadstuffs.

It means "God's peace" as Pynchon notes at V Yet these etymological strands weave a still finer, broader net in GR. Frieden derives specifi- cally from the ancient Teutonic god Frey, also known as Freyr and Frigg. Like his sister, Freya, he was a fertility god, a brother to the Greek god Priapus, deriving from the Indo-European root prij love.

Frey was at the same time a god of peace and sexual love, and our slangy sexual terms "fuck" and ''prick" stem from these roots. Branston reports that Frey 's worship was celebrated with orgies. The god's disap- pearance underground is also related to the myths of Tammuz, Adonis, and Orpheus. This is striking because, as Branston comments, the word "Frey" often appears as a title of Christ: for example, in the Old English Dream of the Rood.

Did Pynchon know sources like Branston and Grimm? ThejPoisson equation contains a power series. In the instance here, Blicero's cryptic phrases expand their referentiality like a power series; yet with no common coefficient, the possible referents might be unrelated or at least involve wild leaps, as below.

For kindly, wise Padre Ignacio of Wister's gold- rush California to "unfold" or regress to the punishing figure of a six- teenth-century Spanish Inquisitor is some leap backward— quite an instance of hysteron proteron— but that is just the idea. In the end he decides to stay with his Pacific Indians on the California shore. Meanwhile he receives word that the opera-loving "young scapegrace" who visited, and embodied his temptation, has died.

Wassenaar is a district at the north end of The Hague. Pynchon's source on Holland as a V-2 launching site is Kooy and Uytenbogaart , who write about a "Sohderkommando Special Commando " of rocket troops arriving in Wassenaar on September 7, , and remaining until late March of Pynchon has Germanicized the spelling. A rocket launched from site no. Twelve of the crew were killed. After this the site was abandoned and the launching was interrupted for about a week. The damage done to buildings in the neighborhood 63 was limited to roofs and window-panes.

The latter were even broken at a distance of about meters from the centre of the explosion. Immediately after the failure the. Germans spread the rumour that the charge of this rocket had not exploded, but that the oxygen and ethyl alcohol alone had caused the damage. This was not true, the charge had also exploded. He was quickly tried and hanged after the Allies liberated Holland in It is also the site where Pirate Prentice picks up Katje for her trip to England.

In the German this sonnet begins with the exhortation "Wolle die Wandlung. O sei fur die Flamme begeistert. The context of Blicero's thoughts just following this quotation makes ijt clear that he regards love from the standpoint of a decadent and very literary romanticism: "To laurel, to nightingale, to wind. Later, one will look back with the recollection that Leni Pokier has similarly wing- like shoulders see V There is, in short, a striking homology among the various women, some- thing deepened by subsequent images of the Angel of Death that "swoopediin" on Walter Ratheriau V This angel, in sum, seems to presage a transition to the Other Side, to Death's other kingdom.

The reference throughout this para- graph is to the tenth of Rilke's Duino Elegies, especially lines ' ' Einsam steigt er dahin, in Die Berge des Urlieds, Und nicht enmal se n Schritt aus dem tonlosen Los. Leishman and Spender translate them as follows: Alone he climbs to the mountains of Primal Pain, And never once does his step resound from the soundless Fate. Note how Pynchon diverges from this: he has "ring" instead of "re- sound," "not" for "never," "Destiny" instead of "Fate. In Rilke's "Pain Land," the Angel teaches the traveler names for these "new" stars "up in the southern sky" Elegy 10, ; See also V During the Great War it was Germany's premier film studio, mainly because of backing from a War Department that wanted films made on nationalistic themes.

Kracauer 36 writes that "the official mission of Ufa was to advertise Germany according to government directives. These asked not only for direct screen propagan- da, but also for films characteristic of German culture and films serving the purpose of national education. The royal moth is the Saturnia pavonia of Europe and Asia - Minor, noted for its high-flying abilities when the moon is full.

Ideologically varied, all the Wandervogel wayward-bird groups put the highest premium on organic wholeness, usually expressed as a pantheistic love of nature and mystical bonds to the fatherland. They romanticized medieval Germany as a refuge from petty commercialism and fragmented knowledge. Strong Oedipal forces were also behind the movement: Hans Bluhler quoted in Bullock 38 , its first "historian" in , explicitly claimed: "The period that produced the Wandervogel is characterized by a struggle of youth against age, " in which Germany's alienated youth sought to form "a great confederation of friendship.

The Wandervogeln often planned visits to venerable ruins, where they celebrated with plenty of folksinging around campfires, and during the twenties one group of Wandervogel songs was a ten-year best- seller in Germany. In literature, the groups preferred Stefan George and Rilke ; in daily life, they were fastidious about their diet and health, ;. This, then, was the generation of Germans who marched enthusi- astically toward the battlefields of World War I and, after the bitter truce, were ready to follow one of their own, Adolf Hitler.

Is it not? New ones. Stars of the Land of Pain. Slowly she [the Angel] names them. Charitably described, the colonial plan amounted to little more than a protection scam. The Hereros, who had often been at war with neighboring tribes of Hottentots and Bondels, were offered "protection" in exchange for mineral rights to the precious diamond fields. The Herero chieftains soon saw through all this, however, and they rose up in rebellion against the German overlords in In August of that year the rebels were dealt a crushing defeat, and the surviving Hereros fled across the scorching Kalahari; those who made the trek had little more than their lives.

What followed, for the Germans, was a mopping-up operation conducted for almost two years in a brutal, genocidal manner. Lothar von Trotha, any Hereros refusing to submit voluntarily to life in the relocation camps could be summarily executed. By over two-thirds of the Herero population had perished.

The "Rising" Pynchon refers to occurred later, in , when the remaining Hereros banded together with their old enemies, the Bondels and' Hottentots, to rise up against the white landowners. Pynchon has writ- ten a fictional account of those events in chapter 9 of V. German calvary units, supported by light artillery, put down the insurrection in two months.

What is: more interesting in this context of homosexual love, the god is; also bisexual. Ndjambi 66 Beyond the Zero Karunga appears in Herero creation tales as the father of all being and generally a benevolent deity. The god's bisexuality is signified, Luttig explains 9 , in the name itself: "Ndjambi reveals more the characteristics of a [masculine] heavenly god and Karunga those of a [feminine] god of the earth.

And in his turn the omuhona, Mukuru's embodiment in Herero society, also serves a dual role accord- ing to Luttig: not only "chief" but a "living Mukuru," and thus a lineal descendent of the mythical creation tree, the omumborumbanga see V As "one who has been proven" to be the inheritor of these traits, the omuhona also embodies the bisexual principle of his origin Luttig As one aspect of his lineal descent from Ndjambi Karunga, the omuhona maintains a leather thong tied in knots signifying each member of the tribe.

The trees were always provided with marks for that purpose. The launching table [that is, the Bodenplatte] was then placed in the triangle bounded by those trees. The Latin proclaims: "In this sign you shall conquer. Like his predecessor, Diocletian, Constantine was also called Dominus. But readers may also want to examine the insignia on a package of Pall Mall cigarettes, with its two lions rampant in the heral- dic design and the same phrase inscribed below them. Still, the sure source of this detail is Kooy and Uytenbogaart again; they tell of "a German who wrote in Duindigt Park at Wassenaar, under one of 67 the familiar red circles with the black cross with two nails in the middle.

In hoe signo vincets. He did not live to see his prophecy fulfilled. Erwartung is also the title of a monodrama by com- poser Arnold Schonberg. His libretto presents a woman looking for her lover in the midst of a pitch-black forest. When she finds him dead she lapses into insanity. Theodor Adorno wrote of the opera's musical score that it "is polarized according to extremes: towards gestures of shock resembling bodily convulsions on the one hand, and on the other towards a crystalline standstill of a human being whom anxiety causes to freeze in her tracks.

Yellow and blue are complements: yellow appears yellow because it absorbs light in the blue range; the opposite holds for blue. Combining blue and yellow wavelengths yields white; shining blue light on a yellow background makes it appear black. Note, for ex- ample, that its accomplishment could only exist outside the novel, after the V-2 falls in the last episode of GR. Another instance of in- completion. Leishman and Spender translate them: For the wanderer doesn't bring from the mountain slope A handful of earth to the valley, untellable earth, but only Some word he has won, a pure word, of yellow and blue gentian.

Not only does it remind one of Slothrop's seeming erection reflex; in part 3 we also discover that "the word bitch" works the same magic on Franz Pokier V So the reference links all three characters, as if in a rocket clan. According to Kooy and Uytenbogaart , "Schuszstelle 16" their transliteration of the German Schufttelle was located in this Bosch, or woods, but only "three or four" rockets were launched.

Montgomery's adventuresome plan was to trap the German units stationed in Holland. It failed. Resis- tance proved to be stronger than he anticipated, and by December the English lines were still located south of The Hague, on the Scheldt River, where they remained through the winter. Then its wheel blossoms into a mandala-like image that seems to be reflected in Blieero's eyes on the day when Rocket is fired V White Zombie stars Bela Lugosi and Madge Bellamy in the story of an island sugar mill operated by zombies under the control of a mega- lomaniac Lugosi.

Son of Frankenstein stars Lugosi, Basil Rathbone, and Boris Karl off; in this version of the story, the famous doctor's son meets his father's monster. Flying Down to Rio stars Dolores del Rio and Gene Raymond, with appearances by Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers; the plot is light comedy, with Raymond torn be- tween flying airplanes and playing piano. Freaks will appear sev- eral more times in GR. Since its release, the film has slowly won recognition as a classic of horror.

It initially brought storms of protest because of the midgets, Siamese twins, and other "freaks of nature" cast by director Tod Browning. At first it was banned in most European countries, England included; but underground showings were common enough so that, as Sadoul notes, it was acclaimed at Cannes in Dumbo is the Walt Disney animated film that almost disap- peared, for a time, because of its racist depiction of the character Jim "Hush Mah Beak" Crow. The gun weighed 11 kilograms, over three times the 3.

Most of the Mendoza's features were traditional; the unique thing about it was the double-ended firing pin. In case of a broken pin — a common fault in light-action machine guns—one could quickly remove the firing bolt and reverse the pin; no need to rummage through one's kit bag for a replacement while an enemy advanced. This is the basis for Pirate's trade-off. The Mendoza was much heavier and used an odd-sized shell, but it was safer. As Grimm explains, the Norse god Freyf also Frey , a god of peace and love, often appeared with a boar in attendance see V At Yuletide, "atonement boars" were offered up to the god in anticipation of a year's peace and fruitful- ness.

Other "golden boars" in Norse and Teutonic myth attest to Freyr's popularity, for the god embodied a wholly creative, generative principle. He may even have been as powerful a god, in primitive Teutonic culture, as Wuotan or Thunar. In they tried to garrison a port where trading ships could reprovision, but they abandoned the effort in Six years 1 later the Dutch East India Company, with whom Frans van der Groov is associated, came to the island in force, attempting agricultural development and the construction of permanent buildings. The com- pany pulled out in , leaving behind over a hundred black slaves.

The agricultural development had failed because of inclement weather, rats, and shortages of manpower and tools. Like Pirate Prentice, Frans also prefers to carry an outmoded firearm. The haakbus, from the German for h ak -biische; was a "hook-gun. The design was in wide use throughout Europe in the fifteenth century, but by the late sixteenth most soldiers preferred the snaphaan, a flintlock weapon. Its serrated metal wheel scraped against a flint, sparking the powder charge. This was more expensive, more delicate, and more prone to malfunction than the haakbus, V VI V, B Uytenbogaart In part 2 she appears in the same dress, with the same silver crown see VI Slothrop, just released after "these recent days" V Ver- onica's, returns: to his cubicle off Grosvenof Square, meets one of his pre- vious girls, and winds up with her in the East End flat of a Mrs.

Next, a "hopeless holocaust" VI Usually a section eight was given for reasons of 72 Beyond the Zeio mental instability, the sense at VI But that regulation was in force only until July, The best version can be found in Clous ton's Popular Tales and Fictions Stith Thompson's Motif-Index also lists a number of variants, scattered worldwide. Debbie Dadey loves learning about the ocean for her Mermaid Tales series. Did you know that some ocean birds can swim? Debbie does her research from her home in eastern Tennessee, but loves to travel for research and to visit schools.

I went way too fast on a camel ride in Egypt. I slid into a shark tank! I was born in Kentucky, live in a log cabin, and like to read by the fire. Barbara Dee is the author of nine middle grade novels which tackle sensitive topics. Since, she has been writing and illustrating her own stories. In , a spin-off series of I Can Read books HarperCollins debuted, offering beginner readers their own stories to read about Gilbert and his friends. I can write with both hands. I can also write in mirror image. The hardest thing for me to draw is feet.

She is mainly inspired by two things: word play and the sea. Luckily, Beth is an avid reader who lives close to the beach so inspiration is never very far away. In addition to picture books, Beth has begun writing graphic novels. When not reading and writing, Beth can be found blowing bubbles for her bulldog, Chaucer. You can learn more at www. Beth has celebrated all but four of her birthdays in NJ. Beth blows approximately bubbles every day. She is the author of nearly books, including many on her favorite topic: animals! She started her writing career in third grade, when her class performed a play she wrote while recovering from chicken pox.

She shares her home with big dogs, house rabbits, and a chinchilla all rescued , and volunteers with several animal organizations. I keep a pen that lights up on my nighttable in case inspiration strikes at dark hours. Three of my books were inspired by my rescued animals dog and rabbits. They loved accompanying me to book events! I wrote my first story when I was in third grade. My class performed it as a play and I so loved hearing my words spoken that I decided to become a writer. His work can lead readers from the cradle to the grave.

He now spends his time writing and is an active speaker at book and literacy conferences, schools and libraries. John Gray is an Emmy award winning journalist and writer from upstate New York. In fact I do have a dog named Keller who is blind and deaf and helps run our household. For 20 years I have written a weekly column for the very newspaper that I once delivered as a young child in my hometown.

Paperboy was my first job. Karlin Gray is a picture book writer who lives in Westport, CT. I lived in Japan for four years, ages If I could only have one dessert for the rest of my life, it would be ice cream. My favorite childhood book was Little Women. Creator of the popular Meet Danitra Brown , Ms. Grimes lives in Corona, California. I once sang, danced, and acted my way down the east coast of China. I sang a solo at the Concert House in Stockholm, Sweden. Muhammad Ali once gave me a standing ovation. Chuck hails from an overgrown village among the peat bogs in the north of the Netherlands, where he spent his formative years climbing trees, drawing, reading, and cycling.

Karina has written copy and essays about food, fashion, film and art; scouted and developed film scripts; and worked as a writer-producer of documentaries. Karina wrote this story when her rescue dog Luca was turned away from a New York City dog park because the other dog owners thought he was a fox!

Chucky has a spotted dog and several fluffy cats. He likes to draw pictures, bake bread and go for walks. Jessie Hartland has lived and worked in Lower Manhattan for over 30 years. Her books have now been translated into over 13 languages. I like poodles and jazz. I have a standard poodle named Django, after Django Reinhardt. I once almost bought a horse 2. I was on the swim team in high school 3. Susan Hood is the award-winning author of more than books for young readers who loves talking with kids at author school visits nationwide.

White Read-Aloud Honor Book. In bookstores May, I was the youngest child in my town to have a library card. We had to reach Bermuda using a handheld sextant and the stars. He is the founder of Big Head Books, LLC, a literacy organization that aims to introduce children to the joys of reading. Ty travels to schools, youth organizations and various professional settings nationwide inspiring children and educating adults about the impacts of illiteracy.

A two time TedX presenter, Ty believes that literacy is the foundation for a successful life and promotes it with humor and enthusiasm. I shave my head daily. I love chocolate chip cookies! Despite being 51 years old, I still play with superhero action figures. Author of young adult mysteries and thrillers. Jeffry has also publishing numerous short stories and articles covering various genres and subjects, and has worked as a film and theatre reviewer.

His website is at jeffrywjohnston. When I was in 5th grade, I lived in England for a year. I was born in a military hospital in Corpus Christi, TX. She splits her time between Brooklyn and Montauk, New York where she swims, surfs, and writes; weather and waves permitting. As a young girl I longed to be a mermaid. My idol sat demurely on the Chicken of the Sea tuna fish cans. I peeled labels off to save her image. Every night before bedtime I squeezed both legs in to one side of my pajama bottoms and shuffled around the house pretending I was as beautiful as the tuna fish mermaid.

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He has written about travel and technology for the New York Times , the Boston Globe , and many other publications. He can be found at www. I once met home run king Hank Aaron. I get to go to baseball parks and watch games as part of my job! I was a terrible baseball player! Daniel Kirk is the author and illustrator of over forty books for children.

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He currently lives in New Jersey with his wife, and works on his many creative projects every day. Daniel Kirk loves music, and has written hundreds of songs and recorded albums for adults as well as children. Daniel Kirk loves to travel, and has visited many far-away places doing research for his projects. Daniel Kirk is a vegetarian and loves to cook. Anything with peanut butter in it is a favorite! David Kirk grew up in the wild and boundless suburbs of Ohio, where he learned about small creatures and art. David is also the author and illustrator of over a dozen other books for children. He lives in a happy forest with his family, where they nurture and groom a variety of fluffy friends, many of whom appreciate a good hug.

I have a pet hamster named Baby Ham. Doug Lampman resides in Surprise, NY with his wife, children and his hunting dog. He works for a local construction company in the summer and teaches high school physical education during the school year. He also coaches boys basketball and is a department leader at his school. His hobbies include coaching, hunting, fishing, sports, carpentry, snowmobiling, listening to music, playing guitar, farming, cooking and spending time with family and friends. With a real passion for travel and new experiences, he hopes to spend his days of retirement seeing the world with his lovely wife Stephanie.

I love the sound of a gym full of bouncing basketballs. My favorite color is that bluish green color inside a snow bank on a sunny day. The Fall is my absolute favorite time of the year. Just pictures. That means the readers can create with their own words from the images. I can juggle. But I only juggle things that are ok to drop!

I grow a lot of my own vegetables even though I live in a city. I like striped shirts! He has traveled to six continents, performed on Broadway, and lived on a communal farm. He firmly believes that opening a book is a good thing, even if there are monkeys in it. Adam currently lives in the suburbs of Philadelphia, PA, with his wife, two sons, and two bizarre dogs. My mom has a farm with both chickens and sheep. I enjoy skiing.

Peter Lerangis has written more than books, which have sold more than 6 million copies and been translated into 34 languages. Rock-climbed in Yosemite Park while it was being evacuated for an earthquake. Ran and finished the New York City Marathon 3. Acted and sang in a Broadway musical. She is originally from New Hope, Pennsylvania, and she currently lives in Philadelphia, where she writes full-time.

I once broke my arm tripping over my shoelace. Tie your shoes! I started writing novels at 13… but it took 11 years of practice before one got published! I wrote the first draft of Case Closed: Mystery in the Mansion in 18 days. But it took about two years of re-writes and revisions before it looked like the final version.

Growing up, Torrey hated reading. He hated boring books and ones that seemed to hate or dismiss him and where he was from. Luckily, he was introduced to NOT boring and culturally responsive books and educators who cared. It inspired him to be a middle school teacher and author. I had every hairstyle that Michael Jackson had and got to meet him. I am always singing songs in my head.

I need chocolate every day! Ralph was born, raised in the state of Massachusetts. He now resides in Connecticut where he lives with his daughters Alexa and Talia. A graduate of the Rhode Island School of Design BFA, Illustration, , Ralph has illustrated for magazines, newspapers and books, created posters and prints, and shown his fine art paintings in galleries throughout the world. Since , he has visited over 2, schools all over the nation and the world, inspiring children with his life story, humor, and art.

While visiting schools, he is often inspired himself by the enthusiasm, creativity, and hard work of the students and teachers. I am 58 as of the book festival and race motocross for fun. I have been skiing since I was 5 years old, but not as much as I would like! Phil McAndrew is an illustrator, cartoonist, and writer. I live with three cats and over thirty house plants. I own R. Michelson Galleries which represents many well know illustrators, including many Hudson Book Fest participants 2.

Leonard Nimoy and I spoke or emailed each other every day for the last 10 years of his life. I have a musical theater piece about the artist Edvard Munch opening in not for children. In addition to his songwriting, Miller has branched out to write fiction and nonfiction. In fact, many bread doughs do not include it at all. Olive oil helps to tighten the crumb, creating less holes, making it perfect for sandwiches.

Could I bake this in a loaf pan, with another turned upside down on top of it? Or, will that not give it enough room? Hi Shawna! Great question! Plus, the bread not only rises up, but out to the sides as well creating a dome effect. Alternatively, there is a way to create steam that a lid normally would have provided. Preheat a cast iron skillet and place on the bottom the oven floor or lowest rack before the the bread goes in. When ready to bake, add a handful of ice cubes to the skillet. This will create immediate steam. Add your loaf pan and quickly shut the door.

This will help to create a more humid environment for the bread to rise. Now, you might have to play around with this steaming technique to get it right, but in general it should help. What I have done, that has worked the last 3 bakes…. I fill a loaf pan with water, cover it with foil that I poked holes in just a few. I placed it in the very back of my oven when I first turn it on to preheat, and leave it in during baking. It has created steam inside my oven. It seems to be working really well. Great directions. Fabulous pictures! Hello Ann! Thank you for your kinds words. I too love working with sourdough, and find bread baking in general very addicting.

My starter is about that old. I first had 7 or 8 months with limited success and lots of failure. Your post has been the most instructive so far. I received a dutch over for Christmas. Your post appeared while searching for a recipe. I started the recipe last night and baked this afternoon after church. But I had a few problem along the way.

First my starter had a good amount of liquid on the top. It has always been a watery starter. I thought this was natural. I did pour off the liquid before feeding, but it is still quite watery. Should I be shooting for a more spongy starter. Would I use less water in feeding to achieve this result. I currently use 1 part bread four and 1 part water. The result of the bulk ferment was rather sticky. The bulk ferment was about 12 hours. Even with floured hands I could not get it to shape. It would just stick to my hands. I folded in more flour but it never got the beautiful smooth look yours has before it went into the dutch over.

I trace this back to the watery starter. What should the texture of the dough be prior to the bulk ferment? The rise in the dutch over was more of a flattening. It did gain bulk but it was no longer in the shape of a ball. I may have used more salt than needed. Though I thought I measured it correctly. I ate two slices after the hour cool down and my tongue desires to take a swim. What suggestions do you have to keep down the salt, just reduce it until I am satisfied.

The correct taste I am looking for is there. The saltiness has masked it. Pour off the liquid, including some of your starter this will yield better flavor , and then give it a good feed. All starters look different- but in general, you are aiming for a spongy appearance. You do not need to use less water to achieve this result. Your ratio is fine. It should resemble pancake batter. Prior to bulk ferment, your dough should be wet and sticky just like the corresponding picture above.

Add additional flour if necessary after autolyse. If you choose to do stretch and folds during the bulk ferment, the dough will change from sticky to smooth. This is what you want. Now, because your dough was too sticky after the bulk ferment, I believe you had too much water in your recipe. Do you weigh your ingredients with a digital scale? This will yield the most accurate results. Different flours absorb water at different rates.

For the salt- what type i. All salts are not created equal, unfortunately. This bread should not taste like sea water! My preference is a fine grain sea salt. This post has by far been the most helpful on sourdough I have tried. Last night was my third attempt, using your directions. It came out the best tasting and with more air holes inside than others I have done before. However I still have a common issue. My bread tends to rise out instead of up during the bulk and second rise.

I use a scale set to grams. Initially it was very dry. I actually had to add a little more water just to get it to hold together. So not sure how others get it to wet had that issue before with other recipes. Nothing really happened during the autolyse, which I did at room temp 68 deg , and I did not expect anything. It spread out, but not up. So i warmed the oven to deg turned it off, waited about 10 min and set the bowl in to finish thinking it would help speed up since it is winter here.

After 4 more hours it seemed to be a little taller.

Pulled it out onto floured surface. Folded the edges under and tried to form as tight a ball as possible, however it seemed to stay flat. Left it second rise on a piece of parchment with a large pot over it. Allowed it to second rise for about 1. Just out a little. Well, it was getting late, so I slashed it, baked it, cooled it. The taste is great! Just want more lift hard to make a sandwich with 2. I used King Arthur Bread flour. I did not do the water test for starter, but it looked just like your picture obvious to do next time. It did kind of stick to the bowl after first rise, so maybe it deflated too much when I formed it?

I guess I either waited too long or not long enough somewhere. Any thoughts? For the bulk ferment, this should be done in a bowl not free form like the 2nd rise. If your dough was dry, this is normal. Adjust with water to compensate. In fact, during the colder months I leave the dough to rise overnight on the counter see my winter baking schedule at the end of the post. Then I bake in the morning. This type of dough benefits from a long initial rise so I would recommend trying my baking schedule.

For the second rise- instead of doing it free form, place the dough in a cloth lined basket, or brotform. FYI- dough spreads both out and up. So what you experienced is normal. However, the more water in a dough recipe the more it will spread. It should be around 30 minutes to an hour tops. In your case, I think it over- proofed which will decrease its oven spring height when baked. Bottom line: bulk ferment in a large bowl and leave over night to rise.

Do your 2nd rise in a cloth lined basket to contain spreading, and shorten the length so that it looks just slightly puffed. Bake as directed. PS- the stretch and folds help to strengthen the dough as well, giving it great height. Give it a try! Emilie — Just wanted to say thank you … Your sourdough post is just simply amazing. Great photographs and prefect direction! Ok cheers — and again , thanks. In terms of achieving sourdough with an open crumb lots of holes , you will need a high hydration dough coupled with an overnight rise.

Comparatively speaking, my recipe is on the lower end of hydration. You can see from the pictures the crumb is tighter less holes. This type of bread is also great for sandwiches. Use the my Dukkah Sourdough which is a high hydration there are lots of pics with holes. This one uses a different starter that is half bread flour half whole wheat. Obviously, leave out the Dukkah is you want. Hello Emilie — thank you so much for the reply… Kinda funny ….

And totally enjoying the learning curve! I will defiantly check out the recepie you recommended … Also , my sourdough starter is getting quite the work out … Any sugestions? Cheers and happy New Years! You have to improvise, adapt, and really get to know your dough. Corny, but true. And the only way to improve is to master your mistakes. With that said, keep up the good work! High hydration doughs coupled with a long bulk ferment will yield the best open crumb holes bread. It has great flavor. Speaking of, your manicotti sounds delicious! It works great … I now doing a combo of your style and this style with amazing results.

No, not over stepping at all! It follows the same concept of squelching the dough together by hand followed by a long overnight rise. The only difference is the yeast as you mentioned , no stretch and folds, and I add salt after autolyse in my sourdough recipe. But the no-knead concept is the same, as is the use of the Dutch oven. I have been playing with sourdough for about 8 months, and have had varying success. As you mentioned, there are many recipies and methods on the net, and a lot of conflicting information as well. My best result was a mistake with some electronic scales.

The method I was following called for adding 1kg of flour in gram lots, about an hour apart. First time I did it the bread rose well and was lighter than previous efforts. Second time I had a seniors moment, and think I forgot to zero the scales, and added all the flour in 1 go. It rose about an inch above the loaf tin. It also tasted great. Just baked my first loaf following your instructions, and you will be pleased to know that your method was much much better than my best effort by far. The bread was very light and tasted fabulous.

Even made a mistake and forgot to slash the dough till it was time to bake with the lid off!!! Yes, took your advice and bought a cast iron Dutch Oven, and after this success, will continue to use it, but will remember to slash prior to bakingnext time. The only deviation from your instructions was the timing. We have just had a couple of 40 degree days in Melbourne, so the bread rose well sitting on a table on the patio.

Mixed it in the morning and baked it that night. Love that city and because you were watching the dough, you knew exactly when it was ready. This was the second bread recipe I ever tried, and the best. The bread turned out fantastic!!! I was so busy taking puctures that I forgot to slash the top, so the sides blew out, but it turned out perfect. Thanks for taking the time to do this step-by-step write up, it helped. Thank you so much for the feedback. I really appreciate it. Thank you for this lovely post. I am on my first batch of sour dough. The baker i spoke with said that their starter recipe is not the kind that floats.

I decided to just go ahead and try your recipe with my non floating starter. Hopefully something edible will come of it. Right now I am an hour into bulk fermentation and have been doing the stretch and fold every 30 minutes. Is that an important key during bulk fermentation to trapping moisture? I just have mine in a bowl under a tea towel.

I live in Long Beach, Ca and it was 80 today so thankfully my kitchen is about 70 degrees right now. I would love to hear about the plastic wrap. Kind Regards, Chelsea. Hello Chelsea! Mine passes the float test all the time. Are you familiar with the rise and fall process? As the bubbles start to appear, it begins to rise. You want to do the float test at this point.

Then it falls. And the bubbles slowly start to disappear. Do you think this could be a factor? With regards to plastic wrap, no worries! Just place a damp kitchen towel over the bowl. I do this all the time. Some of my friends use shower caps too, by the way. Or are you doing a long overnight rise? Not the end of the world, but difficult to shape and work with the following day.

To do this, just cover the bowl in the same kitchen towel, adding more water to it so it survives the overnight. You want it pretty damp. I made a batch in the afternoon and know it will be over proofed by morning. You have to improvise :. Please let me know if you have any other questions or if my bread ramblings make no sense! Happy baking :. Wow, thanks for the quick reply. I guess time will tell, my fingers are crossed. PS- doing the float test before the first feed was definitely the problem. So in the morning, remove the dough from the bowl and shape into a ball.

Then, let it rest again for the second rise. Yes it was a comedy. I let my dough rise over night on the counter after it rose all afternoon on the counter. I decided to still bake it of course. I ended up with an edible but very dense and chewy bread that both my husband and i could only eat one piece of as test subjects.

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I also did something regrettable. I wet my hands after I shaped it to try and smooth out the surface a bit so I think that might have also been a no-no. I just took my remaining starter out of the fridge and gave it a feed. I have it sitting in the sun and plan to wait as many days as it takes until it floats! Thanks for your help Emile, maybe loaf two will be lighter than the brick I just baked :.

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Especially since the length of your bulk ferment was sufficient. The good news, is that you can fix it. You gave your starter another feed which is the right thing to do. Keep feeding it until it doubles in size, bubbles appear, and it passes the float test. Then, make your dough. And just as a rule of thumb- always feed your starter before mixing up a fresh batch of dough.

Sourdough is a labor of love. Not sure if wet hands hindered the process… Perhaps in appearance, but nothing of major concern. The main thing is shaping the dough properly and achieving good oven spring. No one likes to eat flat discs ;. I really want to try this recipe but I do not own a kitchen scale.

Do you have the conversions from weight to volume? I have tried looking up conversions on line but cannot figure it out. After going over the recipe again I realized that it is written in ounces and grams. I am used to cups, TBSP, tsp measures. But I will probably end up buying a scale soon. I have the starter ready and am anxious to bake this bread.

It looks that good! By the way, I love the your winter schedule instructions. I have never seen anyone lay it out like you do. And that means a lot to someone like me who likes those little extra steps!! However, 1 cup of bread flour is equal to grams. Starter: 1 cup active. This always happens when dealing with conversions. My question is, can I put it in the fridge for over 12 hrs? I have tried making sourdough bread several times with yeast but have not had much luck.

The loaves come out flat but taste great. Thank you for such a detailed post on the subject. Excellent question. Put your dough in the fridge- it will benefit from a long overnight rise. Maybe up to 15 hours. Trust me. Hi Emilie, Thank you! I will try it and see what happens. Not much aroma, bubbles like crazy but no smell, I followed your blog on starter and I have to say, it looks better, smells good and that is what I used in this loaf. I will post an update tomorrow on how it turned out.

Thank you again, I love the information you provide, very through and relevant!! Hi Emilie, Update for you. The Bread came out looking so beautiful, and the texture was perfect but it had no sourdough flavor at all. Any suggestions? I will post a couple of pictures on your FB page, if thats ok? And I have a solution to increase that sour flavor as well… Be back in a bit :. Now, it terms of sour flavor- is your starter homemade or did you purchase it online?

Whole wheat flour is more acidic and will contribute a more sour flavor. It will not make this bread look or taste like whole wheat; it just elevates the flavor. Also, love the enthusiasm that oozes from your writing…very inspiring. When is the exact best time to do the float test. I gave my starter the morning and night feed yesterday.

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It looks really bubbly right now. From what I understand I should do the float test after giving it the first feed of the day? So at what point? Mix in new flour and water and let sit for a period of time then do the float test or wait 12 hours before the night feed and do the float test before giving it that 2nd feed? For example, if you took it out of the fridge, gave it a feed, and in a couple of hours it appears as described above?

Keep in mind- your starter will look and act differently on different days. It might be ready after the first feed, or it might take 3 feeds to get it going. Do me a favor, the next time you feed your starter, mark its height with a piece of masking tape on the outside of the container.

As it grows, you can visually track its progress. This is a good time to do the test. I tried this recipe for Christmas dinner this year and it was amazing. I did the stretch and pulls as suggested and wow what a difference. It bulked up so nicely. When we pulled it out of the oven it was so big and soft on the inside and crispy on the outside. It really was incredible. This is my second time making sour dough bread.

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Thank you for the recipe, all the tips and clear instructions. I will use it again and again. The stretch and pulls really do make a difference in overall height and structure of the bread. Now that you got the hang of it, check out some of the other sourdough recipes on the blog! I have one with a dukkah crust and a delicious version with raisins and walnuts.

I have never made bread before , but I do cook at a better than beginners level. I basically followed your recipe , used your weight to measure conversion that you gave in a previous comment. I just bought a starter online and have only been growing it a few days. Thank you so much for your recipe , tips , and comments, they were very helpful! Sometimes that can be a bit tricky…. Dutch oven- genius! When I was fresh out of high school, I worked in a bakery where we made authentic SF sourdough. Finally, a chance to see if I still have what it takes to make those perfect sourdough cuts we always used disposable salpels.

Em, this updated version is fantastic! And so glad to hear the enamel roasters are working!! Especially when you find yourself in that confused state. I know I was always baffled at what my stater should look like. Such moody little things…. What I find interesting about your method is that you final prove your dough in a cold dutch oven and then place that into a hot oven. With regards to my method- I cold prove 2nd rise free-form because this recipe is a low-hydration dough; it spreads out minimally.

However, if you are working with a high- hydration dough you will want to prove in a cloth lined basket or brotform to contain the spreading. I never have a problem with sticking when prepared correctly. Flour will work but there needs to be a good amount on the bottom. You could also line the bottom with parchment paper cut out to fit the exact shape of your pot.

Using my method, I get an excellent rise and the heat remains trapped within the vessel. I began doing this because I was frustrated dealing with a preheated hot! Dutch oven- I kept burning myself. If you keep these 2 points in mind, you should get good results! But you obviously succeed. My hydration always seems on the high side; though the dough is dry into the first prove — I have difficulty getting all the flour incorporated. By the end of the first prove the dough is quite wet and sloppy. I fold with difficulty and drop a slop into a parchment-lined dish for the second prove.

Guides and tutorials are meant as such. If your dough is dry in the beginning, consider extending your autolyse. Also, high hydration doughs are tricky to work with especially stretch and folds. It takes practice! This latest batch started on Friday morning. Thank you so much for this awesome post! Thank you so much for your awsome recipe and instruction. I am a new bread baker and feel encouraged by this. I made a loaf using my own fresh ground red and white winter wheat and a starter I started with pineapple juice and fresh wheat a few weeks ago.

It is quite dense but beautiful in shape and the split. Any suggestions for using fresh ground whole wheat flower. I did sift it and it looks like store bought. I tried the float test today and is sank like a rock in the glass. Lots of nice bubbles but they deflated when I scooped it out of my jar. One final note I tried a recipe from another site and it failed miserably.

Yours at least let me know I am on the right track. I find your post very informative! I just started my sourdough culture 2 weeks ago and now I am overflowing with left over sourdough culture, I have only baked 2 loaves by now, and I guess I still have a long way to go. I have a few questions that I hope you can help me with: 1.

I only baked my bread for about 30min at F, and i already found the crust a little bit too hard, do I need to go longer? I thought it would harden my crust even more. How do you store you sourdough bread? I put them in a tupperware box, but it seems to dry out really quickly. Try a very small dollop next time. However, if your bread has doubled in size during the bulk ferment, you know your starter is active regardless of the test.

Baking at F is fine, so temperature was not the issue. Did you bake in a pot? Also, what happens is, if your bread hardens too fast it prevents the dough from rising to its maximum potential. This could also be a possible factor for lack of oven spring see answer 2. Double check for with an internal temperature. For storage, I wrap my bread in plastic wrap and leave on the counter.